STUDENTS’ ATTITUDES TOWARD CODE SWITCHING IN THE TEACHING
OF ENGLISH AND THEIR ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT IN ENGLISH
A Thesis Proposal
The Faculty of the Graduate School
Saint Columban College
In Partial Fulfillment
Of the Requirements for the Degree
Master of Arts in Education
Major in Educational Management
NORESA ANN C. ECO
Only for Thesis 2 after the oral defense, when you are ready
to submit your final copy before binding. Get from the Graduate School
Family Name, First Name Middle Initial. (year of graduation). Title of Thesis Here in Italics. Unpublished Master’s Thesis, Saint Columban College, Pagadian City.
Start with the general statement of the problem or objective/s of the study. Identify the research environment, research participants and timeline. Discuss the methods used (research design, instruments, data analysis methods).
Present the summary of findings.
Include the conclusion/s.
Keywords: Include the keywords in the title, may include the indicators
Table of Contents
TOC o “1-3” h z u Chapter 1 PAGEREF _Toc520193051 h 1The Problem PAGEREF _Toc520193052 h 1Introduction PAGEREF _Toc520193053 h 1Perspective of the Researcher PAGEREF _Toc520193054 h 1Conceptual Framework PAGEREF _Toc520193055 h 2Statement of the Problem PAGEREF _Toc520193056 h 2Hypotheses(sis for singular) PAGEREF _Toc520193057 h 3Scope and Limitations of the Study PAGEREF _Toc520193058 h 4Significance of the Study PAGEREF _Toc520193059 h 4Definition of Terms PAGEREF _Toc520193060 h 5Structure of the Thesis PAGEREF _Toc520193061 h 5Chapter 2 PAGEREF _Toc520193062 h 6Review of Related Literature PAGEREF _Toc520193063 h 6Variable 1 PAGEREF _Toc520193064 h 6Variable 2 PAGEREF _Toc520193065 h 6Variable 3 PAGEREF _Toc520193066 h 6Chapter 3 PAGEREF _Toc520193067 h 8Research Methods PAGEREF _Toc520193068 h 8Research Design PAGEREF _Toc520193069 h 8Research Environment PAGEREF _Toc520193070 h 8Research Participants PAGEREF _Toc520193071 h 8Sampling Techniques PAGEREF _Toc520193072 h 10Instruments PAGEREF _Toc520193073 h 10Data Gathering Techniques PAGEREF _Toc520193074 h 11Statistical Treatment for quantitative studies PAGEREF _Toc520193075 h 11Data Analysis for qualitative studies PAGEREF _Toc520193076 h 11Ethical Considerations in Research PAGEREF _Toc520193077 h 11
Chapter 1The ProblemIntroductionThe quest of education has always been important especially in molding the learners. Teachers’ beliefs, practices and attitudes are important in understanding and improving educational processes. They are closely linked to teachers’ strategies for coping with challenges in their daily professional life for their general wellbeing .At the same time, they shape students’ learning environment and influence students’ motivation and achievement. Undoubtedly, teaching is a complex process which can be conceptualized in a number of different ways as mentioned by Richards and Lockhart (2000).
According to Siong & Min (2017), code switching defined as the alternative use of two or more languages in the same conversation. It can occur in three different conditions within a conversation, namely changes of codes between the turns, between the utterances within a single turn, or within a single utterance.
One of the beliefs is the use of code switching as a tool in the teaching and learning in a classroom. Code switching can be observed from linguistic, sociolinguistic, pragmatics, psycholinguistics, grammatical structures or lexical items as clarified in Richards (2002).
The teachers’ beliefs in using code-switching in the classroom could also be linked to the strategies that they believe will work in their teaching and learning. Code-switching is one of the common communication skills among bilinguals and is known to be a naturalistic occurrence outside the classroom environment. Mokhtar (2015) identified that code-switching as an apparent phenomenon in Science and Mathematics classrooms. It was intended to ensure that the students would understand the contents better and at the same time follow the education policy and reach a compromise for the students’ level of proficiency. The result has shown that code-switching complements both teaching and learning process.
Obaidullah (2016) states that teachers use code switching to make students understand difficult and new vocabularies in the text. They use contextual reference using their mother tongue to make the topic more enjoyable. Teachers switch code when the level of English used in the textbook or to be taught is beyond the learner’s ability or when the teachers have exhausted the means to adjust his speech to the learner’s level.
In widely observed classrooms, this phenomenon usually occurs, there is no particular language can be heard and students are conversing using the first language and will combine it with their language. Majority of them switch their language with ease at different points in their conversations or in writing. They employ code switching by inserting words, phrases or sentences using another language into their conversations. Even though they may unintentionally prefer code switching, there is always a reason why this occurs.
In this study, the researcher was well motivated to find out significant difference of the student’s attitude toward code switching and their academic achievement in English.
