My Ssec Capstone Project The Case of Democratic Republic of Congo

The Case of Democratic Republic of Congo

The Case of Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) Emmy Michael Mahali Master of Arts (Strategic and Peace Studies) Dissertation University of Dar es Salaam September 2018 ANALYSIS OF THE SUCCESS OF THE TANZANIA PEOPLES DEFENCE FORCES (TPDF) IN PEACEKEEPING MISSION IN AFRICA The Case of Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) By Emmy Michael Mahali A Dissertation Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts in Strategic and Peace Studies of the University of Dar es Salaam University of Dar es Salaam September 2018 CERTIFICATION The undersigned certifies that he has read and hereby recommends for examination a dissertation titled Analysis of the Success of the Tanzania Peoples Defence Forces (TPDF) in Peacekeeping Mission in Africa, The Case Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts (Strategic and Peace Studies) of the University of Dar es Salaam. Dr. John William Walwa (Supervisor) .. Date DECLARATION AND COPYRIGHT I, Emmy Michael Mahali declare that this dissertation is my own original work and that it has not been presented and will not be presented to any other university for a similar or any other degree award. Signature .. This dissertation is a copyright material protected under the Berne Convention, the Copyright Act 1999 and other international and national enactments, in that behalf, on intellectual property. It may not be reproduced by any means, in full or in part, except for short extracts in fair dealings, for research or private study, critical scholarly review or discourse with an acknowledgment, without the written permission of the Director of Postgraduate Studies, on behalf of both the author and the University of Dar es Salaam. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The successfully completion of this dissertation is a result of the effort and collaboration accorded to me by different individuals and institutions. Even though it is not possible to mention them all, it is crucial to mention some keynote individuals whom I deeply appreciate for the support and encouragements they offered. My deepest appreciation and thanks go to my supervisor, Dr. John W. Walwa, for his guidance and constructive criticisms that helped me stay focused from the beginning of this work to the end. I extend special thanks to my lecturers and the library staffs of University of Dar es Salaam for their theoretical and empirical contribution during my studies. Moreover, I am highly indebted to the Staff and Management of TPDF for their help and contribution towards the success of this project and the level of education I have acquired to date. I also express very special thanks to my family my beloved husband Dr. Dudley K. Mallya, our daughter, Dorcas and sons, Denzel and Delan for their support and firmness during the period of my entire graduate studies and specifically while undertaking this research work. You have always been my shoulders of confidence and determination. Finally I remain entirely responsible for all ideas in this study. Errors should not be attributed to any of the above mentioned personalities. DEDICATION To my late father, Michael Mahali and my mother, Tusighanaghe Konga for their heartfelt support to ensure that I become educated and a prosperous woman. They laid the foundation for my education. To my beloved husband, Dr. Dudley K. Mallya and our children Denzel, Dorcas and Delan for their patience and tolerance during the hard times of my studies. Lastly, to my colleagues at TPDF, through them, God has touched me positively, in realizing the true mission of my life in this world LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMNS APSA African Peace and Security Architecture ASF African Standby Forces AU African Union CAR Central African Republic COE Contingent Own Equipment DPKO Department of Peacekeeping Operations ECOMOG Economic Community of West African States Monitoring Group FDLR Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda FGD Focus Group Discussion FIB Force Intervention Brigade M23 March 23 Movement MONUSCO United Nations Organization Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo MONUC Mission de lOrganisation des Nations Congo MOU Memorandum of Understanding NA National Army ONUC Operation des Nations Unies Congo PE Peace Enforcement PK Peacekeeping PKO Peacekeeping Operations PSO Peace Support Operation SADC South African Development Community SC Security Council SG Secretary General SPSS Statistical Package for Social Sciences SSA Sub-Saharan Africa UDSM University of Dar es Salaam UN United Nations UNIFIL United Nations Interim Force in LebanonABSTRACT The study reflected the analysis of the success of the Tanzania Peoples Defence Forces (TPDF) in peacekeeping mission in Africa with case study of DRC. The study was guided by three specific objectives namely (i) To determine the nature of intervention made by TPDF, (ii) to identify the strategies employed by TPDF battalion to ensure peace and security in DRC, and (iii) to examine the contribution of the relationship between forces and local people (civilians) to the effectiveness of TPDF mission in DRC. The study adopted mixed methods approach, including both qualitative and quantitative approaches. The qualitative data were analysed by using content analysis, where the quantitative data were analysed using SPSS version 20.0 descriptive statistics. The study was conducted in TPDF headquarters and Units under Land Force Command in Dar es Salaam region, with a sample of 50 respondents who were selected through purposive sampling techniques. Both primary and secondary data were collected through interview guide, questionnaires, focused group discussions and documentary review. Validity and reliability issues were considered and data analysis was done through SPSS version 20.0 with narrative writings. The findings indicated that the intervention made by TPDF in DRC was characterized by the use of one force intervention battalion, the high morale of the intervening soldiers and support from local communities (Congolese). Presence of serviceable equipment, motivation and high discipline of the TPDF soldiers were the strategies employed. The mutual relationship between the soldiers and the Congolese aided the availability of information about M23, their operations and weapons. It was concluded that TPDF forces contributed on the restoration of peace and security in the eastern part of Congo. Hence, it is recommended that the TPDF should keep on coordinating and cooperating well with the UN in ensuring the availability of training opportunities to improve the performance of the TPDF by drawing lessons and experience from other countries. CONTENTS TOC o 1-3 h z u HYPERLINK l _Toc525033207 CERTIFICATION PAGEREF _Toc525033207 h i HYPERLINK l _Toc525033208 PAGEREF _Toc525033208 h i HYPERLINK l _Toc525033209 DECLARATION PAGEREF _Toc525033209 h ii HYPERLINK l _Toc525033210 AND PAGEREF _Toc525033210 h ii HYPERLINK l _Toc525033211 COPYRIGHT PAGEREF _Toc525033211 h ii HYPERLINK l _Toc525033212 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS PAGEREF _Toc525033212 h iii HYPERLINK l _Toc525033213 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS PAGEREF _Toc525033213 h iii HYPERLINK l _Toc525033214 DEDICATION PAGEREF _Toc525033214 h iv HYPERLINK l _Toc525033215 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMNS PAGEREF _Toc525033215 h v HYPERLINK l _Toc525033216 ABSTRACT PAGEREF _Toc525033216 h vii HYPERLINK l _Toc525033217 CONTENTS PAGEREF _Toc525033217 h viii HYPERLINK l _Toc525033218 CHAPTER ONE PAGEREF _Toc525033218 h 1 HYPERLINK l _Toc525033219 INTRODUCTION PAGEREF _Toc525033219 h 1 HYPERLINK l _Toc525033220 1.1 Background Information PAGEREF _Toc525033220 h 1 HYPERLINK l _Toc525033221 1.2 Problem Statement PAGEREF _Toc525033221 h 4 HYPERLINK l _Toc525033222 1.3 Objectives of the Study PAGEREF _Toc525033222 h 6 HYPERLINK l _Toc525033223 1.3.1 General Objectives PAGEREF _Toc525033223 h 6 HYPERLINK l _Toc525033224 1.3.2 Specific Objectives PAGEREF _Toc525033224 h 6 HYPERLINK l _Toc525033225 1.4 Research Questions PAGEREF _Toc525033225 h 7 HYPERLINK l _Toc525033226 1.4.1 Main Research Question PAGEREF _Toc525033226 h 7 HYPERLINK l _Toc525033227 1.4.2 Specific Research Questions PAGEREF _Toc525033227 h 7 HYPERLINK l _Toc525033228 1.5 Scope of the Study PAGEREF _Toc525033228 h 7 HYPERLINK l _Toc525033229 1.6 Significance of the study PAGEREF _Toc525033229 h 8 HYPERLINK l _Toc525033230 1.7 Limitations of the Study PAGEREF _Toc525033230 h 8 HYPERLINK l _Toc525033231 1.7.1 Time PAGEREF _Toc525033231 h 8 HYPERLINK l _Toc525033232 1.7.2 Difficulty to get respondent PAGEREF _Toc525033232 h 9 HYPERLINK l _Toc525033233 1.7.3 Insufficient Data PAGEREF _Toc525033233 h 9 HYPERLINK l _Toc525033234 1.8 Definition of Key Terms PAGEREF _Toc525033234 h 9 HYPERLINK l _Toc525033235 1.9 Conceptual frame work PAGEREF _Toc525033235 h 11 HYPERLINK l _Toc525033236 CHAPTER TWO PAGEREF _Toc525033236 h 13 HYPERLINK l _Toc525033237 LITERATURE REVIEW PAGEREF _Toc525033237 h 13 HYPERLINK l _Toc525033238 2.0 Introduction PAGEREF _Toc525033238 h 13 HYPERLINK l _Toc525033239 2.1 Peacekeeping and peace enforcement PAGEREF _Toc525033239 h 13 HYPERLINK l _Toc525033240 2.1.1 Peacekeeping PAGEREF _Toc525033240 h 13 HYPERLINK l _Toc525033241 2.1.2 Peace enforcement PAGEREF _Toc525033241 h 16 HYPERLINK l _Toc525033242 2.2 Challenges of UN Peacekeeping PAGEREF _Toc525033242 h 17 HYPERLINK l _Toc525033243 2.2.1 Manpower PAGEREF _Toc525033243 h 18 HYPERLINK l _Toc525033244 2.2.2 Training and Doctrine PAGEREF _Toc525033244 h 18 HYPERLINK l _Toc525033245 2.2.3 Logistics PAGEREF _Toc525033245 h 19 HYPERLINK l _Toc525033246 2.2.4 Funding PAGEREF _Toc525033246 h 19 HYPERLINK l _Toc525033247 2.2.5 Administration PAGEREF _Toc525033247 h 20 HYPERLINK l _Toc525033248 2.3 Peacekeeping in Africa PAGEREF _Toc525033248 h 20 HYPERLINK l _Toc525033249 2.4 Major problems of peacekeeping in Africa PAGEREF _Toc525033249 h 22 HYPERLINK l _Toc525033250 2.4.1 Lack of coordination PAGEREF _Toc525033250 h 22 HYPERLINK l _Toc525033251 2.4.2 Insufficient soldiers in the field PAGEREF _Toc525033251 h 23 HYPERLINK l _Toc525033252 2.4.3 Misconduct by the peacekeepers PAGEREF _Toc525033252 h 23 HYPERLINK l _Toc525033253 2.4.4 Inadequate police force in the field PAGEREF _Toc525033253 h 24 HYPERLINK l _Toc525033254 2.4.5 Complex multidimensional operational mandate PAGEREF _Toc525033254 h 24 HYPERLINK l _Toc525033255 2.5 Theoretical review PAGEREF _Toc525033255 h 24 HYPERLINK l _Toc525033256 2.6 Empirical Literature Review PAGEREF _Toc525033256 h 27 HYPERLINK l _Toc525033257 2.7 Knowledge Gap PAGEREF _Toc525033257 h 30 HYPERLINK l _Toc525033258 CHAPTER THREE PAGEREF _Toc525033258 h 33 HYPERLINK l _Toc525033259 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY PAGEREF _Toc525033259 h 33 HYPERLINK l _Toc525033260 3.0 Introduction PAGEREF _Toc525033260 h 33 HYPERLINK l _Toc525033261 3.1 Research design PAGEREF _Toc525033261 h 33 HYPERLINK l _Toc525033262 3.2 Area of the Study PAGEREF _Toc525033262 h 35 HYPERLINK l _Toc525033263 3.3 Population, Sample and Sampling Procedures PAGEREF _Toc525033263 h 35 HYPERLINK l _Toc525033264 3.3.1 Target Population PAGEREF _Toc525033264 h 35 HYPERLINK l _Toc525033265 3.3.2 Sample Size PAGEREF _Toc525033265 h 36 HYPERLINK l _Toc525033266 3.3.3 Sampling Techniques PAGEREF _Toc525033266 h 36 HYPERLINK l _Toc525033267 3.4 Instrument for data collection PAGEREF _Toc525033267 h 37 HYPERLINK l _Toc525033268 3.4.1 Primary data PAGEREF _Toc525033268 h 37 HYPERLINK l _Toc525033269 3.4.2 Questionnaires PAGEREF _Toc525033269 h 37 HYPERLINK l _Toc525033270 3.4.3 Interviews questions PAGEREF _Toc525033270 h 38 HYPERLINK l _Toc525033271 3.4.4 Focus Group Discussion PAGEREF _Toc525033271 h 39 HYPERLINK l _Toc525033272 3.4.5 Secondary Data PAGEREF _Toc525033272 h 39 HYPERLINK l _Toc525033273 3.5 Validity and Reliability of the Data PAGEREF _Toc525033273 h 40 HYPERLINK l _Toc525033274 3.5.1 Validity PAGEREF _Toc525033274 h 40 HYPERLINK l _Toc525033275 3.5.2 Reliability PAGEREF _Toc525033275 h 40 HYPERLINK l _Toc525033276 3.6 Pilot Study PAGEREF _Toc525033276 h 41 HYPERLINK l _Toc525033277 3.7 Trustworthiness and Dependability of the Study PAGEREF _Toc525033277 h 41 HYPERLINK l _Toc525033278 3.8 Ethical Consideration PAGEREF _Toc525033278 h 42 HYPERLINK l _Toc525033279 3.9 Data Analysis PAGEREF _Toc525033279 h 43 HYPERLINK l _Toc525033280 CHAPTER FOUR PAGEREF _Toc525033280 h 44 HYPERLINK l _Toc525033281 DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION PAGEREF _Toc525033281 h 44 HYPERLINK l _Toc525033282 4.0 Introduction PAGEREF _Toc525033282 h 44 HYPERLINK l _Toc525033283 4.1 General profile of the respondents PAGEREF _Toc525033283 h 44 HYPERLINK l _Toc525033284 4.1.1 Gender of the Respondents PAGEREF _Toc525033284 h 45 HYPERLINK l _Toc525033285 4.1.2 Respondents Level of Education PAGEREF _Toc525033285 h 46 HYPERLINK l _Toc525033286 4.1.3 Military Ranking Positions PAGEREF _Toc525033286 h 47 HYPERLINK l _Toc525033287 4.1.4 Work Experience with TPDF PAGEREF _Toc525033287 h 48 HYPERLINK l _Toc525033288 4.2 Nature of Intervention made by TPDF in DRC Peacekeeping Mission PAGEREF _Toc525033288 h 49 HYPERLINK l _Toc525033289 4.2.1 The Use of one Force Intervention Battalion PAGEREF _Toc525033289 h 50 HYPERLINK l _Toc525033290 4.2.2 The High Morale of the Intervening Soldiers PAGEREF _Toc525033290 h 51 HYPERLINK l _Toc525033291 4.2.3 Support from Local Communities PAGEREF _Toc525033291 h 52 HYPERLINK l _Toc525033292 4.3 Strategies Employed by TPDF Battalion to ensure Peace and Security in DRC PAGEREF _Toc525033292 h 53 HYPERLINK l _Toc525033293 4.3.1 Motivation of the TPDF Soldiers PAGEREF _Toc525033293 h 53 HYPERLINK l _Toc525033294 4.3.2 Adequate Serviceable Equipment PAGEREF _Toc525033294 h 54 HYPERLINK l _Toc525033295 4.3.3 High Discipline of the TPDF Soldiers PAGEREF _Toc525033295 h 55 HYPERLINK l _Toc525033296 4.4 The Contribution of the Relationship between Forces and Local People to the Achievements of TPDF PAGEREF _Toc525033296 h 56 HYPERLINK l _Toc525033297 4.5 Challenges encountered by the Peacekeeping