The research sample is composed of forty (40) Grade 1 and Grade 2 students residing in two barangays in Quezon City. The primary data gathering method used was interview to determine the children’s perspectives of Pagka-Filipino based on their experiences and through their interactions with ten (10) locally-published picture books written by Filipino authors. This research used purposive and convenience sampling in which an equal representation for gender and grade level among the respondents was applied. The gathered data were analyzed using frequency distribution and coding. Verbatim quotes from the respondents were used.
The research data was based on interview of early grades children based on their experiences and interaction with selected picture books. It focused on gender and grade level as variables in interpreting their perspectives of pagka-Filipino.
The study is delimited to a group of Grade 1 and Grade 2 children coming from a socially-disadvantaged group in an urban area. Perspectives on “pagka-Filipino” is delimited to early graders’
everyday experiences on games Filipino children play, food Filipino children eat, clothes Filipino children wear, animals in the Philippines they know, famous Filipinos they know, things Filipino children use and activities Filipino children engage in;
interactions with the text and illustration of selected picture books.
In this research, Filipino icons were delimited to those identified by the National Commission for the Culture and the Arts’ Essential Knowledge on Philippine Arts, Culture and Heritage for the Basic Education Curriculum (EKPACHBEC) for Grade 1 and 2 (See Appendix A) and Adarna House’s 101 Filipino Icons Volumes I and II (2007, 2009). According to Wright (1998), there exists a politicization of “culture” wherein “there is a political process of contestation over the power to define key concepts, including that of ‘culture’ itself” (Wright, 1998, p.14). In this case, the researcher is aware of the politics involved in the identification of Filipino icons by a state institution and a commercial publisher.