QUESTION- ( 1.1 )

Iden Identify the different reasons people communicate.

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Communication is a two-way process. It is about giving a message and receiving a message,

We communicate to:

Resolve problems/issues with your employer/colleagues
or as a carer

Bringing about changes in peoples’ attitudes, motivating people,

Establishing and maintaining relationships;

Conveying ideas to others;

Persuading others;

Giving information to others;

Seeking information from others;

Receiving information from others

(A) Resolving problems/issues with your:


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There’s an art in resolving problems at work without creating more problems. If you’re in the 70% of people who are unhappy and disengaged at work (as reported by the Society of Human Resources Management) and you know your reasons are directly related to your work environment, you probably wonder if there is anything you can do about it that will turn your situation around.

You have three choices you can consider which are:

you can suck it up and live with it,
you can start looking for another job, or
you can talk to your boss and/or someone at work who can help you.

Talking about work issues at work can get messy if not done correctly. You probably won’t be able to say what you really think without there being some risk involved. That is not very encouraging but unfortunately, that’s how it is for many people because addressing issues at work is more like an art than a skill. You must know how honest you can be and how to say what you want to say without digging a deeper hole for yourself.

Despite the issues you are having, if you really like your job, it is worth a shot at attempting to resolve the problems before you throw in the towel and you must know the right way to go about doing it.

Your ability to be successful at this, however, depends a lot on where you stand at work. If you have a history of performance or attitude related issues, you will have less success than if you’re an employee who has a record of outstanding work performance.

If you feel like you can’t address your issues because you fear your boss (or someone else) will retaliate against you or worse yet, you will get fired. These are very legitimate concerns.

The resolution tactic that you must consider first is directly talking to your boss or to the person who is the cause of your problem. It is the most professional way to handle it as a first line strategy. Immediately going above that person’s head or to HR could (but not always) significantly worsen the problem. People tend to get upset when others go around them or above them instead of dealing directly with them.

If you do have performance issues at work, it’s a good idea to tie them together in your conversation so that you can discuss it with your or boss or the person you are having the problem with.

Here are some examples of ways to start a conversation around the most common issues employees have at work.

Problem 1: Conflict With Boss

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Open the dialogue with:

“I feel like we have been having some communication breakdowns lately. I would like to work with you to try to resolve these issues.”

Never accuse that person of anything by constantly saying:

“you do this, and you do that.”

This will make the person feel defensive. You should start all your sentences with:

“I” and mix in a lot of compliments with your concerns (e.g. “I think you have some great ideas but I feel like I don’t know how to ask for your assistance without upsetting you. Can you help me understand what I am doing so that I don’t upset you?”)

Problem 2: Feeling Undervalued Or Unappreciated

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Open the dialogue with:

“Can you let me know what your expectations are for my job? I love what I do here and I am doing everything I can to make sure that I do it right however, I do not feel like I am getting the feedback I need for me to effectively measure if my work is valued here.”

Problem 3: Long Work Hours

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You should not raise this issue if you’re working the exact number of hours you agreed upon when you accepted the job, unless your workload increased drastically. Otherwise, if this is your situation, it is likely time to start looking for a job elsewhere.

However, if your hours increased significantly, you can start a conversation like this:

“I am struggling a bit with the long hours I have been working lately. I will do anything I can for this company but lately these long hours have been having a negative impact on my family, my school work, etc. Is there something we can work out where I can have a better work/life balance?”

Even suggesting doing work at home can be an option here.

Problem 4: Low Pay

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In this scenario, I would not raise the issue unless you did not get (or did not get enough of) a promised or expected (annual) pay increase. If that is the case you can state,

“I think I was expecting a (bigger) pay increase. Is there a problem with my work or something I should be aware of that I can work on?”

Problem 5: Lack Of Training

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L&D and the Crisis of Credibility: 5 Core Reasons Behind Our Lack of Perceived Legitimacy

Open the dialogue with:

“I really want to do a good job for the Company and would really benefit from some training in (subject). Can we talk about some ways I can get additional training?

Problem 6: Passed Over For A Promotion Or Job Transfer

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Open the dialogue with:

“I was really hoping to have the opportunity to move into that new role. Can you let me know what I can do to have a better chance of achieving that role in the future?”

The key in all these scenarios is to be prepared to handle the responses professionally. Remember, you are trying to resolve the issue and not escalate it. You must remain professional even if the other person does not. If the person responds in a very angry manner and you find you are about to blow your top, excuse yourself from the conversation before you say something you might regret. Blowing your top can have serious consequences, including termination of your employment. The best thing to do is to walk away first!

If for whatever reason, you feel that you cannot talk directly to the person in question, then you should consider discussing your issues with someone in the Human Resources Department. You should be able to discuss your issues and get advice in complete confidence.

However, in some Companies, this is not the case. Not all HR employees are trustworthy. If that is the case and you truly can’t talk to anyone at work, then it is time for you to put together a plan to move on.

It is possible to work out some of the most common issues employees have at work. However, your issues will not resolve by themselves. The worst thing you can do is run around talking about them with your co-workers. That will just cause you to become more disengaged, which can lead to performance issues and/or termination.

You only have two options when it comes to work-related issues:

you must directly address them or
make the decision to move on.

Sucking it up and living with it is not a good option but sadly is one many people take.

Do not be one of them because in most cases you will get to a point where you eventually say or do something out of anger that gets you fired. Or you get so upset you just up and quit one day without much thought and then realize afterwards you really could not afford to do that. Start to think this through now and put a plan together on what actions you will take but you must do it quickly.


You must now the proper way to escalate an issue. You do not want to go from your office to the local Solicitor’s office to talk to a lawyer. No matter which situation you are in, you are expected to work from the bottom up. The steps to take should be as follows:

1. Address the Issue Directly With The Offender

This may be difficult for many people, but necessary. You communicate what the issue is followed by a very specific example. You do not want to use truths like:

“you always talk vulgar to me”

when that is not actually true, because that person may be vulgar frequently, but not ‘always.’ Consider:

“When you spoke to me just now, that was vulgar and inappropriate. You do not have my permission to talk to me that way.”