Perspective of the ResearcherThe researcher is the daughter of Mr. Reynaldo C. Eco and Mrs. Lucena C. Eco. She was born on November 26, 1993 in Ozamiz City. She currently lives at Baybay Sta Cruz, Ozamiz City. She is a graduate of Misamis University located at Ozamiz City in Misamis Occidental. She graduated her primary education at Ozamiz City Central School in the school year 2005-2006. She finished her secondary education at Ozamiz City National High School located in the same city school year 2009-2010. She is a graduate of Bachelor of Secondary Education last April 2014. She started her teaching field in Banglay National High School as a grade 7 adviser since August 2015 and now is in her third year of teaching in the said school.
After she finished her degree, she was hired as a public teacher at the age of 21 without any experienced in terms of teaching. She realized that the job was not easy. She was assigned as a high school teacher in rural area in the neighboring city. The school was far from the city and there is limited sources of information.
She never thought that her first year of teaching was tough and a very challenging one. Students need to walk kilometers away going to school. Some even went to school without eating breakfast. She also discovered that some of the students were having a hard time even in reading and most especially in understanding text. As time goes by, when she taught the lesson students were having a hard time in comprehending the lesson. She even need to change one language to another. This gave her idea that why not make study that will help her and the other teachers understand the effects of code switching in the classroom instruction. Thus, it will serve as a basis in improving the delivery of the lesson.
Conceptual Frameworkleft269875Students’ Attitude toward Code Switching
00Students’ Attitude toward Code Switching
3371850250190Students’ Academic Achievement in English
00Students’ Academic Achievement in English
Figure 1. The Conceptual Framework of the Study
The conceptual framework of this study is illustrated in Figure 1. It shows how the study undertaken in order to achieve the intended outcome. As shown in the figure, the study took the form of a correlation research by looking into the relationship of the variables.
If qualitative, then discuss the concept/s in the figure and how these concepts are taken in the study.
Cite the theory where you anchor your study. Refer to your readings of related literature.
Statement of the ProblemThe study assesses the relationship of the attitudes of the students toward code switching and their class achievement in English. It focuses in Banglay National High School utilizing the grade 7 students as research participants. The study will be conducted during the school year 2018-2019.
Specifically, it aims to answer the following queries:
What is the level of students’ attitudes toward code switching in the teaching of English?
What is the level of students’ achievement in English class?
Is there a significant relationship between the students’ attitudes toward code switching and their academic achievement in English?
Based on the result, what implications to the teaching and learning of English of using code switching can be formulated?
HypothesesThe following hypotheses shall be tested using the 0.05 level of significance:
There is a significant relationship between students’ attitudes toward code switching and their academic achievement in English.
Scope and Limitations of the StudyThis research work focused on how code switching improves effective instruction in teaching English. The study was conducted during the school year 2018-2019 at Banglay National High School.
Subject Matter. This study shall focus on students’ attitudes towards code switching and their academic achievement in English. It also looks into the significant relationship of the variables.
Research Environment and Timeline. This study was conducted in the Department of Education, Division of Tangub City at Banglay National High School, Banglay, Tangub City. The school is composed of 15 regular teachers of which 12 junior high school teachers, 3 teachers for senior high school department, 1 administrative assistant and 2 school heads who manage the school. At present, it has a population of 285 from Grade 7 to 12.
Research Participants. The participants of the study were the Grade 7 students of Banglay National High School enrolled in the school year 2018-2019. There were one intact class for Grade 7 students composed of 42 students per section.
Research Design. This study uses descriptive-correlational research design.
Research Instruments. A questionnaire for students’ attitudes toward code switching will be utilized in this study. The grades will also be used to evaluate the academic achievement in English of the learners.
Statistical Treatment. The descriptive statistics such as mean and standard deviation will be computed to describe the students’ attitudes toward code switching. To test if there will be existing significant relationship among students’ attitudes toward code switching and their academic achievement in English, the researcher will solved the Pearson correlation (r-value) and the p-value of the variables.
Significance of the StudyIn this study, the use of code switching was utilized in the classroom instruction. The findings of this study hope to serve as baseline data in the achievement of grade seven students in teaching English using code switching.
Specifically, this study would benefit the following individuals and groups who are seen as recipients of the results of the study.
Administrators. The results of the investigation would give them insights for the improvement of quality teaching and learning school offers. The study may also serve as guide to realize their significant role to provide continuing staff development and continuing plan for professional growth.
Parents. The result may help them realize their role as partner in the education of their children especially in providing wholesome home environment that would stimulate growth in learning.
Teachers. This study would help teachers to a better way of teaching English and make the discussion more effective and more comprehensive for students. The findings may guide the teachers on what type of learning laboratory process and effective instruction is needed. It will be a basis to improve and provide an environment that promotes learning.
Students. The study will provide the learner a lifelong learning and allows them to understand the lesson well. It may also be a way in expressing their thoughts using another language. The result may make them strive to attain the maximum development of the desired skills as a tool for a quality education.
