To mention Eric Hopkin’s Industrialization and Society
To mention Eric Hopkin’s Industrialization and Society, it is not or cannot be considered as an industrial history of the Great Britain, but it would be not wrong to say that is an examination of the social results of industrialization from about 1830 to 1851. Consequences of these can be combined with the unparalleled growth of population in the 19th century, and is said to have transformed the nation from one that was rural to one based very largely on industry, the first of its kind in the world. This book is therefore concerned with the result of out most changes in the mode of life of people of all classes, but especially of the working classes and with the development of major social issues like poverty and unemployment, which has become like a cancer to humans till date.
To summarize, the book is about the social results of the industrial revolution and the attempted solutions of the problems as they arose. The Victorian could barely have anticipated where the side of innovation would lead them by the end of the century, let alone by 1951. A last and not the least would be the period covered by this book:- the beginning date 1830, is considered a convenient date to begin any discussion of the social results of industrialization, because it is only from about this date onwards that the major problems and relating to urbanization really begin to loom large.
Industrialization and Society surveys contemporary ways in which the government and ordinary people tried to cope with these new pressures, including the reflective critical thinking of the age.
The Victorian Inheritance:- The age of reform 1815-1870 in general terms industrialisation meant a change from an economy based on agriculture to one based on industry and commerce during this period there was a shift from the agricultural economy to the mechanised work people were replace by the machinery works and there are certain developments that can be trace through the readings of Eric Hopkins Industrialisation and society. According to professor Mathias he has put it “the greatest single flywheel of the economy was land, the greatest source of wealth is rent, profits, and wages and the greatest single employer, during the period agriculture was closely associated or connected with many subsidiary industries, such as brewing , willing, leatherworking, and the waving of woollen cloths, sooner or no longer with the coming of fundamental change in industry was to alter all this. Lindert and Williamson (1983) as mentioned by Eric Hopkins in his book calculated that the numbers of families engaged in industry and building were already well ahead of those in agriculture this gives us the proof that there has been a migration of people from the countryside to the fast growing cities in England. Staple industries of the time the textile industry was pre-eminent, being based increasingly on factory production employing stream driven machinery. In textile industry the new cotton industry being came mechanised faster than the old-established woollen industry large industrial works side by side were existence along with small workshops many still of a small master economy, around 1851 those working in the principal non-mechanised industries even when coal is included in latter by three to one. 1830s drive to steam-powered production in the cotton industry was intensified there is a fall in handloom weavers 250000 in 1820 to 40000 in 1850, the growth of industry in the town was driving increasing number of workers from the countryside into the fast-growing cities and towns of the midlands and the north, the Boulton and watt steam engine no longer should go to the countryside in search of water power, it could be cited anywhere, towns expanded mightly but not without a growing middle-class concern for the working condition of the very young children and women in the new textile factory.
Mid and late Victorian social change:- The mid-century years—the 1840s, 1850s, and 1860s—were really the formative years of the Victorian state. If the social problems which were to become increasingly apparent in this period are to be understood, it should be helpful first of all to sketch in the major economic developments of the time. These were by no means years of uniform prosperity, and this is especially true of the early 1840s.
During the mid-years of industrialization there occurred social problems as well the age was not as prosperous as always it faced certain problems like social problem, unemployment, poverty, etc that needs to be discussed there were also problems relating to working conditions, the length of the worki8ng day, and the continued quite unregulated employment of young children in workshops, brickyards, rope-walks, and elsewhere but the most importing thing that need a focus ids in the state of the towns and the hazards to health arising from them. There was a spread of diseases like cholera, it is mentioned that even though the medical professional were very much aware of the disease they remain ignorant and took no care In other words, according to Southwood Smith, without urban reform, there was the danger of breeding a race of degenerates. Towns existed in London before industrialization but no such hazards were being seen but due to the rise in migration and population there came into existence such type of diseases in 19th century. The owners of the industries in order to welcome more immigrant they started to build houses with no enough space and can accommodated only a person in it but they forced to live more than what is required. It was cheaper in the long run to improve urban conditions by deep drainage, scavenging, and better water supplies than to throw ever-increasing burdens on the poor law authorities. Chadwick agreed with Southwood Smith that the squalid conditions in which the poor lived led to low moral standards, not the other way round. Trade fell off and unemployment decreased and in 1842 there came a plug plot in the midlands movinf from works to works also to be mentioned about the worcestershere chronice is prominent
After equipoise Urban problems, 1870–1900:- first two to three years of 1870s years of great prosperity for great Britain. Ceased of civil war in America and cotton famine came in and cotton regained its place as leader in the industrial economy. Railway construction abroad not confined within England alone. In 1870 the lack of any national system of public health regulation remained perhaps the most urgent social problem. 1869 royal sanitary commission had been appointed, w. It made the familiar points that proper drainage and water supplies were essential, nuisances must be removed, more burial grounds made available, preventable disease combated, and unfit food inspected and prohibited. Prohibition of child labour in most workplace from 1870 onwards and compulsory attainment of school for those children , factory act 1871, put up the age for boys underground in the mines raised to 12, restriction of working hours to not exceed the time limit, in 1862 inn textile factories started about a leave by the workers to not go to works at Sundays, working class education in 1870s provision of elementary education , payment system was tightened, there was the problem of sheer lack places for the children whose parents were willing to send them to school. Gladstone’s first ministry passed Forster’s Education Act. It tackled the problems of the financial difficulties of the church societies by adopting the Newcastle Commission’s suggestion that new schools should be financed out of local rates.