2. If the Issue Continues

Again, this can be difficult for some people, but you need to repeat your previous message and then let them know you will be escalating it both to management and HR. At this point, you should be documenting both your conversations and comments made to you by the offender. You may need this type of detailed information when you take the issue up the “food chain”.

3. Taking It to Management and Human Resources (HR)

Not all Companies have an HR, but if they do, you need to cover your bases and ensure they are in the loop. When you take your issue to your manager, you will be much more effective if you can keep calm and professional. An emotional scene won’t help make your case despite how you might feel about it. You need to be prepared to give specific documented examples.

You also need to be prepared for management to speak to the offender, making the previous step important. You must hold your management accountable for correcting the situation. This does not mean you insisting on this person being fired, but it is reasonable to expect that they will take whatever action they think will curb the inappropriate behaviour. You should expect, and ask for a follow up, to hear that they did act to address your issues. You do not need a full account of what was said and done, as that is confidential.

4. If It Continues…

Again, you need to follow the previous steps and waste no time informing your management and HR. You are still looking for these people to act to address your issues.

5. And If It Still Continues…

At this point, you may be out of options. If the issue or issues raised creates a hostile work environment, you may have grounds for a legal action. If it is simply someone who does annoying things, badgers your work or makes rude remarks, your only two options are:

Take the issue to a higher management level.
Leave. While it might seem unfair that you would have to be the one to leave, all too many people tend to be weenies when dealing with difficult personnel issues. You can either find a way to tolerate it, be miserable or leave.
Hopefully, you will never have to face this type of situation but if you do, learn the right way to professionally addressing this kind of issue. It will be more effective in the long run for everyone involved.

(ii) Your Colleagues

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Warning! horrible colleague ahead! Every work place has one. That is an overbearing, difficult, nasty, backbiting individual who makes it his/her personal mission in life to belittle everyone else and make their life a living hell.

Usually, people like this are also extremely manipulative and good at managing both HR and their own boss. When you are forced to work with or for one of these human porcupines, here are some strategies that will help you deal with this type of colleague.

Understanding the Nature of Work Bullies

To begin, you need to understand how this person got to this place in the first place. It is a little bit of nature and a little bit of nurture. Occasionally, this type of personality is just plain mean through and through. However, usually nasty behaviour stems from a deep personal insecurity about themselves or their ability to perform their job.

Maybe they feel they are not good enough; maybe they never got an “A” in school; maybe their mom beat them as a child (seriously). For whatever reason, they feel inferior and by making you miserable they are bringing you down, too. They get perverse satisfaction by doing this. It is a vandal’s mentality of smashing nice things that belong to others for fun.

How to Deal with A Horrible Colleague

If they are truly horrible they also chase much of the competition for their job and higher promotions away. This only makes them even more horrible because they now see concrete rewards for their bad behaviour. Before you know it, all office etiquette is thrown out the window and there is an office monster on the loose.

1. Killing Porcupines with Kindness

The number one best strategy for dealing with a horrible co-worker is to kill them with kindness. For every exasperated sigh, provide a smile. For every accusatory rant and rave, provide a calm understanding response. Always stand your ground but do not react to their nastiness. After the first or second time you throw kindness in their face, the bad behaviour should stop.

Best of all, you will get a euphoric feeling inside, “AHA, I’ve controlled the beast.” This will make it easier and easier to keep your calm when confronted with accusations, back stabbing campaigns and ghastly behaviour. Best of all, if they keep it up you will make them look like an utter fool.

2. Physically Remove Yourself Whenever Possible

This does not mean transfer to a different department, it means being aware of a negative environment and removing yourself from it. You would not work outside in a snowstorm

unless you had to. Why work next to a human tornado? If you have a flexible working environment, it will be easier for you to focus on your job if you are not constantly upset and trying to manage the work bully.

There is a lot to be said for “out of sight, out of mind”. Even noise reduction headphones (turned on or off) can do wonders. Make it clear to your boss that you can always be found in your new alternate location. Do not ever give up your territory, just be somewhere else in the department, away from the horrible colleague.

3. Don’t Get Mad, Get Even

Whenever emotions take over the brain it is almost impossible to think logically and make good decisions. You must realize that you need to manage your own responses as much as managing the work bully. An easy way to do this is to lay future fantasy plans about ways to get even with the work bully. With every snide remark you can add another imagined revenge.

It is most likely that you will never actually follow through on any of your plans, but if you bide your time there may come a point when you can inflict massive and substantial damage to the work bully and seriously undermine their career. Revenge like this is unbelievably sweet. This sounds evil, but think of all the poor future souls you will be protecting.

4. Manage the Tiger, But Never Trust him/her

Often the work bully will respond favourably to your kindness and afterwards try to befriend you. No matter how tempting this is (you might really come to like them), never trust them. This is a professional relationship, do not let it become more otherwise do not be surprised if you get bitten.

5. Avoid Engaging in Teams of People Against The Bully

The camaraderie may be nice and the nasty battle-ax deserves it, but this type of behaviour is unprofessional and against all normal office etiquette. In addition, these bullies are uncommonly good at staving off attacks. Fighting is what they do best. Do not assume you and your comrades will end up winning the war.

(iii) As a Carer – Communicating with a Mentally Challenged person

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The ability to communicate with people whose speech is affected by a mental disability is a skill that can be developed over time with practice. Whether you deal with mentally challenged speakers often or rarely, this advice will help you to communicate more effectively and smoothly.

Do not assume that someone has an intellectual disability based on the ease of their speech. Some people who have difficulty speaking, such as people with cerebral palsy and some autistic people, are on average just as smart as anyone else. A disability accent, slow speech, or halting speech doesn’t always mean an intellectual disability.

People who can’t speak can be of any intelligence level. Body language does not relate to intelligence either. Looking away while listening, and fidgeting constantly, are typical autistic traits. Don’t assume that this means they aren’t paying close attention, or that they can’t understand.