Other researchers. The results of this study would provide other researchers with baseline information which can be used in their studies that are similar to this investigation.
Definition of TermsThe following terms will be used extensively in this study and shall be taken according to the definition given below:
Achievement. It refers to the knowledge attained or skills developed in the school subjects, usually measures by test scores or by marks assigned by the teacher.
Attitude. This refers to the students’ mental disposition as well as personal feeling and stand with regard to reality.
Learners. They are the respondents of the study. The students may develop a positive attitude toward the subject and become interested in learning English subject. This may pave the way to appreciate and enjoy learning grammar and literature.
Code Switching. This refers to the use of more than one language in the course of a single communicative episode. It is a process whereby the bilingual speakers switch back and forth between one language or dialect and another within the same conversation.
Structure of the Thesis The study consists of five chapters. Chapter 1 – The Problem, Chapter 2 – Review of Related Literature, Chapter 3 – Research Methods, Chapter 4 – Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation of Data, and Chapter 5 – Summary of Finding, Conclusions and Recommendations.
Chapter 1 includes the problem, introduction, perspective of the researcher, conceptual framework of the study, statement of the problem, scope and limitations of the study, significance of the study, and definitions of terms.
Chapter 2 presents a review of related literature and studies considered by the researcher significant to the present investigation. The focus of the chapter is to review the literature that relates to the four research questions.
Chapter 3 covers the research design, research environment, research subjects, research instruments, data gathering technique, and statistical treatment.
Chapter 4 includes the presentation, analysis and interpretation of data. The data are gathered, analyse and interpret in such that the results can be used for drawing conclusion and recommendations.
Chapter 5 contains the findings, conclusions and recommendations of the study.
Chapter 2Review of Related Literature
This chapter reviews the literature related to code switching and academic achievement of students which will provide bases for the interpretation of the data that shall be gathered later.
Code Switching as Defined and Described
Code switching, the alternative use of two or more codes, is a hallmark of multilingual communities world-wide. Hence, being a community where a myriad of language co-exist, code switching prevails the sociolinguistic behaviour of most speakers (Bagui, 2014). Code-switching involves a change of language within the same text, defined as a unit of meaning (Corcoll Lopez & Gonzalez-Davies, 2015). It involves the interplay of two languages and as well as serving linguistic functions, it has social and psychological implications. In the context of English language teaching, these psychological implications reveal themselves as teachers’ thought processes (Bilgin, 2016).
Code switching as an area of study is connected to linguistics, psychology, anthropology, and related disciplines. Each field studies the various aspects of code switching from different perspectives. In the field of linguistics, for instance, this phenomenon is investigated from syntactic, sociolinguistic, and psycholinguistic points of view, which has led to the development of a rich literature on this topic. Code switching is found among people from all ages, genders, societies, and languages (Alasmari, 2016). Code-switching, when done deliberately and selectively, can be a positive strategy to use in the English classroom, but not if done habitually and automatically. Since code-switchingis a natural occurrence amongst bilingual speakers, teacher training programs may need to include code-switching as a deliberate teaching strategy. In addition, before any government policy or guidelines on code-switching are introduced, teachers need specific training on strategies for its effect use (Grant ; Nguyen, 2017).
From a historical perspective, recent approaches and findings, with their wealth of data and analyses of code-switching behavior from which various ‘models’ and ‘constraints’ have been drawn, could hardly have been possible without influential pioneering work in the field of bilingualism research. Although it is impossible to write about the entire history of research on code-switching, we need to mention very briefly the work of a number of individual scholars who have laid the essential foundations for a range of studies on code-switching which occurred in the following decades (Tuc, 2014).
Research into code switching can be categorized into five study approaches: the grammatical approach, the sociolinguistic approach, the psycholinguistic approach, the conversation approach and the pragmatic approach. Among these approaches, in recent years linguistic researchers have shown a growing interest in investigating the use of code switching from a grammatical angle, especially in English as a foreign language (EFL) classrooms. Subsequently, in many geographic and ethnic contexts, researchers have found code switching (CS) to be a potentially effective way to improve language learning (Almansour, 2016).
Many classroom teachers are faced with instructing students who communicate through different variations of Standard English. Not only does demographics and home language affect this language acquisition, but pop culture and the media have also lent themselves as factors in how students speak and write in today’s classrooms (Jones, 2011).With the increasing demand from a global society, learning foreign languages has become a necessary skill in the modern world. English is most widely taught as a second language. It also has the highest number of second language speakers and currently is the third most spoken language in the world (Mazur, 2016).
Code Switching in the International Educational Context
In Vietnam, the implementation of the monolingual approach of teaching English-through-English-only faces many challenges such as inadequate classroom resources, students’ low levels of English competence, motivation and autonomy, teachers’ limited English abilities, and inappropriate teaching methods. Many Vietnamese teachers of English support code-switching in the classroom and they teach English through the bilingual approach (Nguyen, Grainger, & Carey, 2016).
