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Art and Architecture
Jessica Keating`s essay explores the place of European artworks and technology at the Mughal court. Describe the objects that are at the center of Keating`s argument. How did these objects end up travelling from Europe to India? How did the meaning of these objects change on account of this movement?
Metamorphosis at Mughal Court is the title of the article written by Jessica Keating. The main reason for writing this article was to evidently show that pieces of art in the ancient time changed their meaning after they moved from their native places where they were made to other foreign lands. The conversion was mainly due to time as well as a change of some aspects of the art itself. The piece covers mostly art in the late 15`s to 17`s. Specifically, the metamorphosis has been focused on two regions, that is Europe and India. It is not the meaning of the art that has only changed but also the content included. The principal objects that are used to show or pass the intended message are the Diana Automaton art, Jahangir entertains Abbas and receiving the Safavid Shah However the primary focus of the Diana Automaton art. Here, a clockwork is examined on how it moved from Germany to Mughal court in India and how its inherent meaning was changed over the years.

Diana Automaton is art that contains several objects and figures that are in motion. The word automata simply mean acting on one`s will. In ancient Germany, such was selected clockworks. The automaton was kept and used correctly for feasts concerning courts and mostly used by kings to be given as gifts. Diana automata were initially used in drinking games. The court of Mughal Emperor Jahangir possessed the same type of automation. In the art Safavid ruler Shah is seated next to Emperor Jahangir. Diana Automaton was one piece of art that was valued by an official who earned high ranks in the ancient times. Therefore, there was a sense of class as the same suggested their places of origin. Automata were believed to represent aspects higher than religious, cultural or linguistic differences. Therefore, such pictures were highly valued not only by the people who formerly owned them but also by those who came across and saw the same (Keating 740). One way that such automata moved from one geographical area to another was through visual records and texts. Some Germans went to India for acquisitions, and in the process books, letters and new prints were trafficked across different places like Baghdad and Goa. Ferdinand Con facilitated contracts with the Portuguese, and in the process, he made contact with the Mughal court in India. Also, the Diana Automaton was also passed or exchanged with other gifts by the prominent business persons who used to operate by then.
After crossing over to India through the Mughal Court, the picture posses a new religious and diplomatic meaning. Since the Indian people did not know what its fundamental purpose was, they derived and made their artifacts from the figures and the objects in the picture. The cup that represented torture in the beginning now served as a cup of divination an expression of power and wisdom. Some objects and figures had also been changed in to possess foreign originality. The interpretation of the picture explains the whole concept of metamorphosis. The mobility of ancient art triggered the different understanding of information. The Indian people have a different meaning of the native art or image that initially originated from Germany.

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In a nutshell, ancient art is significant in the modern life. Art was one main contributor of why specific cultural practices were passed on from one group to another. Also, some methods expressed in art were understood differently by different groups of people according to their diplomatic or religious basis. Metamorphosis of art was facilitated by the intensity of interactions between people of different geographical regions. Sometimes the originality of specific pieces of art could not be traced because other had imitated the original part.

Work CitedKeating, J. (2015). Metamorphosis at the Mughal Court. Art History, 38(4), 732-747.

The author you have read have explored a number of artworks and traditions that could be referred to as “hybrid.” What does the term mean when applied to early modern art? Identify at least three examples of hybrid art discussed in this course or the readings. How do these works combine elements of different cultures? What is the result if these combinations?
Art is categorized and defined in the various ways. One of it is hybrid art. In its definition, the hybrid architecture comprises of the decisions that artists make to pursue areas of rising or emerging technologies. Here, the art specializes in artifacts of intelligence and visualization. Hybrid technique presumed the upcoming means of technology incorporating the same in the different arts that were being made. Most of the common areas that were directly involved with hybrid art are physical science especially seeing that in the past, technology was something that people did not anticipate for. The hybrid technique was used to create new art that was different from the ancient artworks that were done by the classical artists. One unique thing about hybrid art is that it created new species of artworks that still had a tight cultural connection. Artists opted to use this model of technique to exploit the new ways and means of technology that was rising. The technology was used to enhance the pieces of art that they were working on.

Numerous artists reacted to the focal part relevant and innovative research plays in contemporary culture. They went past merely utilizing innovative instruments and contraptions in their work to connect with profoundly with the procedures of analysis. They are made progressive art at the wildernesses of legitimate research. They considered craftsmanship to be a free zone of research that seeks after regions of science and research. They are locked in their specialty in innovations that would be dismissed by the commercial center were in any case socially fundamental (Bailey 6). They sought the request that was viewed as excessively questionable, excessively wacky, too unlikely, overly theoretical for consistent science and innovation. Their hypothetical introduction extended from festivity of human interest to study of science’s self-importance. They went into the procedures in inquiring about at all stages: setting research motivation, improvement of research forms, representation, elucidations of discoveries, and instruction of general society.
There are various examples of hybrid art. One of them is the motifs. These types of arts entailed artificial divisions curved between elements. This was one form of art that students complained that it had lost its syntax. The motifs had a significance in the colonial culture in the past especially in the 1970`s. A motif was basically a division of different ornaments with each ornament having its own meaning. Another example of hybrid art is architectural buildings. These buildings were well decorated with the concept coming from Gasparini. Most of the unique parts of these buildings included cornices, columns, pediments, and corbels (Bailey 7). The decoration also incorporated the use of ornaments since it was closely related to architecture. The third example of hybrid art was the colonial textiles. The most common in the ancient times was the pre-Hispanic, Nazca and Tiahuanaco. The textiles had aspects of decorative motives with some sort of patterns interjoined to make a unique theme in the media
Hybrid art was adopted when technology started to be applicable. This approach gave rise to new forms of art and later led to an intense exchange of cultural practices. Different artists invested and focused directly on hybrid art because it had a diverse way of expressing the different cultural aspects entailed by the various ancient cultures.

Work Cited
Bailey, G. A. (2010). The Andean Hybrid Baroque. Convergent Cultures in the.