Accept their quirks. Disabled people may do things that society considers unusual:

making sounds,
flopping to the ground when frustrated,
flapping their hands,
running in circles,
echoing phrases,
pacing constantly, and more.

Most of this behaviour serves a purpose:

calming themselves down,
communicating their needs,
expressing feelings,
or simply having fun.

Recognize that it is okay to be different, and that there is no need to worry about behaviour that does not hurt anyone.

Recognize that ability varies from day to day. Stress, sensory overload, lack of sleep, how hard they pushed themselves this morning, and other factors can determine how easy it is for someone to communicate and perform other tasks. If they are having a harder time today than they did yesterday, remember that they are not doing this on purpose, and work on being patient.

Ask questions if you do not understand their wording. People with intellectual and developmental disabilities may not word things in the same way as people without disabilities. Their wording might not make sense to you. Instead, ask them questions to clarify what they are trying to say.

For example, if your friend asks “Where’s the thing?” then ask questions about what type of thing they mean (a little thing? what colour? a cell phone?). Sometimes, they might be searching for a word. For example, if they are asking about food, and there are many types of food, then start narrowing it down. Maybe they are saying “food” when they want to ask about strawberries.

If you don’t know, ask. It’s absolutely okay to ask, “How can I accommodate you?” or “Are there any parts of your disability that I should be aware of?” Most people would rather have you ask them than assume who they are or what they need. If you’re well-meaning and respectful, it’ll be fine.

If you want to know how to handle a specific situation, ask them. For example, “I notice that sometimes when we meet new people, they have a hard time understanding you and you can be left out. How do you want me to handle this?”

Don’t give up on them. When speaking to a person who has a disability accent, some people ask, “what did you say?” once and then let their eyes glaze over and pretend to listen. Keep trying to connect. Make it clear that what they must say is important to you.

A useful phrase is “I’m having trouble understanding you, but I care about what you are
saying.” If verbal communication is too hard, try texting, typing on a tablet, writing,
using sign language (if you know it), or another form of alternative communication.
Work with them to figure out what is best.

Find conversation topics that interest them. Ask about their day, their favourite book or TV show, their interests, or their family and friends. This will help you get to know them, and you might make a new friend!

Speak calmly, clearly, and with a moderate volume. Pronounce well, and focus on clarity. Speaking louder does not make you more understandable. Consider this an opportunity to work on your clarity of speech.

Model your vocabulary usage after theirs. If they say the word “gigantic,” then they probably also know what “enormous” and “huge” mean. If they speak using basic words, then it is probably best to use the smallest words you know. If they use words like “fortuitously” and “systematic bias,” then their disability probably is not intellectual.

Avoid long and complex sentences if needed. If the person seems to struggle understanding speech, keep your sentences short and clear. Use simple subject-verb-object statements when you can.

This is good practice in general too. Non-disabled people do not enjoy wading through extremely long sentences either.

Let them see your mouth. If the person is hard of hearing or struggles to process speech, they may want to watch you as you pronounce your words. This helps them figure out what you are saying in many cases. Avoid turning away as you speak, covering your mouth, or speaking with your mouth full.

Avoid running words together. For example, the question “Do-ya wanna eat-a pizza?” may be difficult for them to understand. One of the biggest challenges for listeners is knowing where one word ends and the next one begins. If they seem to be struggling, slow down the pace a little, giving a slight pause between each word.

Don’t mimic their disability accent, in a misguided presumption that they will “understand” if you speak like they do. This does not make you easier to understand. It will confuse your listener and may give the wrong impression about your sensitivity to their disability.

Let the pace slow down as needed. If their speech is halting or laboured, it may take them more time to get through a sentence. Give them utter patience, and do not rush them to finish what they’re saying. This takes the pressure off and makes them feel more at ease.1

Use open body language. Show them that you are interested in what they’re saying by looking at them, and making eye contact if they’re comfortable with it.

Remember that they may have different listening body language than you do. If you aren’t sure whether they’re paying attention, watch to see if they react to what you say (e.g. giggling when you compliment them, asking questions) or just ask them.

Deal with negative emotions in non-aggressive ways. Due to social uncertainty, past mistreatment, or abuse-related PTSD, some disabled people may feel scared and confused if you are angry or hostile towards them. If you’re getting very upset, take some deep breaths and try saying “I need some alone time” so you can handle your emotions privately.

Take some quiet time. If you need to speak to them to address the issue, wait until you can handle it with a level head. They won’t be able to listen well if they are scared or confused by your strong emotions.

If the disabled person does something that upsets you, communicate it calmly and clearly. Try using “I” language in the template “When you ______, I feel _____.”

Be patient. They are facing barriers beyond your comprehension, and that can make conversation difficult. Never yell at a disabled person, or blame them for their disability.
If you find yourself feeling frustrated, disengage. Go for a walk, do something else, or say “I need some alone time for a little while.”

Accommodate their needs. If you notice that they seem distressed, ask them “Is something wrong?” and “Is there anything I can do to help?” For example, a disabled person might feel distracted by all the movement in a crowded restaurant, and prefer to eat at an outdoor table where there are less people. People can talk much better when their needs are being met.

Relax. Disabled people are people like anyone else, and can be fun to talk to and befriend.

(B) Bringing about changes in peoples’:


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A negative outlook on life can have serious consequences to your health, your relationships with friends, family and colleagues and your feelings of satisfaction in life. Changing your attitude can be achieved through mindful, conscious thought and attention. Generating a positive attitude, practicing gratitude, and selectively forming new habits that promote positivity is a life-long process that can result in a changed attitude.

In making these changes, chances are you will notice some patterns of positivity in your life. No one’s life is all bad, and by letting go of the parts of your life that no longer serve you, you will become more aware of the habits you want to strengthen.

If there are people, activities, or situations in your life that continually feel stressful, you may need to let them go. A change in attitude depends on living a new kind of life. This might mean quitting drinking, using drugs, overeating, or smoking. Whatever the negative parts of your life may be, you will need to let them go if you’re going to develop a better attitude.