In China, an article documents the beliefs and attitudes of Chinese college English teachers towards classroom code-switching. The findings suggest that teachers’ code-switching is commonplace in class, although most of them still hold negative attitude toward it. Besides, students’ ability is regarded as the most significant factor affecting teachers’ code-switching, and the first language (L1) is mainly used to teach grammar and abstract words. The conclusion is that, in Chinese English as a foreign language (EFL) context, classroom code-switching should be conducted on the basis of maximal use of the target language, and the L1 can only be judiciously employed to serve difficult and abstruse subject matters (Cheng, 2013).
Results of the study in Saudi Arabia showed that the most frequent English words within Arabic sentences were technical and academic terms, whereas the most frequent Arabic words within English sentences were religious words (Alfaifi, 2013). Another small scale study investigated adult Arabic students’ use of code switching (CS) in four university second language classrooms in Western Australia. Arabic students’ attitudes towards CS were also explored using interviews and questionnaires. An analysis of the data found that the use of CS is indeed present in the second language classroom and that Arabic learners CS for pedagogical, communicative and social purposes. The data also revealed that most students showed strong support for CS because of the positive impact they believe it has on their language learning (Larbah, 2013).
In the article describing a study into the functions of code-switching in EFL classes at a Colombian language school, results suggest that code-switching may not necessarily be connected to ability level and servesmultiple communicative and learning purposes. This indicates not only that total proscription of L1is ill-advised, but that the mother tongue can be usefully exploited for learning, for example when performing contrastive analysis. However, factors including learners’ expectations, the positive motivational effects of learning L2 strategies for dealing with communication breakdowns, the importance of exposure to and practice of the target code, and the need to prepare learners for L2-only contexts call for a common-sense approach where exploitationof L1 is counterbalanced with efforts to teach communicative functions in L2, and some strategies are suggested for achieving this (Sampson, 2011).
A research investigated whether code switching is an effective grammar learning strategy in the EFL classroom. Language learning strategies are difficult to make generalisations about and vary greatly from one ethnic and gender group to another, and Saudi Arabian female EFL learners are underrepresented in the academic literature. Therefore, this research focused on Saudi Arabian female EFL learners to find out whether code switching can help them to more effectively learn grammar. Two university EFL classrooms were selected for the experiment: in one class, the teacher conducted more CS (in more than 60% of teacher talk), and, in another class, the teacher conducted less CS (in around 1% of teacher talk). Based on the results of pre- and post-tests in these two classrooms, it was found that using CS was not an effective grammar learning strategy for Saudi Arabian female EFL learners. Although these results do not support using CS, an attitude survey conducted among students found that students do prefer their teachers to code switch and they also think that they learn more when the teacher switches code. The findings of this research may be useful in helping teachers in Saudi Arabian EFL classrooms to modify their practices in order to enhance student learning (Almansour, 2016).
The purpose of another study is to describe and analyse how code-switching as a local practice is used in teaching and learning Swedish as a foreign language. The context of the study is classes in Swedish as a foreign language in upper secondary schools in Finland. The material consists of video recordings of one lesson in second grade where the students have been studying Swedish for 5 years. The article focuses especially on the practices of language choice in repair. Students tend to keep up a division of labour between FL used for institutional work and L1 as the language reserved for interaction. The article discusses the conditions of learning repair practices in an FL classroom (Lehti-Eklund, 2013).
On the evidence of current research findings in relation to English-Vietnamese code-switching in the educational contexts of Vietnam, the article on “Code-switching in English Language Education: Voices from Vietnam” identified that classroom code-switching between the second language and the first language has its own pedagogic functions and it can be a valuable language classroom resource to both teachers and learners. English-Vietnamese code-switching is reported not to be a restriction on the acquisition of English; rather, it can facilitate the teaching and learning of general English in Vietnam. This practice of code-switching is not just due to a lack of sufficient proficiency to maintain a conversation in English; rather, it serves a number of pedagogic functions such as explaining new words and grammatical rules, giving feedback, checking comprehension, making comparison between English and Vietnamese, establishing good rapport between teachers and students, creating a friendly classroom atmosphere and supporting group dynamics (Nguyen, Grainger, & Carey, 2016).
The strategic use of English-language ‘translations’ in Swahili novels is a major focus of interest in this essay on the Tanzanian popular writer Eric James Shigongo. Shigongo’s literary code-switching between Swahili and English, which has become a hallmark of his highly popular novels, testifies to the continuing social prestige of English in Tanzania: while the country’s official language policy successfully promoted Swahili for several decades, English is increasingly playing a pivotal role both among the political and economic elites who increasingly send their children to private English-medium schools and among the emergent, though sparse, middle class seeking access to English-language education. The success of Shigongo’s novels is thus a clear indication that Englishin a contemporary Tanzania embracing neoliberalism is strongly associated with social achievement and success and is seen as a highly desirable commodity. Shigongo’s – linguistically and stylistically often inappropriate – ‘translations’ from Swahili into English are not based on everyday speech situations but are the product of a specific literary form that allows readers to imaginatively participate in the (real or imagined) cosmopolitan lifestyle of Tanzania’s social elite. The extensive use of English in his novels thus serves as a symbol of modernity, middle- or upper-class identity, and (alleged) ‘worldliness’ (Reuster-Jahn, U. (2015).