Mission in DRC PAGEREF _Toc525033297 h 61 HYPERLINK l _Toc525033298 4.5.1 Inadequate Skills and Experience among the Police Personnel PAGEREF _Toc525033298 h 61 HYPERLINK l _Toc525033299 4.5.2 Lack of Joint Training among the Battalions PAGEREF _Toc525033299 h 61 HYPERLINK l _Toc525033300 4.5.3 Death and casualties among its soldiers PAGEREF _Toc525033300 h 62 HYPERLINK l _Toc525033301 CHAPTER FIVE PAGEREF _Toc525033301 h 63 HYPERLINK l _Toc525033302 SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS PAGEREF _Toc525033302 h 63 HYPERLINK l _Toc525033303 5.0 Introduction PAGEREF _Toc525033303 h 63 HYPERLINK l _Toc525033304 5.1 Summary PAGEREF _Toc525033304 h 63 HYPERLINK l _Toc525033305 5.2 Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc525033305 h 65 HYPERLINK l _Toc525033306 5.3 Recommendations PAGEREF _Toc525033306 h 67 HYPERLINK l _Toc525033307 5.4 Suggested Areas for Further Research PAGEREF _Toc525033307 h 69 HYPERLINK l _Toc525033308 REFERENCE PAGEREF _Toc525033308 h 70 HYPERLINK l _Toc525033309 Cohen, H. J. (1996). Conflict management in Africa, center for strategic and intervention studies Africa notes, 181 february PAGEREF _Toc525033309 h 71 HYPERLINK l _Toc525033310 Cohen, L, Manion, L. Morrison, K. (2000). Research Methods (5th Edition). New York Lexington Books. PAGEREF _Toc525033310 h 71 HYPERLINK l _Toc525033311 APPENDICES PAGEREF _Toc525033311 h 76 LIST OF TABLES Tables 4.1 Gender of the Respondents Table 4.2 Respondents Level of education Table 4.3 Age of the respondents Table 4.4 Work Experience with TPDF CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION Background Information In the post-World War II era, the world witnessed the emergence and use of United Nations Peacekeeping Operations (UNPKOs) as a force in warring regions of the world aimed at maintaining ceasefire and truces (UNDKO/DFS, 2008). From the commencement of peacekeeping operations to date, the United Nations (UN) has been deploying peacekeepers to area in conflict and those emerging out conflict with the aim of enhancing conflict resolution and restoring peace and stability. Peacekeeping is conducted by both the UN and regional organizations but it is usually underpinned by a UN Security Council mandate (Karlsrud, 2015). Wars have very adverse effects to mankind, ranging from military price cultural, economic, environmental, social and political (Hassan and Bello, 2015). Equally, it involves opportunity cost because the funds spent on purchase of arms could have been used for provision of social services like health care services, education, water, roads, transportation, job creation, and housing for the crowded masses. Furthermore, each war ends up sowing the seeds for other war. Peacekeeping Operation (PKO) constitute one effective strategy adopted by mankind since the overwhelming World War II(1939-1945) in trying and preventing the war, managing or resolving it and to carrying out following up activities in the post conflict society to avoid relapse to war, United Nations Charter Article 1, 1945 as cited by Hassan and Bello (2015). In the recent past, the African continent has been facing conflicts most of which were intra-state resulting into civil wars. The UN tried to resolve these conflicts but the tragedies of its operation in Somalia in 1992, where the United States (US) and other nations suffered losses, led to reluctance by the big powers in intervening African conflicts and consequently reduced the UNs role in conflict management in Africa. Therefore, African nations had to resort to regional and sub-regional arrangements for conflict management. The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) is among countries that have had a series of UNPKOs since independence. The current crisis of Eastern Congo could be seen as the Rwandan genocide in 1994. First, it was the Operation des Nations Unies au Congo (ONUC) launched in1960 which was the first large-scale mission having nearly 20,000 military personnel then followed the Mission de lOrganisation des Nations Unies au Congo (MONUC), by its resolution 1279. The purpose of the operation was initially to plan for the observation of the ceasefire and disengagement of forces and to maintain liaison with all parties to the ceasefire agreement. The most recent UN peacekeeping force United Nation Organization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUSCO) by its resolution 1925 with the mandate of protecting civilians, humanitarian personnel and human right defenders under imminent of physical violence. Moreover, the force was tasked to support the government of DRC in its stabilization and peace consolidation effort (Spijkers, 2015). On 27th February, 2013, the Secretary General in his Special Report on the DRC and the GLR proposed that a dedicated FIB be established within MONUSCO. The report clearly suggested that the Brigade would have peace-enforcement task consisting of prevention of the expansion of, neutralizing and disarming armed groups (SG report). This was its first first-ever offensive combat force. This intervention Brigade would operate under the direct operational command of the MONUSCO Force Commander (UNSC, 2013). After the rather successful operations carried out by the Force Intervention Brigade (FIB) in Eastern Congo resulting to the defeat of M23 rebel group, the UN detained the opportunity to issue a warning to other armed groups where it argued them to surrender or face military operations (SG Report, UN Doc S/2014/157, para 18). Tanzania has been actively participating in PKO as part of uniformed United Nation peacekeepers in various parties of the African continent as well as in democratic states struggle for a number of decades. Tanzania contributions are largely informed by its history of African liberation, conflict prevention and peace processes especially in African countries such as Mozambique, South Africa and Zimbabwe. Tanzania has also been facilitating peace processes in African countries such as Burundi, Rwanda, Kenya and South Sudan. Tanzania was also a key player in Operation Democracy to restore order on the Island of Anjoun in the Comoro in 2008 her troops were part of the African Union (AU) mission that included France and Senegal. Furthermore, Tanzania has shown willingness to participate and contribute both in terms of security and military troop under the African Peace and Security Architecture (APSA). Tanzania is also a part of African Standby Forces (ASF), in which Tanzania falls under the SADC and in 2007 it signed the agreement to become part of SADC standby Brigade. More importantly, in 2013 Tanzania was one of three states that contributed a Battalion of soldiers to the FIB as a part of the United Nations Organization Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo (MONUSCO). Recently, Tanzania is participating in South Sudan, Darfur, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Abyei and now Central Africa Republic. TPDF also has a company of military police (MPs) in Lebanon. The mission is known as United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL) which was the first mission outside Africa. Problem Statement The recurrence of intra-state conflict in various regions of the world, most especially in developing states, has put to task the word sustainable peace (Waheed, 2012). More than any region of the world, Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) remains hindered in series of intractable conflicts between states and ethno national groups with disturbing human and development costs. Moreover, since 1960s some of the African countries have been prone to civil wars despite efforts taken by different actors like AU and UN to enforce permanent peace. DRC is one of the African countries which is highly affected by civil wars which have destroyed socio-economic and political development. Different interventions have been taking place in DRC but have been unsuccessful and wars are still persisting and people are dying especially women and childrens, others run out of their country as refugees and displaced people. In spite of the success of the UN in resolving numerous conflicts across the world, the situation of violent conflict in DRC has become a huge to be tamed. The region has become a theater of violent conflict with high level of humanitarian disaster (Waheed, 2012). The notable civil war conflict was in Nov 2012, when the March 23 Movement (M23) rebel group in DRC captured the city of Goma. Despite the presence of MONUSCO and Congolese army based on the city, the largest UN peacekeeping mission had once again been unsuccessful in deterring a rebel advance and in this case in fulfilling its commitment to defend the city of Goma. Also, the regions powerful actors such as Uganda supported by South Africa were troubled by the continued instability, sought to address what it saw the twin failure of government of the DRC and MONUSCO to clear Eastern Congo rebel groups, some associated with residual conflict in the region, such as the Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda (FDLR) presented at their borders. Since 2013, the Tanzania battalion has been in DRC as part of peacekeeping mission under MONUSCO with outstanding success in maintaining peace, security and tranquility that was disturbed by rebel groups, M23 inclusive. The Tanzanian battalion has been considered as a meaningfully example in enforcing peace and security in DRC by removing M23 who dogged in Congolese land for 17 years. Consequently, it is under such context, that this study seeks to explore the reasons, which made Tanzania (TPDF) to be one of the successfully military forces to enforce peace in Eastern DRC. Objectives of the Study General Objectives The main objective of this research was to analyse the success of the Tanzania Peoples Defence Forces (TPDF) in peacekeeping mission in Africa, with the case of DRC. Specific Objectives The study was intended to achieve the following specific objectives To determine the nature of the intervention made by TPDF in DRC peacekeeping mission. To identify the strategies employed by TPDF battalion to ensure peace and security in DRC. To examine the contribution of the relationship between forces and local people (civilians) to the effectiveness of TPDF peacekeeping mission in DRC in DRC. Research Questions To achieve the objectives stated above, the following questions are answered Main Research Question What are the successes of the TPDF in peacekeeping mission in Africa, specifically in DRC Specific Research Questions What is the nature of the intervention made by TPDF in DRC peacekeeping mission What are the strategies employed by TPDF brigade to ensure peace and security in DRC How does the relationship between forces and local people (civilians) contribute to the effectiveness of TPDF peacekeeping mission in DRC Scope of the Study The present study was limited to the analysis of the success of TPDFs peacekeeping mission in Africa particularly in DRC. Specifically, it addressed three main issues which were nature of intervention made by TPDF in DRC peacekeeping mission, strategies employed by TPDF battalion to ensure peace and security in DRC and contribution of the relationship between forces and local people to the effectiveness of TPDF peacekeeping mission in DRC. This study explores the involvement of Tanzania through TPDF in DRC the secret behind the successful winning of the battle against M23 in collaboration with other forces. Significance of the study Successful accomplishment of this study brings forward the following knowledge and policy implications First, the findings of this study add to the knowledge of peace studies. They can work as a provoking resource (stepping stone) that could inspire other researchers curiosity to conduct further research related to peacekeeping operations. Secondly, the study informs the Government of Tanzania, TPDF and other international community who are the key stakeholders in peacekeeping operations, with the target of maintaining peace, security and harmony. Lastly, peacekeeping and peace enforcement has become a high profile subject taught in universities and lectured at many seminars and conferences. Therefore, experts in this field would find this study as a useful resource for academic purposes and advancing military knowledge. Limitations of the Study The following were limitations that researcher encountered in the course of conducting the research. Time During the study, the researcher faced time constraints because some of the information was not easily and quickly available. This has been proved by Minde (2016) who asserted that, there remain no scholarly publications directly analyzing Tanzanias contribution to peace operations. Difficulty to get respondent The researcher was interested to cover not only the respondents from the TPDF battalion, but also from other battalions from South Africa, Malawi and civilian in the city of Goma in DRC. However, the fund set for the study could not enable the researcher to cover the respondents as stated above rather the respondents who were covered were only from TPDF HQ and units under Land Force command, as the researcher was unable to cover some of the respondents who are stationed in other TPDF units that are situated in other regions of Tanzania. Insufficient Data Although the study is academic, the scope of the study is within military issues. This caused the researcher to end up with insufficient data because some information was within the framework of military affairs (secret) and thus is not required to be shared for public consumption. Definition of Key Terms Peace is generally regarded as freedom from conflict, war, violence, hostilities and civil disturbances. Peace can be interpreted in two ways as negative or positive Gultang defines negative peace as cessation of direct violence and positive peace as the overcoming of structural and cultural violence. Martin Luther King Junior posits that genuine peace is not simply the nonexistence of mistrust, friction, hostility but it is the presence of justice. This assertion was aptly inferred when Raymond (2002) affirmed that peace is a state of more or less lasting suspension of rivalry between political