There is always something in any situation that is worth praising. For example, if it is raining out, you could either complain that you are getting wet, or you could observe that the plants will likely benefit from a good soak. Someone with a negative attitude can easily find the downside of any circumstance, but to develop a positive attitude you should force yourself to notice the good. Share your positive observations with others, and keep negative remarks to yourself.

Make sure to look for the positive in yourself as well. Remember that everything is an opportunity to learn new skills, especially the things that feel most difficult at first. If nothing else, you can be grateful for the chance to learn new things in a bad situation.

Never stay in a situation simply because it is bad. You may be tempted to pretend that unhealthy behaviour — a racist boss, an abusive partner, an emotionally manipulative friend — is providing a good opportunity for you to learn patience and tolerance. While this may be true, staying may not be the healthiest choice. One of the most positive things to learn from a bad situation is that you can leave.

(ii) Motivate people

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How to Motivate Others to Change?

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People may have all the expertise in the world but, if they are not motivated, it is unlikely that they will achieve their true potential. On the other hand, work seems easy when people are motivated.

Motivated people have a positive outlook, they’re excited about what they are doing, and they know that they are investing their time in something that is truly worthwhile. In short, motivated people enjoy their jobs and perform well.
All effective leaders want their organizations to be filled with people in this state of mind. That is why it is vital that a leader and manager, keep their team feeling motivated and inspired. But of course, this can be easier said than done!
Types of Motivation
There are two main types of motivation – extrinsic and intrinsic.
Extrinsic motivation is when you use external factors to encourage your team to do what you want. Pay raises, time off, bonus checks, and the threat of job loss are all extrinsic motivators – some positive, some less so.

Intrinsic motivation is internal. It is about having a personal desire to overcome a challenge, to produce high-quality work, or to interact with team members you like and trust. Intrinsically motivated people get a great deal of satisfaction and enjoyment from what they do.

Every team member is different, and will likely have different motivators. So, it is important to get to know people, discover what motivates them, and find a good mixture of extrinsic and intrinsic motivators, so that they can be motivated successfully.
Motivation in the Workplace
An individual does have some responsibility for motivating himself , but they can be encouraged by creating an environment that helps him to become more motivated. Individuals, teams and even whole organizations can reap the rewards.
Motivated people are highly adaptable, particularly when it comes to change , and they have a positive attitude at work. They help to spread an organization’s good reputation, reduce rates of absenteeism, and improve performance and profit. They also work hard to achieve their goals , and work with a greater sense of urgency than unmotivated people.

Sirota’s Three-Factor Theory argues that there are three crucial factors that motivate your people. These are Equity/Fairness, Achievement and Camaraderie. Team members remain motivated and positive by incorporating each of these factors into their work.

(C) Establish and maintain relationships

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As employees, we spend a significant part of our time in the workplace. Our associates, team members, supervisors, and managers play a substantial role in the quality of our daily working experience, and influence our outlook considerably. The truth is that the state of our relationships with co-workers affects us greatly, in our ability to succeed professionally and in our emotional well-being.
Naturally, it is in our best interests, to form healthy, effective relationships with colleagues. This is not always going to be a straightforward task. The workplace brings together a mixed bag of people, not of our choosing, with different values, cultures, expectations, age ranges, and personalities – all sources of potential conflict. It is not surprising that disagreements and tensions arise when people have little idea of suitable strategies for dealing with others effectively.

Employers today are seeking individuals with strong skills in building relationships, communicating and working effectively in a team. They know the importance of these abilities and how they play an essential role in the performance of the entire workplace. By practicing and building these skills, we can make our working lives a great deal more pleasant and efficient.
Consequently, what are the ways we can we build a healthy relationship with colleagues?
Communicate with others honestly and professionally. Convey your opinions and concerns while listening to other points of view. Nobody appreciates a ‘know-it- all’ attitude. Try not to interrupt people in conversation or meetings, and never put them down in an arrogant fashion. Showing initiative is a great thing, but it needs to be used by including others and receiving their support. Remember the art of good communication means listening as much as speaking
The number one word to remember is ‘respect’, the most basic, yet effective, means of establishing good relationships. Treat everyone, from the newest staff member to the most senior, with the same courtesy as you would expect to receive from them.
Avoid Cliques
Hanging out solely with one group, workmates in the immediate vicinity, those on your classification level, your own age group, or any other special interest group will be perceived as excluding others. Branching out and including all groups is good practice. This way you won’t be alienating anyone and will be welcome in a range of situations
Be a ‘Giver’
Always be ready to help your colleagues. This is most appreciated, and you are likely to be helped in return. Thinking about the needs of others, instead of our worrying about your own, will always assist in building more successful relationships
Give Credit
Always praise co-workers who do well. Paying tribute where it is due will always create a healthy respect with colleagues. Just make sure not to use praise as a means of manipulating people to do what you want. Also, when you constantly speak positively about

others, then people will notice this and recognize you as a better and happier person. Also remember a simple thank you goes a long way! Words and actions go a long way in building strong, happy relationships.
Gain Trust
This can be achieved readily by always fulfilling your responsibilities and delivering on time. Your timely output affects others in the workplace. If unforeseen circumstances prevent you completing a project on time, then communicate this immediately and provide supporting reasons.
There are so many reasons why investing time into building a healthy relationship with colleagues is extremely worthwhile. Good relationships help develop a confident workplace where the environment empowers you to deal comfortably with any potential stressful situations.
If you are happier at work, you will be happier outside of work, so the benefits are endless.
(D) Convey Ideas to Others

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Communication is at the heart of teamwork.

A management team was making a decision. Two team members kept stating information in support of their respective positions. They each dug deeper and deeper trenches around their positions, even repeating what they had already said to make their case. It was as if each person had made up his mind, wouldn’t say anything that didn’t directly support his opinion, and couldn’t consider alternatives.

