Sai Satyam Pokharel
MN503 Overview of Internetworking
Laboratory 1: Network devices and network model
1. Compare TCP/IP and OSI network model using appropriate diagram. How the OSI model and TCP/IP model differ?
TCP/IP is based on standard protocol on which internet is based and facilitates communication between host and the internet. It acts as communication gateway for the network and end users and is protocol independent standard.
It allows for loosening of rules provided that general guidelines has been met and is much more reliable than OSI. OSI is known for its strict protocol and boundaries.
Follows horizontal approach. Follows vertical approach.
It is connection-oriented as well as connection less. Here transport layer is connection-oriented.
TCP/IP model implements OSI model and has 4 layers. OSI is used as a guidance tool or a reference model around which other networks are built.
Investigate on various types of networking devices currently used in industry. Prepare a table that shows what network devices is used in which networking layer and key features of networking devices.
LAYERS FEATURES DEVICES/PROTOCOLS
Application Layer It is a standard mechanism to access files and manages it. Users can access files in a remote computer and manage it. It is also possible for users to retrieve files from a remote computer. Ex: File Transport Protocol
Presentation Layer It takes care that the data is sent in such a way that the receiver will understand the information or data and will be able to use the data. Ex: Tiff, Gif
Session Layer Session layer facilitates active communication between users who are on different machines. Ex: Remote Procedure call
Transport Layer Gateway is used to join two dissimilar network so that devices in one network can communicate with devices on another network. Gateways
Network Layer It directs packets over to their destinations on the internet. Router
Data Link Layer The primary function of switch is to determine the MAC addresses of all the devices which are connected to make sure that where the data is supposed to be sent.
Bridge acts as an interconnection between two similar network to work as a single network. Switch, bridge
Physical Layer Cables do not have interaction with data. It merely connects devices. Cables likes coaxial and fibre optic.
Prepare a table that illustrates the major manufacturing companies for networking devices and their recently released network devices.
Company Recently released devices
Cisco Router, Switches
Aruba Aruba 330 series wireless LAN
Juniper Mesa 2 Rugged tablet,SRX110 Services Gateway,
Huawei Internet router, fibre optic cable
Why network layering is very important for protocol and standard formation? Discuss in detail.
=>Network layer is important because communication between two different network elements is possible through it.Packets travel between network which is supported by logical addressing with the help of Internet Protocol.It is impossible to achieve data communication and inter-networking of devices without TCP/IP.There has to be a uniform set of protocols and standards which the communicating systems and applications will conform to so that computer with different operating system and hardware are able to communicate with each other effectively over a network.
Q)Prepare a report on transmission media used in networking. The report should key features for each transmission media.
=>Some of the transmission media used are:
a)Twisted Pair Cable
This is more widely used transmission media.
These are of 2 types-
Unshielded Twisted Pair(UTP) and Shielded Twisted Pair(STP).
Among these STP is a better one since it performs better at a higher transmission rate than UTP and is comparatively faster.But its comes with some disadvantages such as it is difficult to install,is more bulky and expensive too.
This is preferred to be used over longer distances and has high immunity to noise.It is fairly easy to install and is not pricey but one single cable failure can disrupt the entire network.
c)Optical Fibre Cable
Here the core of the cable is made up of glass or plastic which causes light to be reflected.Optical fibre has higher bandwidth and capacity and is light weight as well.However,it comes with some disadvantages like high cost,difficult to maintain etc.
There are few unguided media i.e wireless media which does not require any physical medium for transmission of signals.They are
Its frequency ranges from 3KHz – 1GHz.
Radiowaves can penetrate through buildings and are easy to generate.Both the sending and receiving antenna need not be aligned here.
The sending and receiving antenna has to be properly aligned with each other. Its frequency ranges from 1GHz – 300GHz.The distance covered by the signal is directly proportional to the height of antenna.Microwaves are nostly used for mobile phone communication.
These are used for short distance communication and cannot penetrate through obstacles.Its frequency ranges from 300GHz – 400THz .It is used in wireless mouse,printer,keyboard etc.