group. Peace Support Operations (PSO) is regularly used interchangeably with Peacekeeping Operations (PKO). PSO often includes peacekeeping, peace-making, peace-enforcement and peace building (Simbine, 2004). The UN Charter (1990) defines a PKO or mission as involving military personnel without enforcement powers, created by the organization to help maintain or restore peace in places of conflict. Peacekeeping is defined by Diehl (1993) as an international effort involving an operational component to promote the termination of armed conflict or the resolution of long standing disputes. Peacekeeping operation can be divided into two observer missions and peacekeeping forces. Both operate under the same principles with slight differences while the former are unarmed the latter are provided with light defensive weapons for self defence. Lederach (2003) defines peace as a dynamic and continuous process that reconstitutes human relationship and systems so as to reduce violent and justice. Peacemaking is defined as the diplomatic activities conducted after the commencement of a conflict (Thakar, 1994). It is aimed at establishing a ceasefire or a rapid peaceful settlement. Peace enforcement operations are coercive in nature and are undertaken under chapter VII of the UN Charter when the consent of any of the major parties to the conflict is not mandatory. Peace enforcement is defined by Akindele (1990) as the actual use of coerce force under the auspices of the UN to deal with a proven case of armed aggression. Peace enforcement is defined by UN as the use of coercive measure, including military force to restore peace in ongoing conflict. Peace building is viewed as a process of socio-economic reconstruction, development and expansion in conflict scarred and deprived areas and among underprivileged people (Harbottle, 1996). Conceptual frame work This study adopted the liberalism theory. Liberalism is among theories in international relations which try to expose the solutions to problems regarding peace. It seeks to build emphasis on international cooperation. Liberals believe that there is a possibility of sustaining lasting peace among nations (Doyle, 1997). From liberalist point of view, there are at least six major fundamentals for peace as follows Institutions for cooperation (for example United Nations) Control of anarchy Mechanism for settling disputes Regime legality Promotion of other international actors Liberalism fits the present study because it helps to elaborate the concept of the presence and nature of the TPDF (as a party of FIB) in DRC and its interactions with other actors. Unlike realists who focus on the state as the principal element, liberalists centre of attention is on international cooperation. It is significant to note here that Regional Organisation benefit from several qualified advantages by helping nations to work together in peace efforts (Romaniuk, 2014). The FIB in DRC is the result of SADEC initiatives which later operate under UN. Normally, most countries within a certain regional block have comparable challenges because they occupy similar geographical locations and share the same boarders (Demeke, 2014). They are rather identical and this is advantageous in making agreements, understanding the issue on the ground, having a wide range of local contacts and sometimes shares same language (Gordon, 2011). Tanzania and DRC fall within these advantages which have contributed to the performance. CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW Introduction This chapter reviews literature related to the study. It covers issues, concepts and theories related to the study. It also presents an overview of the concept of peacekeeping and peace enforcement and its historical background and theories. Lastly, the chapter examines some of the empirical studies related to the study and identifies the knowledge gap. Peacekeeping and peace enforcement Peacekeeping Peacekeeping is a technique designed to preserve the peace however weak where fighting has been halted and to assist in implementing agreements achieved by the peacemakers. Over the years, peacekeeping has evolved from a primarily military model of observing ceasefire and separation of forces after inter-state wars to integrate a complex model of three componentsmilitary, police and civilian work together to help lay the foundations for sustainable peace (UN Capstone Doctrine18). Peacekeeping is currently defined as the deployment of military and humanitarian troops in areas with conflict so as to protect civilian and develop peacemaking and peace building (United Nations, 2007). UN peacekeeping is not mentioned in the UN Charter, yet it has become one of the most multipurpose well-known and often used features of the world organization (Karlsrud, 2015). The UN deployed first peacekeeping mission in 1948 to observe and monitor implementation of the Armistice Agreement between Israel and Arab states in the Middle East. Since then peacekeeping operations have been deployed in many violent conflicts (United Nations, 2011). The initial form peacekeeping is called traditional or first generation peacekeeping operation. The number of troops deployed was relatively small and funds directed towards peacekeeping were low. Intervention was based on the principle of impartiality consent and non use of force except in self defence (Johnstone, 2006 Watkins, 2003). This kind of peacekeeping is established when parties to a conflict agree to the interposition of UN troops to uphold a ceasefire. The Security Council maintains authority over the operation, expressed through the Secretary General of the UN and authorized under Chapter VI of the charter. Examples of traditional peacekeeping operations includes that of Cyprus, which have separated the Greek and Turkish communities in 1964, in the state of Jammu and Kashmir, disputed by India and Pakistan (1949) and in the Golan Heights, between Israel and Syria (UN Disengagement Observer Force, 1974). Often referred to as Blue Berets or Blue Helmet, the military units in peacekeeping operation remain members of their own national armies with their own command and control, but serve under a UN-appointed local commander. Ghali (1992) criticized the principle of neutrality, concert and non use of force during peacekeeping. The report also criticized the notion of absolute and exclusive soverenity. To make UN more efficient, effective and proactive, Ghali (1992 suggested replacement of the notion of absolute and exclusive sovereignty by freedom and right intervene (Watkins, 2003 Johnstone 2001). This form of peacekeeping is known as second generation peacekeeping. The nature of intervention changed in second generation. Peacekeepers work in hostile situations and sometimes they have to engage directly into fighting. The 1993 US peacekeeping in Somalia was the first test of the second generation. The third generation peacekeeping is known as multidimensional where by peace keepers in collaboration with humanitarian organs for example United Nation Development Programme (UNDP), United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), World Food Organization (WHO) and United Nations Childrens Fund as well as NGOs. Are involved in peace building, ceasefire and signing of peace accords (Watkins, 2003 United Nations, 2003). It can be concluded that peacekeeping is the passage to conflict resolution. According to Fortuna and Haward (2008), literature on the peacekeeping has come in three waves. The first wave was throughout the period before the post-cold war era, concentrating primarily on peacekeeping in interstate conflicts. The second wave was motivated by the development of peacekeeping during early ages of the post-Cold war era. It reflects disappointment and concentrate mainly on failure and dysfunction, even though there are large cases of success. The third and current wave equally shows the growth of peacekeeping, however it now has to do with systemic and methodological thorough examination of simple empirical question on the outcome of peacekeeping as well as its bases. Peace enforcement The first real use of the term peace enforcement came in Ghalis January 1992 Secretary Generals report to the UN Security Council. This report was done by an experienced panel of peacekeepers. The panel recommended that concert of the local parties, impartiality, and the use of force only in self defence should remain the bedrock principle of peacekeeping (SG Report, 1992). Peace enforcement is defined by UN as the use of coercive measure, including military force to restore peace in ongoing conflict. The meaning of the term peace enforcement is often misunderstood. Consider that when soldiers are performing enforcement action under a UN Security Council mandate, they are still called peacekeepers. Where enforcement action is required it has consistently been entrusted to a coalitions of willing States with the authorization of the Security Council, acting under Chapter VII of the Charter (UN Chapter VII). The UNPKO in the central Africa Republic (CAR), DRC and Mali were in 2013 given peace enforcement to neutralise and disarm indentified groups in the eastern DRC and to estabilise CAR and northern Mali. It is not new that UN missions have mandate authorizing the use of force, but these have normally not specified enemies and have been of short duration. These operations are most often engaged in peace enforcement and operate prior to, sometimes in parallel with UN peacekeeping operations. However, as seen with the example with MONUSCO in the DRC, it has been suggested that the FIB and the rest of MONUSCO be separate to clarify the distinction between peacekeeping and peace enforcement. Some even argue that the FIB being combatants are not allowed to use UN symbols. Britain defended the resolution and held the view that the force ought to be a single unit. Its representative stressed that MONUSCOs troop contingents whether part of the intervention brigade or not must be willing to implement its entire mandate. He underlined that this is one mission with one mandate, one Special Representatives and one Force Commander. MONUSCO must conduct all its tasks in an integrated manner, whether or not those performing them were in uniform. This is the recipe for success. (SC Press Release, (2013) UN Doc.SC/10964) .Given the successes for the FIB so far, it is argued that such types of aggressive UN operations will become more typical in the future. Some have gone even farther, speculating in a new UN Special Forces based on the successes recorded in relation to the defeat of the M23. Challenges of UN Peacekeeping Various literatures have identified various challenges that are facing PKO by drawing experience from various PKOs that have taken place across the globe mostly with reference to Africa continent. Among them are the following Manpower The problem of manpower is one of the main challenges facing many armed forces in Africa (Omojuwa et.al, 2014). This has led troops during the preparation for peacekeeping operations to be drawn from different units across the concerned country to form a complete battalion with the required strength that meets the UN standards for deployment to the mission area. In extreme cases, some personnel had to be posted to deploying units as late as the time of their departure to the mission area. Such individuals may be deployed without pre-induction training. Obviously personnel of such ad hoc units that are filled at the last minute for a peacekeeping operation arrive in the mission area without adequate knowledge of each others capabilities and deficiencies (Ahmed, 2010). Training and Doctrine Another major challenge facing some of the peacekeeping mission troops in Africa is training and doctrine associated with peacekeeping operations (Omojuwa et.al, 2014). Different countries have different training doctrines for the training of its personnel. For instance, the Nigerian Army was faced with the problem of training doctrine for peacekeeping operations which had manifested itself in various operations. For instance in the case of the Economic Community of West African States Monitoring Group (ECOMOG), Anglophone oriented troops were operating alongside francophone troops which further compounded this problem. Logistics Logistic problems are another set of hindrances impacting troops from African countries in participation in peacekeeping operations. In the face of non availability of centralized logistical support from sub regional peacekeeping, participating countries suffered shortfalls in lift and other logistical capabilities, as they only remain dependent to UN and their own government for support. The nature of the logistic challenges faced by various troops employed in peacekeeping in Africa include lack of sufficient quantity of vehicles, lack of adequate medical facilities, insufficient communication equipment and individual soldier kitting the successful accomplishment of the tasks of strategy (Ahmed, 2010). Funding Some countries engaging in peacekeeping operations may suffer financially during the operations as member countries may not contribute as proposed in the initial preparation for the peacekeeping mission, which in some instances it has been witnessed members countries being threatening to withdraw from the force for lack of funding. The falling of substantial financial resources to restore peace in other countries while the concerned countrys social and physical infrastructures are deeply in need of adequate budget to be sustainable are difficult to downsize with the public at large (Oni, 2002). For example most Nigerians feel that the billions of dollars spent for peacekeeping operations could have been better used to reduce Nigerias foreign debt or better still, to alleviate poverty in the country where 70 percent of the population survives on less than 1US Dollar per day. This has threatened the readiness of some countries to embark on peacekeeping mission without a firm commitment of financial support from either the UN or other international organization. Administration Armys participation in peacekeeping operations from various African countries has also surfaced problems in the