A team can’t make optimal decisions if they are communicating in this manner. There is a simple technique that can be used to help reduce this cycle of entrenchment “convey.”
Why do team members push their point of view, only share info that supports their view, and appear unreceptive at times to other perspectives? It could be that they have an incentive to “win” the debate. But even when there is no incentive to do so, we see this phenomenon. The answer is that people are strongly driven to feel understood.
How to “convey.” The research is clear. Conveying that you “get it” is a powerful way to improve team communications. Conveying involves reflecting your understanding of the other person’s opinion, point of view, or even their feelings. No bluffing, just communicating that you understand them. So how can we do it effectively?
To convey effectively, you first need to listen carefully. If you are thinking ahead or focusing on crafting your rebuttal, the other person will begin to sound like the teacher in the Charlie Brown cartoons (“wah, wah, wah”). If you don’t listen carefully, you can’t convey effectively. Period.
If the person’s perspective is not clear, ask good open-ended questions that help the person more clearly articulate their opinion and rationale. In fact, even if you think you understand their perspective, based on Chen’s research it may still be a good idea to ask a few questions.
Try to summarize the other person’s position and listen for either confirmation or correction. Note that it is more effective to describe your understanding of their position rather than simply saying that you get it. When someone say, “I hear you,” what they usually mean is “Please stop talking so I can talk now.”

Less Effective…
More Effective…
I hear you.
So you are saying that the new program should be more likely to…
I understand what you are saying.
You believe that if we stop the training effort, then…

An “incorrect” convey can still be useful. When I convey incorrectly, it simply allows the person to say, “Not exactly”. assumptions. I don’t need to be 100% sure of their intent before I convey.
There are two types of “conveys” – intellectual (head) and emotional (heart). Intellectual conveying shows you are aware of the person’s position. Emotional conveying demonstrates you understand what they are feeling. Both can be valuable.

“So you believe that we should shift our resources from project A to project B, effective immediately” (Intellectual convey)
“You are getting a lot of pressure from senior leadership to show better results this quarter, and you believe this is the fastest way to do so” (Emotional convey)

Note that conveying is not the same as agreeing. In fact, it is particularly important to convey before you disagree. Otherwise, anything you say will be interpreted as “she doesn’t get it.” Often you can tell that the person believes you don’t get it because he repeats his position, speaking slower and louder, as if you just arrived in his country.
Conveying opens a window that allows for healthy disagreement. Using the example above, after I have conveyed effectively, I can then offer my view of how to get better results this quarter without shifting resources from project A. If I said that before conveying, the person would think, “Scott doesn’t get it” and proceed to tell me his position again.
When you convey effectively it can create a palpable difference in the conversation. The person you are talking with will typically nod (without even knowing it) and may unfold their arms and lean closer to you, all informal cues that they are a little more receptive because at least you seem to get it!

(E) Persuade Others

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Persuade the Persuadable – Everyone can be persuaded, given the right timing and context, but not necessarily in the short term. Political campaigns focus their time and money on a small set of swing voters who decide elections. The first step of persuasion is always to identify those people that at a given time are persuadable to your point of view and focus your energy and attention on them.
2. Persuasion is not Manipulation – Manipulation is coercion through force to get someone to do something that is not in their own interest. Persuasion is the art of getting people to do things that are in their own best interest that also benefit you.
3. You have to be Interested to be Persuaded – You can never persuade somebody who’s not interested in what you’re saying. We are all most interested in ourselves, and spend most of our time thinking about either money, love or health. The first art of persuasion is learning how to consistently talk to people about them; if you do that then you’ll always have their captive attention.

4. Context and Timing – The basics building blocks of persuasion are context and timing. Context creates a relative standard of what’s acceptable. For example the Stanford Prisoner Experiment proved that overachieving students could be moulded into dictatorial prison guards. Timing dictates what we want from others and life. We chose to marry a different type of person than we date when we’re younger, because what we want change
5. Persistence Pays – The person who is willing to keep asking for what they want, and keeps demonstrating value, is ultimately the most persuasive. The way that so many historical figures have ultimately persuaded masses of people is by staying persistent in their endeavours and message. Consider Abraham Lincoln, who lost his mother, three sons, a sister, his girlfriend, failed in business and lost eight separate elections before he was elected president of the United States.
6. Reciprocity Compels – When I do something for you, you feel compelled to do something for me. It is part of our evolutionary DNA to help each other out to survive as a species. More importantly, you can leverage reciprocity disproportionately in your favor. By providing small gestures of consideration to others, you can ask for more back in return which others will happily provide. (TIP: read “Influence” by Robert Cialdini)
7. Set Expectations – Much of persuasion is managing other’s expectations to trust in your judgment. The CEO who promises a 20% increase in sales and delivers a 30% increase is rewarded, while the same CEO who promises a 40% increase and delivers 35% is punished. Persuasion is simply about understanding and over-delivering on other’s expectations.
8. Compliment Sincerely – We are all so positively affected by compliments, and we’re more apt to trust people for whom we have good feelings. Try complimenting people sincerely and often for things they aren’t typically complimented for, it’s the easiest thing you can do to persuade others that doesn’t cost anything but a moment of thought.
9. Create Scarcity – Besides the necessities to survive, almost everything has value on a relative scale. We want things because other people want these things. If you want somebody to want what you have, you must make that object scarce, even if that object is yourself.
10. Create Urgency – You must be able to instil a sense of urgency in people to want to act right away. If we’re not motivated enough to want something right now, it is unlikely we will find that motivation in the future. We must persuade people in the present, and urgency is our most valuable card to play.