A study was conducted to investigate how African American (AA) teachers’ use of code switching during instruction impacted student achievement, student-teacher relationships, and the educational environment. The study explored sociolinguistic and sociopolitical phenomena by using an ethnographic approach by conducting two case studies that generated four theoretical propositions using Grounded Theory that answered two overarching research questions and two sub questions. Data sets included discursive interviews, the researcher’s fieldnotes, audio transcription analyses, and collected artifacts and documents. The researcher found that AA teachers use code switching as a means of communicating concepts and reinforcing sociocultural norms; consequently, the teachers implemented teaching strategies specifically targeted towards AA students in order promote student learning and academic achievement. AA teachers integrate code switching as a component of their classroom management strategies, and two dominant strategies are forming interdependent relationships and a community-like atmosphere in their classrooms. Instead of explicitly code switching between Standard American English (SAE) and African American Vernacular English (AAVE,) the AA teachers more often combine SAE and AAVE during instruction, creating a hybrid of the two dialects. AA participants shared ambivalent attitudes towards professional development about sociolinguistics and AAVE, due to the absence of training or support from the district and other educators. The findings suggested more research should be conduced on the sociolinguistic concepts of diglossia and language mixing as they pertain to second language acquisition (Sanders, 2011).
It has been noticed that the use of English/Kuwaiti Arabic CS has been invading different social domains in Kuwait, one of which is Kuwaiti media. This sociolinguistic study is meant to investigate students’ attitudes at the college of basic Education (PAAET) and the college of Education, Kuwait University, towards the use of codeswitching in Kuwaiti TV channels. A questionnaire has been utilized and copies have been distributed to 764 students. The findings of the questionnaire were examined across gender, year of study, and student’s major as sociolinguistic parameters. The results were analyzed quantitatively. Frequencies, means, standard deviations, t-test and one-way ANOVA were measured followed by analysis and discussions (Dashti, ; Dashti, 2016).
A paper highlights findings of an exploratory study on Hokaglish, initially describing it as a trilingual code-switching phenomenon involving Hokkien, Tagalog, and English in a Filipino-Chinese enclave in Binondo, Manila, the Philippines. Departing from the sociolinguistic landscape of the archipelagic nation, the discussion eventually leads to a frequency-based description of this phenomenon. Preliminary findings suggest that, in Hokaglish, code-switching from Hokkien to English appears to be the most frequent code-switching combination among the six possible ones and that it is typically found in religious institutions. From the investigation, Hokaglish yielded more attestations of intrasentential code switching than intersentential ones in households particularly. Moreover, findings also indicate that switches in the word-level are very frequent and that morphological code-switching is virtually non-existent in Hokaglish conversations (Gonzales, 2016).
Personalized learning systems have shown significant learning gains when used in formal classroom teaching. Systems that use pedagogical agents for teaching have become popular, but typically their design does not account for multilingual classrooms. A study investigated one such system in classrooms in the Philippines to see if and how students used code-switching when providing explanations of algebra problem solving. We found significant amounts of code-switching and explored cognitive and social factors such as explanation quality and affective valence that serve as evidence for code-switching motivations and effects. These results uncover complex social and cognitive interactions that occur during learning interactions with a virtual peer, and call for more affordances to support multilingual students (Yarzebinski, Ogan, Rodrigo, ; Matsuda, 2015, June).
A study was conducted investigating the perceptions of Grade 10 English Second Language teachers about the effects of Code Switching in their classrooms in the Caprivi Education Region of Namibia. Some of the findings that emerged from this study were that the respondents showed a lack of knowledge about theories relating to language teaching and learning. In addition, the non-availability of guiding framework or policies on the use of Code Switching in schools created uncertainty among teachers. Generally Code Switching was seen by the respondents as having good effects on learning and teaching in all subjects. It was also indicated that the Language Policy did not empower teachers to use language as the situation dictated, but rather the Language Policy dictated to teachers to subscribe to its directives. This could be one of the reasons why teachers used English in the presence of a ministerial official but as soon as s/he left the classroom they reverted to using mother tongue (Simasiku, 2014).
Although numerous research studies have shown the advantages of such kind of programs in North America and Europe, those investigating English as the Medium of Instruction (EMI) schools in Hong Kong yielded inconclusive results. This meta-analysis is the first attempt to synthesize the research evidence on EMI education in Hong Kong since 1970. Based on 24 studies, this meta-analysis shows that students in EMI secondary schools were more proficient in second language and performed better on measures of affective variables. Yet their learning in other content subjects suffered. The differences between the effectiveness of EMI education in Hong Kong and that of similar programs in other contexts will be discussed, thereby illuminating second language acquisition theories and bilingual education (Lo, ; Lo, 2014).