areas of administration like medical care, medical evacuation, burial pay and allowance (Omojuwa et.al, 2014). Soldiers in deployed units also complained of lack of promotion opportunities and such simple things as not being able to observe holidays. These shortcomings were largely attributed to poor unit and sub-unit leadership. The poor quality of administration in deployed units has caused significant embarrassment to a number of armies especially in West and East Africa which are done by the soldiers who are in the peacekeeping mission (Agbambu, 2010). Peacekeeping in Africa African intervention through peacekeeping has been seriously bogged down by three fundamental principles namely (i) Non interference in the internal affairs of member states, (ii) territory integrity and (iii) inviolability of boundaries inherited from colonialism (Cohen, 1996 2-3). AU deployed peacekeeping forces in various countries in Africa. For example, 2003 deployment of peacekeeping Forces soldiers from SA, Ethiopia and Mozambique to Burundi to oversee the implementation of various agreements. The AU led the development of new kinds of joint peacekeeping mission with the UN intervening first and then winning the world bodys support for the mission that it established in Sudans Darfur region, which was replaced in 2008 by AU/UN Hybrid Operation in Darfur (UNAMID), and in Somalia since 2007 and other countries such as Comoro and Ivory Coast. However, the AU deployment was to Somalia (African Union Mission to Somalia, AMISOMI) in 2007 following the Ethiopian invasion of this country, and was intended to replace Ethiopian forces that were withdrawn only Uganda and Burundi had deployed a total of 3750 troops (Bake, 2007). From a conflict resolution standpoint, the critique by Feldman (2008 207) that without strong AU military forces capable of providing effective intervention, many African conflicts will either remain unresolved or depend on forces outside the continent to attempt to impose a non-Africa solution to them is misplaced because military forces do not resolve conflict they only succeed in some cases to reduce the violence. Conflict resolution is more than making or keeping peace. There is now recognition that the solution to the African conflict should be born within Africa (Owuor, 2007). Africa is a home of wisdom such as Ujamaa, Ubuntu, Gacaca and Mato Oput, which were subverted by external influence. Colonialism described Africa as a tabula rasa (empty slate) and Africans were made to believe that all good things come from the west (Malan, 1997). The concept of Ubuntu denotes a cultural world-view that tries to capture the essence of what is to be human. This philosophy is shared by many societies of Africa, especially among the Bantu of East, Central and Southern Africa (Broke-Utne, 2004). Gacaca is the traditional system of conflict resolution used by Banyarwanda. The system uses conversation and reconciliation in order to heal the relationship between perpetrators and victims. Mato Oput is the traditional peacemaking of the Acholi tribe in Northern part of Uganda. It is a traditional ceremony in which offenders confess in public as a means to reconcile with the rest of the society. Lastly, Ujamaa is Swahili word which means family-hood and togetherness. It is a socialist philosophy rooted in the African traditional belief of living together sharing and working together (Broke-Utne, 2004). Major problems of peacekeeping in Africa Lack of coordination Lack of coordination is an urgent problem in dealing with humanitarian emergencies. The issues involved are central to peacekeeping and peacemaking yet no single institution was equipped to deal adequately with all African conflict-related problems. Although the UN was the most significant peacekeeping organization in post-cold war Africa, it never had a monopoly on such activities. This proliferation of peace actors posed challenges at strategic and tactical levels. At the strategic level it was often difficult to ensure coordination between these different actors over goals and methods (Jones 2002). The main attempt to overcome this problem was the establishment of various peacekeeping training centers and the creation of an African Standby Force (Malan, 2008 103-7). Insufficient soldiers in the field The problem of insufficient soldiers in the field has dogged many peacekeeping operations. It occurred repeatedly in the case of UN Mission in the DRC. Although a UN report of March 1999 estimates a need of more than 100,000 troops, fewer than 6000 were granted (Roessler and Prendergast, 2006). Another challenge was the duration it usually took peacekeepers to arrive in the field. For example, in AU mission in Somalia, it took nearly two years to reach half its authorized troops strength. The UN/AU Mission in Darfur operating with some 10,000 uniformed personnel below its authorized strength 18 months in to its operations. Misconduct by the peacekeepers Some peacekeepers abused their power. In extreme cases, this involved murdering locals, as in the case of Canadian military peacekeepers in Somalia in early 1990s. The local perception was that peacekeepers were accountable immune from the law, corrupt, and that they exploited and abused local civilians. In addition there is sexual abuse. Such misconduct could put an entire operation at risk, severely hampering its ability to effect positive change in the host countries (Wiharta, 2009 124). Corruption was evident when UN peacekeepers in the DRC were involved in dishonest trading of gold and other goods, including arms. AU peacekeepers in Somalia engaged in arms trafficking (United Nations Security Council, 2005). Inadequate police force in the field UN police were deployed for the first time in the 1990s. UN police contingents became an increasingly important element of UN peacekeeping. Greater demand for police was reflected in the UNSCs resolution for its African operation For example over 6400 police were authorized for the UN/AU Mission in Darfur. However, not all these targets had been met. The AU struggled even more to deploy police officers mainly because good police were usually in greater demand by the worlds states than good soldiers. Complex multidimensional operational mandate Peacekeepers were sometimes given contradictory instructions. For instance, UNMDRC was mandated to support President Kabilas government and protect the countrys civilians yet this governments soldiers were responsible for a significant proportion of the crimes committed against Congolese civilians. Theoretical review Decision theory offers a prescriptive approach to decision making, via analysis of set of pre-specified alternatives. The interesting problems in this context are concerned with resolving multiple conflicting objectives (Keeney and Raiffa, 1976). Decision theory assumes a single entity is making a choice, in contrast to conflict where there is more than one entity, each with a different perspective. It has role in conflict resolution in helping participants to evaluate bids, to justify such evaluations, and to persuade the other participants that a solution is satisfactory. Group decision making is the normative study of how individual preference can be combined into a group decision. Luce and Raiffa (1957) defined a problem as that of finding a method, or welfare function, for combining individual preference rankings into a social preference, which satisfies properties such as fairness and representativeness. Work on group decision making extends decision theory to cope with more than one decision maker, but still suffers from the assumption that all the options are known. This study therefore is grateful to ascertain how best this theory can be applicable in conflict resolution by trying to put individual differences together and make a unanimous decision to resolving the conflict. Realism is one of the International Relation (IR) theories that can be used to explain the dynamic and potential consequence of an intrastate security dilemma (Sorensen, 2010 59). The anarchic situation inevitably motivates states to ensure their own security by reinforcing defensive capability which is likely to threaten the security of others (Posen, 1993 28). An increase security dilemma can motivate state to initiate pre-emptive measures based on the assumption that a first offensive operation strike would be more effective than defensive operation to survive and achieve greater security (Posen, 1993 29). Basic need theory believes that every human being has fundamental needs to satisfy. If the needs are not satisfied, they lead to violence. Human needs cannot be negotiated or compromised. Other authors argue that promotion of good governance, reduction of poverty, injustice, marginalization, and political violence are drivers to satisfy human basic needs and avoid violence. Currently, development is not only in terms of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). It also considers an equitable provision of basic needs such as food, shelter and health services. It also includes the states ability to respect human rights, good governance and rule of law. High level of poverty which compromises peoples capacity to access basic needs is one of the causes of the conflict in DRC. This forces the youths to join rebel groups (Joeng, 2000). Relative Deprivation theory results from the combined effect of the rising expectations and lack of progress toward demands for a better life. Relative deprivation is defined as actors perception of disagreement between their value expectations and their value capabilities. Value expectations lead people to believe that they are rightfully entitled to certain goods and conditions they think they are capable of getting and keeping (Gurr, 1970 24). The theory holds that human being tends to compare his/her achievement with others Human beings also have value of expectations that they think should be met. They can riot when the gap between the perceived and manifested expectation increase. According to Joeng (2000), riots occur when government fails to meet peoples value of expectations. For example, in DRC people expect more because the country has many resources such as minerals, rivers and forests but few people benefit, and majority suffers. Youth believed that they are entitled to the employment and education so they may join rebels or riots against government when the value of expectation cannot be realized (Joeng, 2000). Empirical Literature Review This section reviews previous studies on peacekeeping operations, through drawing lesson and experiences from various countries as a way forward in clarifying the research gap and thus provides a justification for undertaking the study. Omojuwa et al. (2014) did a study on the role of Nigeria in peacekeeping operations from 1960 to 2013. The study examined the role of Nigeria in peacekeeping operations in Africa and within the West African sub-region since the countrys attainment of independence in 1960, with focus on Liberia and Sierra Leone crises. It also analysed the costs and benefits of the operations to the country within the period under review. The idealist theory was adopted as the tool of analysis, while the methodology was the systematic qualitative content analysis derived mainly from secondary sourced materials. They reported that Nigeria played a prominent role in the peacekeeping and integrative efforts in the continent in places such as Sierra Leone and Liberia the countrys efforts at maintaining peace in some trouble spots across the globe have also been commended by the international community. However, it must be noted that the human, material and financial losses the country has incurred in these involvements have been significant thus, having lost more than two thousand (2000) of its soldiers and expended about 10 billion. The country was considered to have lost more than it benefited. More so, the resources expended on peacekeeping operations by Nigeria are at the expense of the countrys domestic imperatives, welfare of citizens and infrastructural development. The study concluded by recommending reduction of financial cost of peacekeeping and prioritizing the welfare of citizens. Another study on peacekeeping operations was done on West Africa Sub-Regional Crises and the Nigerian Army Peace Support Operation in Sierra-Leone by Hassan and Bello (2015). The specific objectives of the study included examining the relationship between Army and Peace Support Operation (PSO), examining the roles played by the National Army (NA) in the PSO in Sierra-Leone, identify the challenges encountered and proffer strategies to enhance NAs participation in future PSOs. Data for the study were collected from secondary sources. The study revealed that in all these PSOs, the NA was largely ill prepared and lacked adequate PSO training especially the multi-dimensional complex PSOs. In most cases, the NA contingents could not meet the Contingent Own Equipment (COE) standards as stipulated in the Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) and thus lost out in the reimbursement by the UN. In the case of Sierra-Leone, the NA faced many challenges which included lack of detailed information and intelligence, difficulties in command and control, and inadequate training. Other findings were poor level of co-operational and coordination and lack of contingency and exit plan strategy. The study recommended that to enhance future NA performance, there is the need to ensure capacity building, defined policy on PSO, coordination and cooperation with the UN. Others were need for a national policy and PSO doctrine, provision of adequate intelligence gathering before troops deployment to mission area and adequate funding and logistics. Azgaku (2015) conducted a study on the role of Nigeria in peace-keeping operation in West Africa 1960 2010. The study examined the countrys regional efforts at mediating and resolving the Intra-State conflicts that nearly brought the states concerned to the brink of total extinction. The idealist theory was adopted as a tool for analysis, while the methodology was the systematic qualitative content analysis derived mainly from secondary sourced, materials. The