11. Don’t Assume – Don’t ever assume what someone needs, always offer your value. In sales we will often hold back from offering our products/services because we assume others do not have the money or interest. Do not assume what others might want or not want, offer what you can provide and leave the choice to them.
12. Truth-Tell – Sometimes the most effective way to persuade somebody, is by telling them the things about themselves that nobody else is willing to say. Facing the hard truths are the most piercing, meaningful events that happen in our lives. Truth-tell without judgement or agenda, and you’ll often find others’ responses quite surprising.
13. Images Matter – What we see is more potent that what we hear. It may be why pharma companies are now so forthcoming with the potentially horrible side effects of their drugs, when set to a background of folks enjoying a sunset in Hawaii. Perfect your first impressions. And master the ability to paint an image for others, in their minds eye, of a future experience you can provide for them.
14. Build Rapport – We like people who we are like. This extends beyond our conscious decisions to our unconscious behaviours. By Mirroring and Matching others habitual behaviours (body language, cadence, language patterns, etc.) you can build a sense of rapport where people feel more comfortable with you and become more open to your suggestions.
15. Behavioral Flexibility – It’s the person with the most flexibility, not necessarily the most power, who’s in control. Children are often so persuasive because they are willing to go through a litany of behaviours to get what they want (pouting, crying, bargaining, pleading, charming), while parents are stuck with the single response of “No.” The larger your repertoire of behaviours, the more persuasive you will be.
16. Learn to Transfer Energy – Some people drain us of our energy, while others infuse us with it. The most persuasive people know how to transfer their energy to others, to motivate and invigorate them. Sometimes it’s as straightforward as eye contact, physical touch, laughter, excitement in verbal responses, or even just active listening.
17. Being Prepared Gives you the Advantage – Your starting point should always be to know more about the people and situations around you. Meticulous preparation allows for effective persuasion. For example, you dramatically improve your odds in a job interview being completely versed in the company’s products, services, and background.
18. Communicating Clearly is Key – If you cannot explain your concept or point of view to an 8th grader, such that they could explain it with sufficient clarity to another adult, it’s too complicated. The art of persuasion lies in simplifying something down to its core, and communicating to others what they really care about.

19. Use Anger Purposefully – Most people are uncomfortable with conflict. If you’re willing escalate a situation to a heightened level of tension and conflict, in many cases others will back down. Use this sparingly, and don’t do it from an emotional place or due to a loss of self-control. But do remember, you can use anger purposefully for your advantage.
20. Detach and Stay Calm in Conflict – Nobody is more effective when they are “On Tilt.” In situations of heightened emotion, you will always have the most leverage by staying calm, detached and unemotional. In conflict, people turn to those in control of their emotions, and trust them in those moments to lead them.
21. Confidence and Certainty – There is no quality as compelling, intoxicating and attractive as certainty. It is the person who has an unbridled sense of certainty that will always be able to persuade others. If you really believe in what you do, you will always be able to persuade others to do what’s right for them, while getting what you want in return.
(F) Give Information to Others
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Information source:
What does the law say about sharing information?
Adult safeguarding: Information-sharing is related to a number of different pieces of legislation:

Local Authority responsibilities for sharing information under the Care Act 2014
The Common Law Duty of Confidentiality
The Human Rights Act 1998, Article 8 (the right to respect for private life)
The Data Protection Act 1998
The Crime and Disorder Act 1998
The Mental Capacity Act 2005

Local authority responsibilities for sharing information under the Care Act 2014
Under the Care Act 2014 a Local Authority must:
set up a safeguarding board; the board will share strategic information to improve local safeguarding practice
cooperate with each of its relevant partners; each relevant partner must also cooperate with the local authority.

The statutory guidance to the Care Act emphasises the need to share information about safeguarding concerns at an early stage; information-sharing agreements or protocols should be in place

Designated adult safeguarding managers in the local authority and its partner agencies are responsible for ensuring that information shared about individuals alleged to have caused harm is in accordance with human rights, data protection and confidentiality requirements.

Clause 45 of the Care Act focuses on ‘supply of information’. This relates to the responsibilities of others to comply with requests for information from the safeguarding adults board.
The common law duty of confidentiality
Confidentiality is an important principle that enables people to feel safe in sharing their concerns and to ask for help. However, the right to confidentiality is not absolute. Sharing relevant information with the right people at the right time is vital to good safeguarding practice.
All staff and volunteers should be familiar with their internal safeguarding procedures for raising concerns. They can also contact either the police or the local authority safeguarding lead for advice, without necessarily giving an individual’s personal details, if they are unsure whether a safeguarding referral would be appropriate.
Some basic principles:
Don’t give assurances about absolute confidentiality.
Consider the person’s mental capacity to consent to information being shared and seek assistance if you are uncertain.

Make sure that others are not put at risk by information being kept confidential:
Does the public interest served by disclosure of personal information?
Outweigh the public interest served by protecting confidentiality?
Could your action prevent a serious crime?
Share information on a ‘need-to-know’ basis and do not share more information than necessary.
Don’t put management or organisational interests before safety.
Record decisions and reasoning about information that is shared
Carefully consider the risks of sharing information in relation to domestic violence or hate crime.

The Caldicott principles
The sharing of information in health and social care is guided by the Caldicott principles. These principles are reflected in the Data Protection Act and are useful to other sectors:
Access to personal confidential data should be on a strict need-to-know basis.
Don’t use personal confidential data unless it is necessary.
Use the minimum personal confidential data necessary for purpose.
Justify the purpose(s).
Everyone with access to personal confidential data should be aware of their responsibilities.
Comply with the law
The duty to share information can be as important as the duty to protect patient confidentiality.

The Human Rights Act 1998
Under Article 8 of the European Convention on Human Rights, individuals have a right to respect for their private life.
This is not an absolute right and can be overridden if necessary and in accordance with the law.

Interference must be justified and be for a particular purpose.
Justification could be protection of health, prevention of crime, protection of the rights and freedoms of others.

A decision to share information and the reasoning behind it should be recorded.

The Data Protection Act 1998
The Data Protection Act 1998 sets out the parameters for sharing information appropriately and safely.

The basic principles
Any personal information should be shared on the basis that it is:
necessary for the purpose for which it is being shared
shared only with those who have a need for it
accurate and up to date
shared securely and in a timely fashion
not kept for longer than necessary for the original purpose.

Vital interest
‘Vital interest’ is a term used in the Data Protection Act to permit sharing of information where it is critical to prevent serious harm or distress, or in life-threatening situations. If the only person that would suffer if the information is not shared is the subject of that information, and they have mental capacity to decide about it, then sharing it may not be justified.
The Information Commissioners Office upholds information rights in the public interest, promoting openness by public bodies and data privacy for individuals.