The Natural Sciences teachers at the school of study were cautioned not to use code-switching because the school policy states that the medium of instruction should be exclusively English. Recently, students at this school complained about teachers who had been code-switching between one or more indigenous languages and English. The objectives of this investigation, therefore, were to explore the perceptions of Grade 8 students regarding code-switching in Natural Sciences classrooms, their perceptions of the effect of code-switching on their academic achievement and also how the use of this teaching strategy influenced their respect for their teacher. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire and the findings revealed that students believed that the use of code-switching confused many students, resulting in underachievement in Natural Sciences and that they respected teachers more when they taught in English only (Grobler, 2018)..
Code-switching pedagogies do not consider that some features of African American Verbal Tradition (AVT) are rhetorically effective mainstream communication structures in academic writing. This research asserts that when teaching language/dialect difference in majority white school settings, contrastive analysis techniques such as these may have highly negative effects on AAL (African American Language) speakers. Thus, as an alternative to code-switching pedagogical practices, a comparative approach is introduced that may be applied across all minority language groups and that highlights African and African American contributions to standardized American written communication structures and demonstrates the value of AVT in academic settings. This comparative rhetorical approach may have a positive impact on student language attitudes toward AAL by illustrating that many academic writers from varied racial/ethnic backgrounds often use AVT in their writing for rhetorical purposes and to produce lively, image-filled, concrete, readable essays. (Williams-Farrier, 2017).
In an effort to draw international students and promote campus internationalization, Taiwanese universities have started to offer English-medium courses. Results of the study suggest that teachers offered English-medium courses for a variety of reasons, yet all the motivations seem to point to the global status of English in today’s academic and professional world. The interview data also show that code switching was used as a pedagogical strategy to facilitate student learning and manage student-teacher relationship. As to the impact of English-medium teaching, although some participants were optimistic about students’ English improvement, others raised concern about its detrimental effect on subject knowledge learning, particularly in students of lower English proficiency and learning motivation. An implication of this result is that students’ preparedness for classes in English, including their general English proficiency and skills in English for discipline specific academic purposes, has to be carefully considered when any EMI policy is formulated at either national or institutional levels (Yeh, 2013).
The study of Khonakdar and Abdolmanafi-Rokni (2015) revealed some possible reasons to enjoy code switching and it was manifested that which one is enjoyed most of the time in English Foreign Language (EFL) classes by the teachers who participate in this study and which ones are enjoyed by these teachers. By considering the points and data collected in this study, it can be said that code switching can be as a facilitator in some situations such as checking the learners’ understanding toward the EFL points and also the teachers can enjoy code switching to translate some challenging points and structures through code switching; but it should be considered that code switching is not always feasible in EFL classes and it may be harmful for transferring the points. Considering the reasons of code switching by Iranian EFL teachers can be as an introduction to do other related topics therefore this study can be important for all who work with teaching and also topics of teaching. Reasons and also the time of code switching were examined because the researcher believe that to enjoy code switching by the Iranian EFL teachers is a challenging method of teaching EFL and some banned code switching and also ignore the importance of code switching in some occasions therefore it was hoped that doing the present research and study may help the individuals who consider and also study English as a foreign language.
While the examination of code-switching by researchers has been increasing in the past decades, there is still a noticeable degree of confusion as to what constitutes and accounts for examples of code-switching. Apart from attempting to define the type of language behaviour characteristically referred to as code-switching, researchers also further encounter the problem of distinguishing code-switching from other linguistic phenomena, for instance, from the closed counterpart of code-switching, ‘borrowing’ of lexical items. The problem of terminology and conceptual distinction between linguistic phenomena are still important topics of further research and are disputed.
A brief review of the definitions of code-switching has shown that the phenomenon under investigation is defined differently as a result of different research interests and how researchers view the phenomenon. In this study, code-switching is employed as ‘the alternate use of two languages within or across sentence boundary’. All levels of constituents within language 1 (LI) discourse (such as morpheme, phrase, clause, sentence) will be treated as code-switching.
Code Switching and Academic Achievement in the Philippines
The integration of the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) in 2015, as well as the United Nation’s call for Education for All (EFA) by 2015, has pushed the Philippine government to revamp the country’s educational system. Such revamp involves a review of the effectiveness of English language education (ELE) in the country, which may be described as currently at a crossroads, as stakeholders strive to address issues of developing the English language competencies of Filipino students on the one hand, and the strengthening of academic achievement on the other. ELE in the Philippines, which began during the American colonial period in the nineteenth century, has been found wanting in significantly contributing to increased learning outcomes among Filipino students. ELE policies have been beset with issues of alignment and coherence in the areas of curriculum and assessment, as well as challenges in the implementation of genuine reform. In addition, ELE has been implemented at the expense of literacy in the mother tongues. (Madrunio, Martin, ; Plata, 2016).
