Unit 401Michelle Feltham
Development is the gradual growth or formation of something.
(Taken from the collinsdictionaryonline.com)
the process in which someone or something grows or changes and becomes advanced
Development occurs from birth and continues throughout childhood, adolescence and adulthood.
A child’s development will follow a sequence, however the speed or rate in which each child may vary.
Babies – Birth
Babies are born with reflexes, these reflexes are actions that the baby carries out without thinking.
Babies that are born prematurely (more than three weeks early) are likely to need more time to reach each level/milestone of development.
Swallowing and sucking reflex – this reflex enables the child to swallow and therefore feed. A basic human need, to ensure survival.Rooting reflex – this reflex is again linked to feeding, the baby will look for a nipple or bottle teat by moving it’s head, this reflex helps the child to find milk.
Grasp reflex – the baby will automatically grasp a finger, or other object when it touches the palm of it’s hand.
Startle reflex – when the baby is startled, for example by a loud noise they will throw their arms out and clench their fists.
Walking and Standing reflex – when the baby is held upright and their feet are resting on a firm surface they will make stepping movements, as if walking.
Birth to Three Months.Between 4 and 12 weeks the baby will lift their head when lying on their fronts, building strength in the neck muscles.
During this timeframe baby will also start to smile.
Babies at three months of age are usually able to distinguish between night and day, and therefore some may be able to sleep through the night, however this also means they are likely to sleep less during the day and be more alert than they were previously.
At three months the baby may smile in response to a familiar face or voice, or someone who is smiling at them.
Baby should now be able to lift and turn their head to look around (when lying on their front).
By the age of six months the baby is much more alert, they will turn their head to see what is happening around them.
The muscles in their arms will be gaining strength and they may reach and grab for toys (or anything) around them. They will often put these items in their mouth, by doing this they are experiencing textures and tastes.
After initially not being able to let go of objects after grabbing them, at around six months baby will learn to transfer objects from one hand to the other.
Baby may also be able to sit for periods of time with support.
At around six months baby can have his/her first experiences with solid foods, they may also enjoy feeding themselves.
Baby may also have gotten their first milk teeth at around 6 months.
By nine months a baby should be able to sit unsupported.
Baby will continue to ‘cut’ more milk teeth, which can cause discomfort and therefore make baby feel unsettled.
Babies by nine months will be mobile in some way, whether that is crawling or bottom shuffling. This means that they are able to explore their environment in a new way, baby will pick items up and become more confident in handling objects, passing items from hand to hand and also passing them to others.
One Year to 18 months
Between nine and twelve months baby will begin pulling themselves up to stand, holding on to furniture etc.
Independence begins; Baby will begin to feed themselves with a spoon and will try to undress themselves.
By 18 months most children will be walking, although they may still be a bit wobbly for a while!
18 Months to 2 years
At this age the child may learn to kick or throw a ball.
They will become more confident in walking around and become quite fast on their feet. The child may be able to climb the stairs with adult support.
2years to 3 Years
The child will continue to build upon the skills he/she has already learnt and may now climb the stairs with no adult support.
The child is able to hold a pencil or crayon between the thumb and fingers, and use their fingers to turn pages in a book.
The child can stand on one foot, even if only for a short time.
The child is more confident in their abilities to control their movements and can avoid obstacles when moving around.
The child may be able to pedal a trike.
3 Years to 5 Years
At this age the child is able to use gross motor skills to draw lines and circles and they are likely to use their dominant hand.
The child can jump off a step.
The child is able to balance on one leg for longer periods of time.
The child will now draw a person and includes a body, and more detail such as hair.
5 Years to 7 Years
Better balancing skills means that the child is able to balance much more easily and can now stand on one foot for much longer. They are able to jump over objects and land safely.
The child is able to hop, skip and jump with much more confidence, and increased coordination means that the child is able to make more coordinated movements, for example arms and legs at the same time such as swimming.
Birth to Three Months
A baby’s form of communication is crying, they will cry for food, comfort and even to show they are tired. The parent/carer in time will learn the different types of crying the baby has, and what each type means.
At this age the baby will start to become aware of their parent/carers voice, and may find this soothing when upset.
A baby will smile back when a familiar face, such as a parent, is smiling at them.
Baby will make babbling sounds.
Three to Six Months
By six months baby may copy noises that adults make.
The babbling sounds that baby makes may be repeated over and over.
They may start to say their first words, usually being either mumma or dada.
By nine months baby will understand much more. They may be able to say one or two words that are quite simple such as bye or no, and may use hand gestures alongside the words, such as waving.
The baby will begin to respond to his/her name.
One Year to 18 Months
The child will be learning new words at an amazing rate.
They are able to recognise names, such as parts of the body and will likely point to each.
The child will be using words during their play, for example in role play.
The child will understand many words, even if they cannot say them.
18 Months to 2 Years
The child will now be able to form a sentence of at least two words to four words.
‘Mine’ becomes a word that the child will use regularly to show and tell others their belongings, or what they think belongs to them.
Understanding of simple sentences
The child is now able to understand most of what is said to them.
The child is able to tell others their name and their age.
The child’s speech is much clearer and can be understood by family members.
When asked the child is now more able to describe what they have done during the day, for example ‘I did painting at nursery’.