The Crime and Disorder Act 1998
Any person can disclose information to a relevant authority under Section 115 of the Crime and Disorder Act 1998, ‘where disclosure is necessary or expedient for the purposes of the Act (reduction and prevention of crime and disorder)’. 11 ‘Relevant authorities’, broadly, are the police, local authorities, health authorities (clinical commissioning groups) and local probation boards.

Understanding the Mental Capacity Act 2005
‘Professionals and other staff need to understand and always work in line with the Mental Capacity Act 2005. They should use their professional judgement and balance many competing views. They will need considerable guidance and support from their employers if they are to help adults manage risk in ways that put them in control of decision making if possible’. 7

The Mental Capacity Act will apply if there is any doubt that the person concerned has the mental capacity to make specific decisions about sharing information or accepting intervention in relation to their own safety.

The Mental Capacity Act ‘Code of practice’ states that: ‘The person who assesses an individual’s capacity to make a decision will usually be the person who is directly concerned with the individual at the time the decision needs to be made’. 12

In most cases a worker should be able to assess whether a person has the mental capacity to make a specific decision – see the two-stage functional test of capacity.

The two-stage functional test of capacity
To decide whether an individual has the capacity to make a particular decision, you must answer two questions:
Stage 1: is there an impairment of or disturbance in the functioning of a person’s mind or brain? If so,

Stage 2: is the impairment or disturbance sufficient that the person lacks the capacity to make a decision?

The Mental Capacity Act states that a person is unable to make their own decision if they cannot do one or more of the following four things:
understand information given to them
retain that information long enough to be able to make a decision
weigh up the information available to make the decision
communicate their decision – this could be by talking, using sign language or even simple muscle movements such as blinking an eye or squeezing a hand.

Other considerations
Every effort should be made to find ways of communicating with someone before deciding they lack capacity to make a decision.
The mental capacity assessment must be made on the balance of probabilities – is it more likely than not that the person lacks capacity?
Family, friends, carers or other professionals should be involved as appropriate.
Different methods (e.g. pictures, communication cards or signing) should be used to support people with communication difficulties to make sure their views are heard.
You must be able to show in your records why you have come to your conclusion that capacity is lacking for the particular decision in question.

Case Study Example

David is a 45-year-old man with learning disabilities. He lives in a housing association flat and has support from adult social services to manage his finances. The housing office has received complaints from the neighbours about noise from the flat. The housing officer, Nimesh, visits David and notices that there are lots of empty alcohol containers lying around. He asks David about the cans and bottles and David says that he has friends who come round in the evening and drink in his flat. Nimesh also notices that there is graffiti on the wall in the living room. He asks David about this and David says that his friend did it. Nimesh asks about the friends and learns that there are a number of much younger men who appear to have befriended David.
Nimesh talks to David about the possible risks and explains that he may be being exploited. He asks David if he can discuss his concerns with other safeguarding partners such as adult social care and the police. He explains that he wants to make sure that David is safe in his flat. David is insistent that he has the right to make friends and he does not want social services.
Nimesh considers David’s mental capacity with regard to his decisions to:
maintain relationships with the young men
refuse to share information with the police or adult social care.

Nimesh considers whether David can:
understand the risk of letting the young men drink in his flat and that the graffiti, cans and bottles suggest a lack of respect for him and his personal space
retain that information long enough to be able to make the decisions to keep allowing the men into his flat or not to inform the police or adult social care
weigh up the situation to enable him to make a decision about the possible risks
communicate his decision about this circumstance and risk.
or the police informed.
Nimesh is sure David has an impairment – his learning disability – and he is not sure that he can appreciate that he may be being exploited or understand the possible risks or consequences. He discusses this with his manager and they take the decision, in David’s best interests, to raise a safeguarding concern with adult social services. Their decision and reasoning is recorded in David’s file.
Nimesh explains to David why he has to raise a safeguarding concern and explains that social services will need to consider whether it is necessary to involve the police.

Learning points

‘Mate crime’ is a term used to describe situations where a person is befriended because of the opportunities for exploitation.
People with care and support needs may be unaware of the dangers of exploitation.
The Mental Capacity Act supports decision-making where someone may not understand the consequences of their actions or the actions of others.

The key principles of the Act
You should understand the basic principles of the Mental Capacity Act when making decisions about sharing personal information for safeguarding purposes. There are five key principles.
Principle 1: a presumption of capacity. Every adult has the right to make their own decisions and must be assumed to have capacity to do so unless it is proved otherwise. This means that you cannot assume that someone cannot make a decision for themselves just because they have a particular medical condition or disability.
Principle 2: individuals being supported to make their own decisions. A person must be given all practicable help before anyone treats them as not being able to make their own decisions. This means you should make every effort to encourage and support people to make the decision for themselves. If lack of capacity is established, it is still important that you involve the person as far as possible in making decisions.
Principle 3: unwise decisions. People have the right to make decisions that others might regard as unwise or eccentric. You cannot treat someone as lacking capacity for this reason. Everyone has their own values, beliefs and preferences which may not be the same as those of other people.
Principle 4: best interests. Anything done for or on behalf of a person who lacks mental capacity must be done in their best interests.
Principle 5: less restrictive option. Someone making a decision or acting on behalf of a person who lacks capacity must consider whether it is possible to decide or act in a way that would interfere less with the person’s rights and freedoms of action, or whether there is a need to decide or act at all. Any intervention should be weighed up in the particular circumstances of the case.

Unwise decisions
A person with capacity is entitled to make unwise decisions relating to abuse.
‘Best interests’ decisions must comply with the Mental Capacity Act.
If a person making an unwise decision lacks capacity to make that decision, then a decision needs to be made by others in the person’s best interests.

Individuals should be given the opportunity to disclose undue influence and seek appropriate support.
If a person with capacity is making an unwise decision that puts others at risk then it may be justified to share information without their consent.
It may be necessary and justified to contest an unwise decision if it appears to be related to exploitation, coercion, grooming, undue influence or duress.