The Philippines is a diverse linguistic environment with more than 8 major languages spoken and a complicated language policy affected by its colonization history. With this context, this research investigates Cebuano and English code-switching (CS) in the Central Philippines and Mindanao. This research draws from prior studies placing multilingual and code-switched language practices at the center of an individual’s identity rather than at the margins. The results of the chi-square analysis demonstrate a divergence in the Cebuano speech community in the Philippines. That is, the southern provinces of Misamis Oriental and Davao del Sur (Southern Group) adopt CS significantly more than the northern provinces of Cebu and Negros Oriental (Northern Group), which were less likely to adopt CS. Because of a strong pro-Cebuano sentiment in Cebu, I reason that the Northern Group adheres more strongly to the Cebuano identity resulting in less CS. Conversely, the Southern Groups may be identifying less with Cebu and the Cebuano identity, which results in more CS. In summary, the Cebuano speech communities in the Philippines express their differentiating identities through adoption of CS. (Abastillas, 2015).
The rate of students who get low grades in the content areas is alarming, particularly in the subjects of Sciences and Mathematics. Among the different factors affecting level of achievements as considered by several studies, is the Language factor. The teaching of subjects in the content area in Philippine schools uses English as a Second Language (ESL), wherein a certain mastery of the English language has to preceed, to understanding more of the subject. It is of great importance for teachers to evaluate the methods and techniques used in the process of teaching their subjects in order to raise level of performances of the students (Domingo, 2016).
One study describes the socio-linguistic phenomenon of code switching among Freshmen students of Quirino State University considering Quirino as a multi-dialectal and multi-cultural Province. The following are the highlights of the study: (1) Majority of the respondents are taking up Information Technology and Computer Science courses; females; Ilocanos and most of them were graduates from public high schools. (2) Majority of them have projected affirmative attitudes toward English language as their second language; (3) Majority of them agreed that they also preferred Filipino language as part of their linguistic practice during classroom discussions; (4) They have positive notions for code switchers because they themselves are code-switchers ,too. These have been supported with their prevailing reasons for practicing code-switching; (5) There is no significant differences on the respondents’ attitude towards code switching when they were grouped according to their gender and the type of high school they graduated from; (6) There are significant differences on their attitudes toward code switching when they were grouped according to their ethnicity and course. (7) There is significant relationship between the respondents’ English academic grades and their attitudes toward code switching; (8) there is significant relationship between their Filipino academic performance and their attitudes toward Filipino language (Valerio, 2015).
The study of Dayag, Gustilo, & Eden Regala-Flores, (2013) attempts to describe the languages used in three learning areas, namely, Mathematics, Science and English, in primary schools in the Philippines. The study found that, overall, in all three learning areas, teacher-led talk (initiation, response, feedback) and student response to teacher initiation or feedback are conducted in English. However, students shift to Filipino and the code-switching variety (Filipino/English) of Philippine English when interacting with their peers and when clarifying procedural matters with the teacher. In addition, teachers use Filipino and the code-switching variety when they clarify concepts for better comprehension.
Another study attempted to ascertain the word-level communicative efficiency and effects to participation of Taglish code-switching of a select group of students taking up a general education course in Natural Science. From the transcriptions of utterances in the two (2) classroom set-ups, two hundred sixteen (217) English embedded words and phrases were observed in 559 Taglish utterances made by students. Students preferred to utter function words in English because the native counterpart words or phrases were not included in the common lexicon of their everyday conversations in a classroom set-up. Aside from the function words, English scientific content words in the Taglish sentences were also manifested as a communicative efficiency tool. These are scientific concepts or words that have no Tagalog translations nor equivalent words or phrases (Liwanag and Labor, 2016).
The study of Pascual (2017) revealed that the students’ formal exposure has obtained an overall mean score of 3.54 with a verbal description of high. This indicates that the respondents are exposed to some English speaking environment with a little code switching. On one hand, the first year college students’ informal exposure obtained an overall mean score of 3.43 having a verbal description of moderate. This means that the respondents are exposed to the English speaking environment but there is often code switching.
Based on the review of related literature, it has been found that there is a dearth of materials related to the relationships of the two variables. Hence, this study is proposed to focus on the relationships of code switching and achievement of students in English in the Division of Tangub City.
Chapter 3Research MethodsTo produce knowledge that is applicable outside of the research setting, there is a need to follow step by step process in doing research. This chapter presents the research methods of the study. It includes discussion on the research design and research methods covering the research environment, research subjects, sampling techniques, instrumentation, data gathering techniques, and statistical treatment.
Research DesignIn view of the nature of research problem, the descriptive research method was used. This research method is a fact-finding procedure that involved gathering, classification, measurement, and evaluation of data on the profile, attitudes toward code switching and their academic achievement in English. It was concerned with conditions or relationships that exists, practices that prevail or points of view that were held and processes that are going on.