study found that engagement of the country in 1990s to end the conflicts in Liberia and Sierra Leone brought a huge loss to the country. Reportedly, the country spent between 8 and 9 billion dollars, thus contributing more than 80 of personnel and finance. The huge resources committed to the operations in the face of ravaging poverty in the country are at the expense of the country, its citizens and infrastructural development. The study concluded by recommending reduction of financial cost of peacekeeping and prioritizing the welfare of its citizens and emphasizing on the infrastructural development. Henke (2016) did an analysis on whether UN Peacekeeping has become more deadly or not. The study was done through the analysis on the trends in UN peacekeeping fatalities using a new dataset compiled by the UN Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO). The dataset accounts for monthly UN fatalities by cause of fatality (accident, malicious act, illness, and other causes), nationality of the deceased, and UN personnel type of the deceased for each UN operation worldwide from 1948 to June 2015 was used. To assess UN fatality trends, Henke (2016) calculated fatality ratios (UN fatality numbers relative to UN deployment levels) by national contingent, UN mission, and globally (all UN missions combined). As a result of the new data employed and these methodological innovations, the report constituted the most detailed study of UN fatality trends thus far. The analysis revealed that overall UN victims are not substantively on the rise. Indeed, total casualty ratios are sharply declining. Nevertheless, this decline does not equally apply to all types of UN victims. While casualty numbers and ratios due to accidents and malicious acts are decreasing, the same cannot be said for illness-related casualty numbers and ratios. Indeed, there was a strong evidence that UN casualty numbers due to illness are on the rise, and UN casualty ratios due to illness are also trending upward (though the increase is not statistically significant). Increasingly, troops, police, and military observers die due to illness related causes while serving in UN missions. Knowledge Gap The literature reviewed above has shown that peace is central aspect on the life of mankind while war is one of the main terrors of human being. Peacekeeping for decades has been a global adoption in maintaining peace and security as a result of breakout of wars, being interstate or intrastate, under the umbrella of the UN. It has also been seen that, many countries across the globe and in special way in Africa have been active in engaging in peacekeeping operations for the purpose of nurturing peace which is necessary for the sustainability of human kind and the world at large. Moreover, the reviewed literatures have brought forward a lesson by drawing experiences from peace operation tasks undertaken by various countries. On the other hand, the literatures have come out with the challenges associated with peacekeeping operations. These include inadequate manpower, weaknesses in training and doctrine, logistic problems (lack of sufficient quantity of vehicles, lack of adequate medical facilities, insufficient communication equipment and individual soldier kitting the successful accomplishment of the tasks devices), insufficient funding, problems in the areas of administration, ill prepared and lack of adequate PSO training especially the multi-dimensional complex PSOs, lack of detailed information and intelligence, difficulties in command and control, and inadequate training. Other reported challenges included poor level of co-operational and coordination and lack of contingency and exit plan strategy. However, despite those challenges, different countries such as Tanzania have proved very successful in peacekeeping operations, and there is no any document showing the secret behind such successes. More importantly, Minde (2016) has shown that, there remain no scholarly publications directly analyzing Tanzanias contribution to peace operations, suggesting a research gap for the study. Consequently, it is under such context therefore, this study aimed at analysing on the success of Tanzania Peoples Defence Forces (TPDF) in peacekeeping mission in Africa, taking DRC as a case study. CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Introduction This chapter presents the research methodology that was adopted in this study. It describes the research approach and research design the methods of data collection and procedure for data analysis study area and study population, sample of the study, sampling techniques types and sources of data, data collection methods and data analysis plan. It also covers validity and reliability issues and ethical considerations. Research methodology is defined as a systematic way to solve research problem. It is a body of knowledge that describes and analyses methods, indicating their limitations and resources, clarifying their presuppositions and consequences, and relating their potentialities to research advances (Miller, 2001). It is a series of actions or steps necessary to effectively carry out research and the desired sequencing of these steps. In other words, research methodology could be the ordered set of activities focused on systematic collection of information using accepted methods of collection and analysis as a basis for drawing conclusions and making recommendations (White, 2002). Research design Research design is a technique which can be used to gather information on a stated problem (Krishina, 2002). Research design refers to the general plan of how a researcher will go about answering the research questions. It is the conceptual structure within which research is conducted it constitutes a blueprint for the collection, measurement and analysis of data. Patton (2006) defines qualitative research as a standard which emphasizes inductive and socially recognized through which the researcher build complex, holistic picture and analyses in order to report detailed view of information. In this study, both qualitative and quantitative research designs were used to analyse the success of the TPDF in peacekeeping mission in Africa with a case study of DRC. Basically, qualitative methods focused on people perceptions towards studys objectives and quantitative methods were used to get the frequencies and percentages for responses. The use of qualitative research has been recommended as it can catch individual perceptions as well as its flexibility in data collection and research plan. The researcher adopted case study research design to study the success of Tanzania Peoples Defence Forces in peacekeeping mission in Africa due to the fact that it allows in-depth description of issue (Yin, 2012). The case design was the representative case among various different cases. Case study design was preferred because it allows the researcher to use more than one method such as questionnaire, focused group discussion and interview which were used in the study (Cohen, Manion and Marrison, 2007). It enabled the researcher to deal with peoples beliefs, practice, opinions and behavior (Creswell, 2009). The design is also argumentative as it offers facilitation to the management of the units to be enquired. Area of the Study The study was conducted at TPDF headquarters and the Units under Land Force Command, Dar es Salaam Region. Tanzania has contributed uniformed UN peacekeepers in various parts of the world since 1995. It currently contributes peacekeepers in six UN missions in Africa and UNIFIL in Lebanon. One of peacekeeping operation where the country participated was in 2013, when it sent a battalion of 850 soldiers to fight the M23 rebel group in DRC. These reasons motivated the researcher to carry the study as an effort to unfold what is not known regarding Tanzanias success in peacekeeping operations. Population, Sample and Sampling Procedures Target Population Population is a collection of people with common individuality or observable characteristics. According to Kothari (2009) and Martella and Nelson (1999), population refers to a group of possible participants, from whom researchers want to generalize the results of a study resulting from a sample drawn from the population. The population of this study was the TPDFs Battalion of soldiers who participated in peacekeeping operations in DRC in 2013. The Battalion consisted of 850 soldiers with diverse military expertise and functions. Sample Size A sample size is normally obtained from the population. According to Cohen, et al. (2000), a sample size is a small group or subset of the population which researcher selects for the purpose of the study and from which generalization is made about the characteristics of the population. This implies that a researcher should know the population first then a sample size can be easily obtained. As stated above, this study involved the sample size of 50 respondents. Usually a battalion is divided into five (5) companies or coy. Therefore, the 50 respondents who participated in the study were selected from the companies which constituted the Tanzanias TPDF battalion. Sampling Techniques Sampling techniques are methods of selecting the participants in the study. The techniques should base on the population of the sample. This is because the sample is obtained from the population. Therefore, sampling technique must base on population of the study. Sampling techniques refers to the process of selecting the participants of the study from the population (Kothari, 2009). In this method all elements which the researcher believes are be able to deliver the required data are selected during the study. This study used purposive or judgmental sampling. Purposive sampling refers to a sampling technique in which participants are chosen for specific purpose (Kothari, 2004). This is because the study focused to specific people only (those from the battalion). It involves selection of respondents that are judged as appropriate for the given study. In this case, respondents from each company in the battalion were selected because they are relevant to this study as they can provide essential data that are needed in the study. Instrument for data collection Data are fact figures and other relevant past and present materials serving as material for analysis. In conducting this study various research instruments were used to undertake research questions including questionnaire, interview, documentary review and focus group discussion as explained below. Primary and secondary data were also used during the data collection and report writing. Primary data Kothari (2009) defined primary data as those data which are collected afresh and for the first time and thus happen to be original in character. Primary data in this study were collected through the use of interviews and focus group discussion. Questionnaires Questionnaires are formatted set of questions that are drawn up to meet the objective of the study (Cohen, Manion and Marrison, 2003). Researchers questionnaires were used to collect data to address three research questions. English language was used to write the questionnaire in order to get information from the respondents. Questionnaires were used simply because they allow the researcher to collect large amount of data within a short time. They were preferred because they could enable the researcher to tap as much as possible from different categories of respondents. Open-ended questions were chosen in the current study simply because they could enable the respondents to give more opinion by qualifying their answers. A sample of the questionnaire is attached in this study (see appendix A). Interviews questions An interview is a method of collecting information through oral or verbal communication between a researcher and respondents (Creswell, 2003). However, interview is facilitated by research questions which are designed properly to gather information from respondents. Interview method is chosen because it is quite flexible, adaptable and can be applied to many people and information can be obtained in detail and well explained (Yin, 2003). Data collected from interviews provided primary data for the study specifically concerning the identification of the success of the TPDF in peacekeeping mission in Africa with a focus to DRC. The interview was conducted to 50 respondents who were selected from various companies within the battalion which participated in peacekeeping operations in DRC in 2013. Focus Group Discussion As stated earlier, a battalion has five companies. The researcher selected participants from the 5 companies. From each company there was random selection of 7 respondents who were divided into five groups. The focus group discussion sessions lasted between 30 minutes to one hour. The themes to be discussed during the FGD were prepared in line with the research objectives. Secondary Data Secondary data refer to the data which have already been collected and analysed by someone else and which have already been passed through the statistical process (Kothari, 2009). Therefore, apart from the primary data, this study also included various secondary data such as books, journal articles, (both print and electronic), research reports and online databases related to peacekeeping operations across the globe. This task was done through documentary review. The method was selected because it could provide a means for collaboration of data instead of relying on data from few sources. Validity and Reliability of the Data Research is always dependent on measurement. There are two important characteristics that every measuring instrument should possess validity and reliability. The terms are described in detail below. Validity Validity of the data refers to the extent to which the concept one wishes to measure is actually being measured by a particular scale or index (Babbie, 1992 Kumar, 2005). It implies the extent to which an instrument measures what is intends to measure (Kothari, 2009). The quality that a procedure or an instrument used in the research is accurate, correct, true, meaningful and right. Validity, therefore, implies obtaining what we are supposed