Industrial change and the countryside, 1830–1951:- The agricultural industry survived the inter-war years, though it was at a low ebb in the 1920s, and only in the 1930s was it placed on a more secure footing, partly because the long-disputed policy of tariff reform or protection profited both industry and agriculture, and partly because the fear of war made it essential to improve national self-sufficiency in agriculture. It should be added that mechanisation at last began to improve agricultural production between the wars: the number of tractors increased from 16,681 in 1925 to 40,000 in 1937. More combine harvesters were also employed. So after hard times in the 1920s, agriculture underwent a period of convalescence in the 1930s, thanks mainly to government assistance and also to increased consumer demand. It still had an important part to play in the life of the nation, and one that became prominent again during World War II. However, as we have seen, industrialisation had transformed its function from being the fundamental and premier industry at the beginning of the nineteenth century to being the poor relation of manufacturing industry, by the inter-war period. Further, many of the great estates were broken up in the immediate post-war period of the early 1920s as land was sold to pay increased taxation—one-sixth of the land in England changed hands in these years.22 Agriculture and agricultural society were not what they had been in the early years of Victoria’s reign. It is perhaps significant that the two most influential prime ministers of the inter-war years were Stanley Baldwin and Neville Chamberlain. Baldwin was chosen as prime minister because, unlike the more obvious choice, Lord Curzon, he was not a member of the House of Lords. He had a genuine regard for the countryside, but was a small-scale iron manufacturer in Bewdley, Worcestershire (Curzon thought him a person of the utmost insignificance). Chamberlain was a Birmingham businessman, whose family fortunes were based on the manufacture of screws. The days when the government was led by great landowning magnates with seats in the House of Lords like Lord Salisbury were finally over.
Most notable of the Liberals’ early reforms was the Trades Disputes Act, 1906. social reforms in the early years of the Liberal administration include the provision of school meals for needy children, and the medical inspection of school children. 1908 the subject of old-age pensions was tackled, and the Old Age Pensions Act was passed. The act provided a weekly pension of 5/- a week at the age of seventy, paid through the post office and not the Board of Guardians, so as to avoid the taint of poverty. In 1909 Churchill introduced and saw through parliament the Labour Exchanges Act, the detail of the bill owing much to a senior civil servant, William Beveridge. The great social reforms of the Liberal administration were undoubtedly the Pensions Act and the National Insurance Act.
Ministry of munitions was set up with Lloyd George as minister in charge, there was a problem regarding the maintenance of the war equipments and also for the people to guard the country to stay in the trenches, Britain experience a great loss during this period there was and impact in the industrial level, low availability of materials for production and sortage of labour, During these fateful two years, the employers in practically all industries have to a greater or lesser degree— (i) Changed the process of manufacture, notably so to enable work formerly done by skilled craftsmen to be done by women or labourers; (ii) introduced new and additional machinery with the same object; Trade union membership, 1912–20 168 Industrialisation and society (iii) engaged in work or processes formerly done by skilled craftsmen, boys, women, and unapprenticed men; (iv) increased the proportion of boys to men; (v) substituted piece work and bonus systems for time wages; (vi) increased the hours of labour, sometimes refusing any satisfactory addition for overtime, night duty, and Sunday work; (vii) speeded up production, getting rid of all customary understandings among the workers of what constituted a fair day’s work; (viii) suppressed demarcation disputes and ignored all claims, whether to kinds of work or particular jobs, of particular unions, particular grades, particular sets of workmen, or a particular sex.
Edwardian England and the liberal reforms, 1899, Britain vs boer republics of the Transvaal and the orange free state British defeated and imperialism had replaced social reform as a central issue Rowntree studied on poverty both primary and secondary ,and helen bosanquet on rich and poor 1896 the standard of life and other studies 1898 variations in supply and demand two cardinal principles of charity organisations society self help was all time important if charitable aid was offered it must be carefully organised town and country planning act 1909 gave local authorities additional power to inspect and repair poor quality housing people budget in 1909 by Lloyd George raise additional and 16 million for new pension scheme taxation on petrol new vechicle licencing duty tax on tobacco, parliament bill, in 1911 national insurance bill by Lloyd George insurance and health benefits of workers
War and the coming of the Welfare State Women had a choice between service in the Auxiliary Teritorial Service (ATS), Women’s Auxiliary Air Force (WAAF), and the Women’s Royal Naval Service (WRNS), and in civil defence or essential civilian jobs. Extensive increase of women in the workforce and contribution for the country Regional boards of industry were established in 1941, and in 1942 the National Production Advisory Council was appointed. Wage levels were generally left to negotiation, but in 1940 the Central Agricultural Wages Board was set up to fix minimum wages for male agricultural workers, and in 1943 the Catering Wages Act led to the appointment of the Catering Wages Commission. In 1945 various trades boards were given wider powers as wages boards. Working conditions improved i: welfare officers had to be provided in factories employing more than 250 workers. Leisure activities were naturally curtailed Already J.M.Keynes was influenced government economic affairs, in particular the 1942 budget and the drawing up of the first manpower budget in December 1942.