Research EnvironmentThis study will be conducted at Banglay National High School of Tangub City. It is located in the northwestern part of Tangub City. It is a remote and mountaneous area. It is one of the secondary schools of Tangub City Division, geographically situated at Tangub City, Misamis Occidental. The barangay where the school is located is surrounded by five barangays namely Hoyohoy, Salimpuno, Villaba, Tituron and Banglay.
To be exact, the grade 7 has an average 40 students per section, grade 8 population is 40 students per section, grade 9 has an average population of 60 students, grade 10 has 47 students, grade 11 with 40 students and grade 12 with 40 students. The said school has 16 teaching personnel and 2 non-teaching personnel. Research ParticipantsThe research subjects of this study will be the secondary students of Banglay National High School in the school year 2018-2019. In the choice of the respondents from Grades 7 to 10, the researcher will employ a random sampling technique.
Instruments The research instruments used in the investigation was a questionnaire which determined the profile and attitudes toward code switching. The instrument was adopted Valerio (2015) on “Filipino–English Code Switching Attitudes and Practices and Their Relationship to English Academic Performance among Freshman Students of Quirino State University” and Al-Qaysi (2015) on “Examining Students’ and Educators’ Attitudes Towards the Use of Code-Switching within Higher Educational Environments in Oman”.
The questionnaire deals with the respondents’ attitudes toward code switching in the teaching of English. The respondents will be asked to rate their respective reasons for code switching. The last part of the questionnaire is the academic grades of the respondents in their English subject. The respondents will be asked to rate each concern using the following scale:
Scale Range Description 5 4.21 – 5.00 Strongly agree 4 3.41- 4.20 Agree 3 2.61- 3.40 Slightly agree 2 1.81- 2.60 Disagree 1 1.0 – 1.80 Strongly disagree Data Gathering TechniquesBefore the questionnaire were administered to the target respondents, the researcher secured a written permission from the school head that she be allowed to distribute and collect the survey for. The students will also be informed of their rights as respondents and explain to them the importance of the study. The researcher went to administer the questionnaire and she immediately retrieved the instrument after the students were through in answering the test. When the questionnaire were collected, data tabulation started. The data were presented in textual and tabular forms. Other important process like analysis and interpretation followed.
Statistical Treatment In the study, the descriptive statistics such as mean and standard deviation will be computed to describe the students’ attitudes toward code switching. To test if there will be existing significant relationship among students’ attitudes toward code switching and their academic achievement in English, the researcher will solve the Pearson correlation (r value) and the p-value of the variables.
Ethical Considerations in Research
Upon the conduct of the study, participants will be informed prior to the beginning of the study. Participants will be asked to sign a consent form for their participation in the study. The researcher will make sure that the research participants have the protection of privacy. In administering the consent form, all research participants will be requested to participate on their own will. Voluntary participation on their part and no coercion will be made to make them participate. Harm will be avoided by ensuring anonymity or participants’ identity and they will not be required to write their names on the research instruments. They will be further assured of the confidentiality of their answers. Any type of communication in relation to the study should be done with honesty and transparency.
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Permission to conduct the study. Insert the Scanned approved permission letter. For thesis 2 only
ATTITUDES TOWARD CODE SWITCHING IN TEACHING
AND LEARNING ENGLISH
INSTRUCTIONS: The following are statements pertaining to your attitudes toward code switching. Please indicate your response by encircling the number using the code:
5 – Strongly Agree2 – Disagree
4 – Agree1 – Strongly Disagree
3 – Somewhat Agree
A. Attitudes toward the Teaching of English with Code Switching Our teacher does code-switch while teaching in order to help us understand better. Our teacher does code-switch due to lack of equivalents in simpler English terms. Code switching helps our teacher bond strongly with us. Code switching helps our teacher convey meaning easily. Usage of code switching by our teacher helps us learn the English language easily. Our teacher does switch code due to the complexity of certain words in the English language. Our teacher does code-switch because he/she feels that we are not really exposed to English. Using code switching while illustrating helps us to learn better. Code switching makes the discussions more interesting. B. Attitudes toward the Use of Code Switching in School
I converse with my friends using Tagalog and English during our casual conversation. In my English subject, I speak my own dialect and mix/switch to English from time to time. . As a routine, I mix English and my vernacular language in my English subject because my professor allows me. During classroom discussion, mixing vernacular language and English language is a good practice among students. Mixing Tagalog and English can be a means of expressing oneself easier and more accurate. 3.85 Agree 3.88 Agree 6. Using both Tagalog and English during class discussion makes the learning of English lessons easier and faster. Using both Tagalog and English during class discussion makes the learning of English lessons easier and faster. During recitation, I use the combination of my dialect and English because it is allowed by my professor. Combining my dialect and English language is just natural because it is a linguistic trend being practiced by everyone. . In using technological gadgets in the school, I prefer using English and Tagalog.