to measure (Enon, 1998). To ensure validity, the data were collected from the established sample. It ensured that, there is a representation of views from the respective respondents in area of the study. Also the primary data were cross checked against secondary data for their relevance and objectivity. Reliability Reliability refers to the consistency with which repeated measures produce the same results across time and across observers (Patton, 2002 Kumar, 2009). It is the extent to which a measuring device is consistent in measuring whatever it measures (Kothari, 2005). In order to ensure reliability of the data in this study, three methods for data collection were used. These are interview, documentary review and FGD. Questions or themes that were discussed during interview and FGD were developed in line with the specific research objectives and questions. Pilot Study A pilot study of the data collection tools was conducted prior to the actual field research work to determine the reliability and the validity, their usefulness to guarantee common understanding of the questionnaire items among the respondents. The data collection tools were edited or improved after the pre-testing task. Trustworthiness and Dependability of the Study Bryman (2004) make equal this concept of dependability to reliability which focuses on the degree of accuracy. To ensure dependability, the study used two methods to make the accuracy of the research instruments. These included establishing constructive talks with the fellow post-graduate students and my supervisor on the accuracy of the research instruments that were used in data collection. The clarification from post graduate students and the supervisor helped the researcher to advance the quality of the instruments as they enriched various parts of the instruments. Additionally, with regard to credibility of the study, the researcher used triangulation method where it seeks to combine methods or data together with quantitative and qualitative approach (Cohen et al., 2007). As suggested by Creswell (2009), triangulation technique is suitable way that can be used by researchers to develop their confidence in the accuracy of the findings using different methods to explore the same subject. The researcher used both primary and secondary sources of data whereby focus group discussion, interview, documentary review, and questionnaire were instruments used in data collection. Ethical Consideration The study followed all essential steps for ensuring ethical conduct of research. As noted by Ary (2010), ethical issues observed include obtaining informed permission and maintaining confidentiality. All ethical principles were observed throughout the study from the initial stage of conceptualization of the study until the presentation and analysis of the findings. The researcher made sure that the research purpose, content, methods, reporting and outcomes abide with ethical principles and practices by following the procedures. Before going for data collection in the field, permission was sought from the University of Dar es Salaam authority. A research clearance permit which introduces the researcher to the Tanzania Peoples Defence Forces Headquarters (TPDF HQ) was issued. The researcher ensured confidentiality about the information given by the respondents during data collection in the field. Before giving the information, the respondents were assured confidentiality and privacy, assuring them the findings were only going to be used for the study purpose through explanation of the objectives. Each participant was knowledgeable about the study and was fully chosen but he/she had freedom to carry on or leave from the study at any time. Anonymity was carefully observed by the researcher in reporting the research findings through prepared questionnaires that do not accept identifying marks such as work-related details and names. Data Analysis Data analysis is a method of editing, coding, classification and tabulation of collected data. In the present study, data were analysed both qualitatively and quantitatively. The qualitative data from interviews, focus group discussion and documentary review were subjected to content analysis and presented in form of tables and narrations. Likewise, the quantitative data through questionnaire were tallied and computed into frequencies and percentages through the use of statistical package for social science version 20.0 (SPSS), which were presented in the tables and percentage for further interpretation and discussion. CHAPTER FOUR DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION Introduction This chapter presents analyses and discusses the data collected from the participants and secondary sources. The field work was undertaken at TPDF headquarters and units under Land force command in Dar es Salaam Region. The main objective of the study was to analyse the success of the Tanzania Peoples Defense Forces (TPDF) in Peace keeping mission in Africa using DRC as case study. Specifically, during the study, the research had three questions to address, which were (i) what is the nature of intervention made by TPDF in DRC peace keeping mission (ii) What are the strategies employed by TPDF battalion to ensure peace and security in DRC (iii) How does the relationship between forces and local people (civilians) contribute to the effectiveness of TPDF peace keeping mission in DRC Thus, this chapter starts with the general profile of the respondents followed by presentation and discussion of the analyzed data according to the research questions. Where necessary the findings are incorporated with relevant secondary data, so as to make the findings more genuine and objective. General Profile of the Respondents Structured and semi structured interview and FGD was expected to be administered to the sample of 50 respondents which was established for the study. The respondents who were selected purposively during the study were those who have participated in peace keeping operations in DRC. Data from the field revealed that, about 37 (74) respondents participated in the study. 13 (26) respondents could not take part in the study due to various reasons such as lack of time due to workload and tight work schedule, absence and relocation in other military base outside Dar es Salaam Region. However, the fact that 74 of the respondents managed to fully take part in the study provides a substantial ground for developing the report given the fact that the figure exceeds 50 of the established sample for the study. Gender of the Respondents Data from the field showed that about 21 (56.8) of the respondents who participated in the study were males while 16 (42.2 ) of those who participated in the study were female as shown on Table 4.1 below. Table 4.1 Gender of the Respondents S/NTypes of GenderFrequencyPercentage1Male2156.82Female1643.2Total 37100Source Field Data, 2017 Table 4.1 above shows those males were the majority in the population for the study although there was no great variation. The significance of the findings is that, women have made a great positive step in joining TPDF and other forces in the country. They have been experts in local and international operations. This is a great achievement and specifically a great step in women empowerment towards the liberation from various customs and traditions which discourage and hinders women in developing their skills and talents in the society. Respondents Level of Education The level of education of the respondents were also sought to be very important in the study hence were included. The academic trends has an important contribution to the study as it enable the researcher to determine the academic level of respondents so as to be in position to determine how their responses will assist in analyzing the research goals. Findings from the field indicated that about 23 (62.2) of the respondents had acquired secondary education, 6 (16.2) had diploma and tertiary certificates (3 respectively), 5(13.5 had graduated in different advanced diploma or bachelor degrees from various higher learning institutions, while 3 (8.1) had masters degrees. Neither of the respondents had ended at primary, nor with PhD. Table 4.2 below provides the summary of the respondents level of education. Table 4.2 Respondents Level of Education S/NCategories of Level of EducationFrequencyPercentage1Secondary Education2362.22Diploma and Tertiary Certificate616.23Advanced Diploma/Degree513.54Masters Degree38.1Total37100Source Field Data, 2017 This implies that the level of education of the respondents had significant implication on their responses to the questions posed to them by the researcher through interview as well as during the FGDs. The respondents were in position to understand well what was asked during the study. The findings also bring the lesson that TPDF values education of its staffs, which is necessary for them to cope with the changes taking place in science and technology and specifically in relation to the international l peace keeping operations. Military Ranking Positions Data from the field shows that the respondents who participated in the study were from different military ranks. 1 respondent, which is equivalent to 2.7, was a Brigadier General, 2 (5.4) were Lieutenant Canals, 3 (8.1) of respondents were Majors, 4 (10.8) were Captains, 3 (8.1) were Lieutenants and 3 (8.1) were Warrant Officer I. Moreover, about 3(8.1) were Warrant Officers II, 6 (16.2) SGT, 5 (13.5) were CPL and 7 (18.9) were Private, as summarized in Table 4.3 below. Table 4.3 Age of the Respondents S/NCategories of RanksFrequencyPercentage1Brigadier General12.72Lt. Coloniel25.43Major384Captains410.85Lieutenant386Warrant Officer I387Warrant Officers II388Staff Sergeant616.29CPL513.510Private718.9Total37100Source Field Data, 2017 The implication of these findings on the respondents military ranking positions as indicated on Table 4.3 above is that the study accommodated respondents from various military ranks which is very important on their know ability and experiences on the peace keeping missions. Thus the findings helped in identification of the biased information, as it involved the data from the different ranking cadres. Work Experience with TPDF Respondents years of experience with TPDF was also of concern during the study, as it has an impact on the information to be provided concerning peace keeping mission and other military operations. The findings from the field showed that about 2 (5.4) of the participants had worked with TPDF for less than 5 years, 4 (10.8) respondents had worked for 6 to 10years, 12 (32.4) of the respondents had worked as TPDF staff for between 11 and 15 years, while 19 (51.4) had more than 15 years of working experience with TPDF as seen in Table 4.4 below. Table 4.4 Work Experience with TPDF S/NCategories of Years Working ExperiencesFrequencyPercentage1Less than 5 Years25.42Between 5 and 10 years 410.8311 and 15 Years1232.44More than 15 Years1951.4Total37100Source Field Data, 2017 The implication of the working experience of the respondents is that, though there were majority with less years of experience, majority of the respondents had been working as TPDFs military officers for more than 15 years, had a positive contribution to the study because they were in position to give out their ideas basing on their long-term working experience with TPDF. This contributed positively and qualitatively on the findings. Nature of Intervention made by TPDF in DRC Peace Keeping Mission Majority of the surveyed respondents indicated that, the nature of intervention made by TPDF in DRC was for the purpose of restoring peace to the Congolese in the Eastern part of DRC who have been suffering from the menace caused by the presence of the M23 rebel group. The intervention included the use of the following approaches The Use of one Force Intervention Battalion The Force Intervention Battalion (FIB) comprises three countries South Africa, Tanzania and Malawi, each contributing an infantry battalion of 850 soldiers and operates direct under a MONUSCO force commander with the responsibility of neutralizing armed groups including M23 with the backup of multiple organizations such as SADC, African Union (AU), East African Community (EAC), United Nation (UN), and European Union (EU). Thus the intervention constituted the battalion forces which were, TPDF, Malawi and South Africa armed forces. The mandate was given by UN Security Council Chapter Seven, in which TPDF intervention in collaboration with other forces were tasked to eliminate M23 rebels that had been a great threat for DRC peace and stability. It was further seen that, the SADC member states requested Tanzania, Malawi and the Republic of South Africa to contribute troops to help alleviate the suffering of the Congolese people. Each country contributed one Battalion which formed the Force Intervention Battalion (FIB). Later on the UN took over, and the FIB was sustained by MONUSCO under one Force Commander. They played part by contributing to two battalions that worked together with TPDF battalion. For instance South Africa provided air-support forces and air-reconnaissance. Malawi contributed men soldiers and officers, while Tanzania provided commandos, artillery, and an infantry. UN took over the FIB from SADC and started sustaining it under MONUSCO. Before the FIB, the UN had troops operating in DRC but were not that much effective due to the mandate. The FIB was given the task of Targeted Offensive Operations. The UN also provided funds (financial assistance), food, safe water, and protective gears, medical facilities and all other military equipments required to make the war and other logistic support services such as accommodations, fuels, lubricants, and helicopters. The High Morale of the Intervening Solders Majority of the respondents during the study reported that the morale of the TPDF soldiers was very high and contributed in the achievement of the mission, especially the spirit showed by the commando, artillery and infantry that weakened the M23 forces. The more the M23 rebels were pushed backward, the more the TPDF forces gained morale and willingness to fight. In so doing, the TPDF battalion