3 – 5 Years
Uses past tense, but can also describe what they are doing in the future. For example, “I went to the beach yesterday, I’m going to the park tomorrow”.
The child can continue a conversation, and will use several sentences when doing so.
The child will ask questions, for example ‘why?’
The child will be able to learn and memorise songs, they are able to then recite them. For example learning and repeating nursery rhymes.
When reading a story the child may now tell you what they think is going to happen next, or point out things they can see in the book.
The child is able to follow instructions, for example “drink your milk, and then put your cup back on the table” or “go and put your book away and pick another one”.
A child will now be able to put into practice all of the skills, learnt so far throughout their early years, enabling them to learn to read and write.
The child will learn that different words may mean the same thing i.e Add and Plus, and on the flip side that two words the same can mean two things for example right (correct) and right (opposite to left, direction)
Will be able to understand and use more descriptive words, meaning they can also communicate their feelings more effectively.
The child will now be able to use their language skills to give their own opinions or put forward their own ideas.
The child will now be able to skilfully communicate with peers, and may be more confident in social situations. Helping them to make and sustain friendships.
Intellectual ; Cognitive;
Birth to Three Month
Baby will be able to focus on moving objects, particularly the faces of mum/dad and will be able to see all colours.
Baby will be able to respond with facial expressions.
Three to Six Months
At this age baby will be able to recognise familiar faces, for example other members of the family i.e. nan /granddad
They will also begin to copy facial expressions, for example poking the tongue out, or smiling.
As well as visuals recognition, baby will also be able to recognise sounds that they may hear a lot, such as the telephone.
Six to Nine Months
Memory skills are still improving.
Baby will now be able to understand that objects still exist, even when they cannot see them, for example hiding toys under a blanket.
Baby will begin to use objects in the ‘correct’ way, for example they will hold a telephone to their ear and pretend to talk to someone.
The baby may now also be able to distinguish between animate and inanimate objects, for example a real pet dog, and a soft toy dog.
Baby will explore objects in many ways, shaking, touching, banging and even throwing.
Nine to Twelve Months
At this age baby is able to move around their environment, maybe crawling or walking, or both. They are able to explore the world around them, and begin to understand it.
Baby will explore objects, picking them up, turning them around, and perhaps putting one object inside another (building on their knowledge that even though they cannot see something, it is still there!).
Baby may also now be able to see the difference between groups of objects, for example they will see that a group of 3 cars is different to a group of 10 cars, therefore showing the beginnings of simple mathematic/numeracy skills.
Baby will start to enjoy looking at books.
One to Two Years
The child will now be able to see differences between themselves and others, and will be able to recognise their own facial features, i.e. nose, ears etc
At this age children will watch those around them, using what they see and will begin mimicking it in their own play. They may imitate actions, such as cooking in role play, making cups of tea, and they may also start copying sounds/words.
They will now be able to understand words, and start to respond, for example ‘Don’t touch’.
The child will now be able to recognise objects in a book, and may point these out, for example animals.
The child will be interested in pressing buttons or lifting flaps, not just on toys but on other items around their environment and may explore items such as the television remote, or the cd/Dvd player.
Two to Three Years
At this age the child is becoming much more independent.
The child will be able to sort objects, for example by size or type i.e group all toy cows together or group all yellow items together.
The child should now be able to follow simple instructions, such as ‘go get a book’.
Role playing becomes more in depth, the child is now able to identify objects for different tasks so this is brought into play, for example using a toy kettle to make a cup of tea.
The child will also now enjoy playing with ‘small world’ toys, such as a train set or a farm set.
The child is now able to complete a small puzzle/shape matching activity.
The child will enjoy joining in singing, and will more than likely have a favourite song/nursery rhyme that they like to sing, as well as singing the child may also like to dance to music/sound.
Three to Five Years
Imagination is really increasing, allowing for great ‘make belief’ play.
The child may now be able to recite some numbers in sequence, and can count objects.
The child may now also be able to correctly identify colours and name them.
Explores by asking questions; Why? And be interested in the answer that is given.
The ‘attention span’ is increasing and so the child may now be able to concentrate on activities for longer periods of time.
The child begins to understand ‘time’, and is able to talk about what happened in the past i.e yesterday I went to the beach, and what is going to happen in the future i.e. its my birthday next month.
At this age the child has also learnt a new skill, the ability to lie/deception. They may use this skill during social play, or to get a toy they want from another child etc.
Three to Five Years cont…
At this age children will love mixing colours, paint colours will be mixed together to make new colours of all different shades.
The child will enjoy playing with different textures, for example slime, foam, or flour, and they will be able to describe what they are feeling, ‘its soft’ or ‘its squidgy’.
Age Five to Seven Years
Children are now able to build on their skills.
Numeracy skills are growing and the child can count, and may now start to do simple adding and subtracting.
They will know more details about themselves, how old they are, where they live etc.
The child will now make/build with an idea in mind or a purpose, they will use different materials and techniques to make this happen. They will be able to use tools safely and competently to help them achieve their desired outcome.
They are able to use ICT in the school and home environment, and can be quite independent with this. They will be able to click on apps/tabs on the ipads/computers and follow instructions on simple games/software i.e. maths games.