achieved its mission. Morale is a winning factor in any operation or battle. The morale of the TPDF troops has always been raised by a number of factors. This study revealed that, the TPDF battalion had comprehensive training as part of their preparation, which covered physical, social, psychological and economical training, combined with rehearsal exercises. Therefore, such trainings and exercises increased the confidence of the TPDF troops in the field which in turn led to the successfulness of the TPDF battalion in DRC. Therefore, high morale of soldiers, made the enemy to fear TPDF and run away left behind their good and modern equipment. TPDF soldiers always have moral due good leadership from their superior also because they have high determination to win the battle. War experience was another factor that helped to raise the morale. TPDF fought many wars even during the liberation struggle in some of African countries such as Mozambique, Namibia, and Liberia, also during Uganda war in 1978-1979 when Idd Amin the late former president of Uganda invaded Tanzania and subsequently TPDF won the battle. This good record also helped to increase the morale of soldiers (interview, 2017). Support from Local Communities Majority of the respondents were of the opinion that, the TPDF forces incorporated the local government leaders and indigenous in the whole process of collecting information during the operations. In most of the time, the civilians gave information to the army about the location of the M23 forces, their identity and the place where the last operation had been done by the M23 as well as the type of weapons they were using. This information was a very important input for the effective operations of the TPDF. Lack of such information would be dangerous for the success of the operations. Earlier research (Hassan and Bello, 2015), for instance, reported that the Nigeria Army faced many challenges in its peace keeping operations (as in Sierra Leon), which included lack of detailed information and intelligence, difficulties in command and control, poor level of co-operational and coordinator and lack of contingency and exit plan strategy.(Hassan and Bello,2015) It was further observed that, the civilians felt much secured with the presence of TPDFs peace keepers in Congo, thus they provided information on the locations of the rebels and other enemies of the government. The presence of mutual relationship between the TPDF soldiers and the civilians was also influenced by the TPDF soldiers who made several social events with the civilians such as football matches, dinner, lunch occasions with the purpose of creating and building familiarity and partnership with the civilians and the local government leaders at large. TPDF received supports from indigenous who were tired of fighting and they wanted permanent peace by providing enemy information, protecting the soldiers and hide them if possible and providing material and moral support, such as necessary information about enemy capabilities was accessed. This included their strengths, weapons, uniforms, nature of their training and their morale (interview, 2017). Strategies Employed by TPDF Battalion to ensure Peace and Security in DRC Majority of the respondents from TPDF were of the opinion that there were several factors or strategies that were employed by the TPDF battalion to ensure the restoration and sustainability of peace and security in DRC. Among them were the following Motivation of the TPDF Soldiers The TPDF battalion had high level of motivation which was built on the intensive peace keeping training and pre-deployment training before embarking on the intervention, granting of monthly substance allowance(MSA) while in the mission, awarding of UN Medals, direct communication with members of their families, good welfare services while in the mission, regular visits by high rank officials and monetary rewards by the UN. The peacekeeping operations offer the Tanzanian soldiers an opportunity to benefit economically through UN compensation payments. This is important at the level of soldiers welfare which is improved and their families enjoy the benefits of their participation in UN peace operations (Minde, 2016). These factors to large extent created a team work spirit and increase of motivation, which highly contributed to the winning of the battle. Hassan and Bello (2015) reported that the Nigeria Army Peace Support Operation in Sierra-Leone had poor achievement due to ill preparedness, lack of adequate PSO training, especially the multi-dimensional complex PSOs. Thus prior training before peace keeping operations is necessary for the motivation of the soldiers and subsequently winning of the operations. Moreover, the speech by former foreign affairs minister, Bernard Membe during a parliament session regarding M23 that we are not going to Congo as lords of war, we are going there as advocates of peace to help our neighbours served as motivation to the TPDF soldiers (interview, 2017). Adequate Serviceable Equipment Majority of the respondents were of the opinion that the presence of the adequate serviceable equipments in the operation was another strategy which enabled the successful accomplishment of the operations. It was seen that, the government of Tanzania through ministry of Defense and TPDF, AU, SADC and UN ensured the successful availability of the adequate and modern weapons before the start of the operations. In this case the TPDF battalion and others battalions were paid by the UN for serviceable equipments during the operation especially artillery and Special Forces, fire support, aircraft which to large extent increased the morale and the efficiency of the operations in DRC. In any peace keeping operation, availability of funds and serviceable equipments is very important. Literature have provided evidence on some countries engaging in peace keeping operations suffering financially during the operations as member countries may not contribute as proposed in the initial preparation for the peace keeping mission. In some instances, it has been witnessed members countries threatening to withdraw from the force for lack of funding (Oni, 2002). This means that the readiness of the UN to ensure an adequate budget for the operation highly contributed in the success of the operation. Therefore, ensuring that missions have the right resources, to a large extent, depends on the work done at the strategic level based on a proper understanding of the security situation and acceptance of the risks. Missions need to be mandated, resourced, and planned accordingly (Lisa, 2015). High Discipline of the TPDF Solders Majority of the respondents emphasized that TPDF solders are well disciplined when undertaking their military duties within the country or when representing their country outside. It is that discipline which led to the success of almost all the operations in DRC and other peace keeping missions in Africa. It was further observed that, once TPDF are given international tasks, the soldiers are selected in a highly disciplined manner, topping it with high morale and motivation. That is due to the fact that, discipline is the nerve of the army actions. Without discipline, soldiers cannot respond and take action to the orders provided by the commanders. Responding to the researcher during the interview, one of the respondents asserted that TPDF is one of the best army in Africa with highly disciplined soldiers as they do stick on with the commanders orders (the highest authority) and getting rid of indisciplinary behaviors such as illegal business and violation of human rights actions such as rapping, physical torture to the civilians and the rebels, selling arms as well as respecting the culture of the indigenous in areas which they are sent to make operations (interview, 2017) It was under the umbrella of the morale that the TPDF soldiers were also in a position to ensure adherence to the humanitarian law, protection of the civilians and cooperation with the government and other forces (Malawi and the Republic of South Africa). Thus discipline of the soldiers was another essential factor for the success of the TPDF operations in DRC. The Contribution of the Relationship between Forces and Local People to the Achievements of TPDF Under this objective the research intended to find out how the relationship between TPDF solders and the civilians in DRC contributed on the success of TPDF peace keeping mission in DRC. Data from the field indicates that the TPDF soldiers created an excellent relationship with the civilians in DRC to the extent that they were very cooperative. Even the local government leaders in the Eastern part of Congo where TPDF was operating were very cooperative with the TPDF troops. This was very important especially on the security of the troops as well as their operations. Since the enemy might mingle with the local civilians, the TPDF troops managed to know those people after being identified by the local civilians. The excellent friendship relationship created by the TPDF troops contributed positively on their operations. Regarding the perception of DRCs civilian people on the TPDF troops, majority of the respondents were of the opinion that the civilians had positive perception to the TPDF and other forces with regard to their presence and the mission in DRC. They consider them as their savior, liberators from the sufferings, the brutality and oppression that has been imposed upon them by the M23 rebels especially on the Eastern part of the country for many years. Hence they were very cooperative to them in the identification of the rebel personnel, groups and their military tactics. Good intelligence is critical, and an effective communications strategy can play an important role in keeping military personnel very safe and successful in their military operations (Lisa, 2015). Situational awareness is composed of the knowledge, understanding, and assessed trajectory of a security situation, based on systematically collected and analyzed information. Good situational awareness is essential to ensuring the safety and security of civilian, military, and police personnel in UN peace operations. Having a professional and efficient intelligence system stretching from the field to headquarters is critical for supporting preventive and responsive action, mandates, plans, and operational activities. A lack of information and analysis means that a UN peace operation may be unable to take proper protection measures against specific threats, putting at risk the lives of the UN personnel and undermining operational effectiveness. The Civilians in DRC were motivated with the presence of the TPDF and other forces in their areas, because they were supporting the government of Congo that was democratically elected. Hence they support their national army and their allies (TPDF inclusively) in fighting against the M23. Conversely, such motivation helped TPDF soldiers to perform their military duties under the umbrella of the support from the civilians. Lack of Language barrier improved their perception and partnership with the TPDF soldiers as they both speak Kiswahili language. Therefore, the fact that they speak one language increased their trust and morale to each other especially in information sharing. The civilians also considered the presence of the TPDF solders as the best opportunity for them to improve their Kiswahili language, alongside cooperating with them to terminate the presence of the M23 (interview, 2017). The findings are supported by Minde (2016) who reported that, Tanzanias participation in the UNs Force Intervention Brigade in the Eastern DRC, notably its special forces, has provided many lessons for force development. Key among the lessons of Tanzanias experience in the FIB was the combination of cultural, linguistic and geographic confidence to neutralize the M23. With Swahili language used in DRC, Tanzanian troops and the FIB Commander, James Mwakibolwa, who speaks Swahili, helped in community outreach and intelligence-gathering. Apart from other forces who were very corrupt, and sometime use to rape the civilians, the coming of TPDF soldiers were considered as brothers and sisters, who gave them new Tanzanian life habits (discipline and respect of human rights) which contributed a lot on formation of good partnership and cooperation between the soldiers and the civilians. They also perceived TPDF as experienced forces due to its good records of the successfully military operations in Comoro and during the liberation of other African countries from colonial and Apartheid. Therefore, basing on the positive perception of the TPDF and the trust developed from the Congolese and their local government leaders, this study identified various sorts of cooperation demonstrated by the local communities to the peace keepers (TPDF) which included information sharing from the local communities i.e. location of the rebels, weapons used by the rebels, rebels fighting directions, readiness of the civilians and their communities to hide or protect the UN-intelligence officials whenever they went for the purpose of accessing information about the rebels, protection of the civilians in which they normally welcome the TPDF forces in their villages, as well as celebrating and congratulating them whenever, they took over areas and villages which were occupied by the M23 rebels, cooperation with local government leaders and cooperation with the FARDC (Congolese Army) quick and short term projects to help the local civilians. All these sorts of cooperation between TPDF and the Congolese led to the establishment of Negotiation meetings and finding sources of conflicts, provision of health services, mutual relationship with non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and the formation of civil military committee for safeguarding the security of the Congolese in collaboration with TPDF forces as peace keepers. Thus, interaction with the local population is a critical aspect of effective mandate implementation, information gathering and maintaining a positive public perception of the mission (Lisa, 2015). Finally, as the result of the TPDF battalion in collaboration with Malawi and the South Africa battalions, Tanzania was among three states that contributed positively with great achievements as a battalion of soldiers to the Force Intervention Brigade (FIB) as part of the MONUSCO in DRC. The FIB subsequently helped in defeating the M23 rebels. The TPDF contributed on the restoration of peace and security in the eastern part of Congo, which in turn opened a new page of life to the Congolese and their government, in which the citizens were able to continue with their daily life in all spheres of life ranging from economical, social and political. Importantly, another achievement of the TPDF in DRC was the restoration of the rule of law and the Congolese government in the Eastern DRC that was democratically elected by its citizens. Challenges encountered by the Peacekeeping Mission in DRC Data from the field indicated that, the TPDF soldiers encountered a number of challenges while undertaking the peace keeping operation in DRC among them are the following as they were raised by the majority of the respondents during the study Inadequate Skills and Experience among the Police Personnel Data from the field indicated that, there were inadequate numbers of uniformed personnel to support the operation in terms of experience and poor skills of African police personnel for rule of law prosecuting and some expertise during the operations. This in turn delayed the establishment of rule of law after the termination of the M23 rebels. Lack of Joint Training among the Battalions Lack of joint training among the three battalions that participated in the peace keeping mission was one of the challenges that was encountered during the operation due to the fact that, each country has its own way of training, and some of them took from Canadian training, United Kingdom (UK), France and American standard, and lack of common interpretation of law. Thus, such situation delayed the effectiveness of the operation at the beginning of the battle though momentum was gained after adequate familiarity. Death and casualties among its soldiers Since the involvement of Tanzania in peacekeeping mission particularly in Darfur under UNAMID and DRC under MONUSCO, Tanzania has encountered a number of casualties and deaths of its soldiers. Though the number of deaths and casualties sound very challenging to the TPDF and the country at large, their death increased morale to fight and not to withdraw until the negative and positive peace found in DRC. Tanzania governments have honored them as national heroes whose sacrifices were not in vain. CHAPTER FIVE SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS Introduction This chapter focuses on the summary, conclusion and recommendations of the study. The chapter is divided into four major sections. The first section is about the summary of the study, which indicates the purpose of the study, the literature review and the methodology adopted in the study. Therefore, the sections below provide the overall summary for the study, conclusion, recommendations and the suggested areas for further research. Summary The study sought to explore the reasons, which made Tanzania (TPDF) to be one of the successfully military forces to enforce peace in Eastern DRC. There were three specific questions in which the study attempted to address during the actual field work. These were (i) what is the nature of intervention made by TPDF in DRC peacekeeping mission (ii) What are the strategies employed by TPDF battalion to ensure peace and security in DRC (iii) How does the relationship between forces and local people (civilians) contribute to the effectiveness of TPDF peacekeeping mission in DRC The scope of the study was limited to TPDFs peacekeeping operations in DRC within the framework of specified objectives above. The successful accomplishment of the research was expected to bring forward knowledge and policy implications under different contexts. The study covered both theoretical and empirical literatures, by drawing lessons and experiences from other countries across the globe which showed the necessity for the peacekeeping mission in ensuring peace and security in conflicting areas in the world and the growing challenges in relation to the mission. However, there was no research showing the secret behind the success Tanzania in peacekeeping mission despite its achievements in various peacekeeping missions in the world. Thus, the study was among the efforts to addressing this gap. The research employed case study design in which both qualitative and quantitative approaches were employed analyzing the achievement of TPDFs in peacekeeping operations in DRC. While the qualitative approach was based on the views of the respondents, the quantitative approach focused on the frequency and percentage of the responses. The study was conducted at TPDF headquarters and Units under Land Force Command in Dar es Salaam Region, whereby the sample of the study was 50 respondents who were soldiers that participated in peacekeeping mission in DRC. The respondents were selected though purposive sampling techniques. The study also included both primary and secondary data in which the former was collected through structured interview and FGDs, while the latter was done through documentary review. Validity and reliability issues were considered and data analysis was done through SPSS with narrative writings. Regarding the findings of the study, the data showed that the nature of intervention made by TPDF in DRC peacekeeping mission, which led to the removal of the M23 rebels, comprised the use of one force intervention battalion, the high morale of the intervening soldiers and support from local communities (Congolese). The strategies that were employed by the TPDF battalion to ensure the restoration and sustainability of peace and security in DRC included motivation of the TPDF soldiers, adequate serviceable equipment and high discipline of the TPDF soldiers. The research also found that the relationship between forces and local people contributed positively to the achievements of TPDF through the mutual relationship which aided the provision of information about M23, and support in their operations, which in turn led to the eradication of the M23 rebels in Eastern Congo. However, the operations encountered some of the challenges which included inadequate skills and experience among the police personnel, lack of joint training among the battalions, financial costs and death and causalities of its soldiers. Nevertheless, TPDF forces contributed on the restoration of peace and security in the Eastern part of Congo, which in turn opened a new page of life to the Congolese and the government. Conclusion Tanzanias participation in UN peacekeeping operations has been largely driven by political concerns at the regional and global levels taped by its historical background on the liberation of the African countries. Providing UN peacekeepers has raised Tanzanias profile as a regional icon for maintaining peace and security. Tanzania has never shied away from contributing to UN deployments as its presence is seen in Southern Sudan, DRC Congo, Darfur, Abyei, and Central Africa Republic and in Lebanon. Tanzanias contribution of troops in the UN Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL), the first outside Africa, showed Tanzanias willingness to participate in UN operations at both regional and global level. It should be acknowledged that, at the onset of African liberation, Tanzania provided military bases for countries such as Mozambique, Zimbabwe and South Africa. Tanzanias track record in African liberation gave the country an enviable international reputation. Tanzania has also facilitated peace processes in Africa such as in Burundi, Rwanda, Kenya, and recently in South Sudan. Tanzania was also a key a player in Operation Democracy to restore order on the island of Anjoun in the Comoros in 2008. Here, its troops were part of the AU mission that included France and Senegal. The TPDF has demonstrated its capacity in terms of enhancing peacekeeping missions at local and international level. TPDFs participation in the UNs Force Intervention Brigade in the Eastern DRC, notably its special forces, has provided many lessons for force development. Key among the lessons of Tanzanias experience in the FIB was the blending of cultural, linguistic and geographic fluency to neutralize the M23. With Swahili language used in DR Congo, Tanzanian troops and the FIB Commander, James Mwakibolwa, who speaks Swahili, helped in community outreach and intelligence-gathering. With Tanzania trying to exert greater regional influence, it will continue to participate in regional and international peace operations. Recommendations Basing on the findings from this study, the researcher makes the following recommendations Capacity Building TPDF should keep on coordinating and cooperating with the UN in ensuring the availability of training opportunities so as to increase the performance of the TPDF by drawing lessons and experiences from other countries. Reduction of the financial costs. Countries participating in peacekeeping mission, Tanzania inclusive, should ensure reduction and financial control in peacekeeping particularly from government budget and prioritizing the welfare of citizens by placing more emphasis on the welfare of its citizens and infrastructural development. UN (under Security Council) should be flexible to change the chapter to be used according to situation on the operation area. This is because sometimes it is very difficult to protect people who are having heavy weapons than what you have. Military troops should be given a mandate to decide when to use chapter VI and VII rather than waiting for orders from the Security Council. Chapter VII assisted TPDF battalion to eliminate M23 and to disarm all weapons. Compared to Chapter VI which has been used for peacekeepers since independence in DRC but failed to eliminate rebels and UN troops has suffered several attacks, casualties and massive deaths. UN should provide strong warning and severe punishment for the countries or group of people who support rebels in terms of training, weapons, financial support, food and clothes in order to attack the government and destroy country peace and harmony and increases number of deaths, homeless people, poverty and huge number refugees in the neighboring countries. African countries under AU must have a well coordinated, capable and trained military standby force from different regional blocks that will be ready for peace and security support whenever it is required in order to eliminate issues of insufficient soldiers and to have soldiers with different level of training. AU should not wait for peacekeeping or depend on effort from UN to resolve its own conflicts. It is time now for African problems to be solved by AU. This marked that not all conflict need military troops to find peace and harmony. African traditional ways can make a way to the reconciliation and end up with permanent peace. Suggested Areas for Further Research The Study recommends another study on the role of peacekeeping missions in reduction of children vulnerability. Another study can be done to analyse the role of peacekeeping missions on women empowerment. REFERENCE Adeshina, R. A. (2002). Reserve Victory, Story of Nigeria Military Intervention in Sierra Leone. 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Currently, I am conducting a research on Analysis of the success of the TPDF in Peace Enforcement the Case of Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). This is purely an academic research which is being done as a partial requirement for the award of the said degree above. Your response on this Interview will contribute in accomplishing very successfully, the study. You are assured that, the information which you will provide to the researcher will be treated very confidential and in fact, will be used for research purpose only. Thank You A. General Respondents Information 1. Gender (i) Male (ii) Female ( ) 2. Level of Education (i) Primary Level (ii) Secondary level ( ) (iii) Diploma (iv) Advanced Diploma/Degree (v) Masters (vi) Other(Please Specify) 3. Rank 4. Working Experience as TPDFs Staff B. Research Objectives/Questions 5. Nature of intervention made by TPDF in DRC peacekeeping mission. What constituted the Intervention How the Regional Actors AU and SADC played part achievement of TPDF Battalion What was the contribution of UN in DRC 6. Strategies employed by TPDF battalion to ensure peace and security in DRC How did motivation contribute to the achievement of the TPDF Soldiers in DRC peacekeeping mission How did the morale of the TPDF Soldiers in DRC peacekeeping mission contributed to the achievements of the TPDF battalion How did the discipline of the Army contribute to the success on operation of the TDPF peacekeeping mission in DRC 7. The contribution of the relationship between forces and local people (civilians) to the effectiveness of TPDF peacekeeping mission in DRC How did the army relate to civilian in DRC How did the civilian in DRC perceive TPDF soldiers iii. What sort of cooperation demonstrated by the local communities to the peacekeepers 8. Challenges encountered by TPDF peacekeeping mission in DRC What were the challenges encountered by the peacekeeping mission in DRC How were those challenges addressed What lessons can be drawn from those challengesTHANK YOU FOR YOUR ANALYITICAL REFLECTIONS A battalion is a military unit. It is a large body of troops ready for battle, especially an infantry unit forming part of a brigade. The use of the term battalion varies by nationality and branch of service. Typically a battalion consists of 300 to 800 soldiers and is divided into a number of companies. A battalion is typically commanded by a Lieutenant Colonel. A company or a coy is a military unit, typically consisting of 80250 soldiers and usually commanded by a major or a captain. Most companies are formed of three to six platoons, although the exact number may vary by country, unit type, and structure. Usually several companies are grouped as a battalion.. 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