Seven golden rules for information-sharing – Adult safeguarding: sharing information
Remember that the Data Protection Act is not a barrier to sharing information but provides a framework to ensure that personal information about living persons is shared appropriately.
Be open and honest with the person (and/or their family where appropriate) from the outset about why, what, how and with whom information will, or could be, shared, and seek their agreement, unless it is unsafe or inappropriate to do so.
Seek advice if you are in any doubt, without disclosing the identity of the person where possible.
Share with consent where appropriate and, where possible, respect the wishes of those who do not consent to share confidential information. You may still share information without consent if, in your judgement, that lack of consent can be overridden in the public interest. You will need to base your judgement on the facts of the case.
Consider safety and wellbeing: basebase your information-sharing decisions on considerations of the safety and wellbeing of the person and others who may be affected by their actions.
Necessary, proportionate, relevant, accurate, timely and secure:ensure that the information you share is necessary for the purpose for which you are sharing it, is shared only with those people who need to have it, is accurate and up to date, is shared in a timely fashion, and is shared securely.
Keep a record of your decision and the reasons for it – whether it is to share information or not. If you decide to share, then record what you have shared, with whom and for what purpose.

(G) Seek information from others;

Information source:

Information seeking requires a selective approach to gathering information aimed at getting the really crucial pieces of information. The ability to seeking information is based on an underlying curiosity or desire to know more about subject area, issues, people, and the sector. It includes asking questions that go beyond what is routine, in order to ‘dig’ or press for exact information. Critical information seeking is essential for making sure your decisions are firmly grounded in reality and that they are the best they can be.
Critical Seeking Information
Asking easy questions or consults readily available sources, ensures data is complete and accurate.

Checks for error or omissions
Checks to ensure that data is accurate
Acts to reconcile inconsistent forms of data
Asks direct questions of the people who are in a position to answer them
Searches records or files for critical information in a problem or task
Talk to someone to find out what is going on
Looks at visible information to keep yourself up-to-date
Consults colleagues when resolving issues
Keeps track of many details without losing track of them

B. Personally investigates
Identifying and talking to the most appropriate people possessing information relevant to a problem
Understanding and evaluating numerical data, tables, charts or graphs to find information
Carefully preparing and checking details for key events, presentations etc
Takes time to personally find out more e.g. visits other departments or locations
Asks a variety of people to gather different perspectives or ideas
Goes out to investigate a situation and to look for reasons as to why something happened

Follows up incomplete or inadequate answers to pin down facts
Asking a range of open questions to solve and understand a particular issue or problem
Doesn’t wait to be told – finds out what they need to know

C. Digging deeper
Gets important information that others wouldn’t get
Is well known as an active listener
Contacting others who are not personally involved to get their perspective or benefit from their experience
Allowing others to discuss to identify issues
Finding out in detail how fellow colleagues have tackled a particular problem
Asking a series of probing questions to get to the root of a situation or problem; doesn’t stop with the first answer, but finds out the underlying reasons why something has happened
Gathering information from all key ‘stakeholders’ (i.e. people with vested interests)
Making sure that ‘no stones are left unturned’ when investigating an issue
Building knowledge of how the Company works and the factors which impact on business performance

D. Researching issues in
depth and over a period of time
Making a systematic effort over time to obtain needed internal and external data, information or feedback for a specific goal or purpose
Conducting an in-depth investigation from more unusual sources
Developing a survey to gather wider information
Monitoring external sources of sector or specialist information as a basis for taking decisions or building plans
Reviews, scans and analyses trends in the external environment, looking at what can be learned from other sources
Seeking critical data to test a hypothesis

Commissions research, exploring a range of potential sources or avenues, to investigate a specific opportunity or problem

E. Habitually collecting information
from a variety of sources
Continuously building an understanding of the academic area, sector, political and social trends affecting the Company and customer base in order to understand the underlying organisational or specialist areas
Focuses others to collect information needed on a regular basis
Routinely gathering strategic information through own networks
Habitually ‘casts the net wide’ in order to gather any information which may be of some importance to the Company
Constantly reviews, scans and analyses trends in the external environment via journals, conference, newspapers, TV, specialist magazines, computer search systems or other resources

Negative Indicators
Loses site of the big picture
Fails to assimilate information into ideas, solutions or hypothesis
Continuing to collate information and analyse though little further value will be obtained
Interrupts others before they have been able to express their point of view
Aloof and arrogant
Does not listen

Staff Development Activities

Seeking out others who are skilled at getting information, discuss their methods and review your progress with them.
Acting as chairperson in a problem solving group.
Reviewing how data was gathered to solve problem.
Before meetings, carefully structure the questions you need to ask to achieve your goal.

When a member of a project team, review who all the local ‘stakeholders’ are, seek information to ensure all their needs are taken into account.
List all the key ‘stakeholders’ (i.e. people with a vested interest) in a problem or task – seek data from them.
Develop a good network of systematic ways to manage your information e.g. filing systems, time management.
Use the ‘5 why’s’ model to establish the root cause of situations.

Manager activity
Take staff member through your own information gathering techniques; explore ways in which you can mutually improve.
Review occasions where data was incomplete and ask for strategies to minimise these.
Ask your staff member to gather key data to solve a problem, having established with them an explicit information gathering framework.

Information source

(H) Receive information from others

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Confidentiality is a very important right of individuals who receive care and support. It is part
of the relationship of trust that individuals have with healthcare support workers and adult social care workers. It is essential to protect private information from accidental viewing or hearing. For example, if you met another worker and chatted about your work you should consider whether others would be able to hear or if a personal letter to an individual was left in a public place where other people could read it

Information should always be shared on a need-to-know basis only – for example, with other workers involved in the individual’s care. You should not share information with anybody else, even the person’s family or friends, without the individual’s permission. For example, an individual may not want a friend to know about their health or if they have been unhappy.

Today there are ways of keeping in touch with people, for example, Facebook and Twitter, where information is shared instantly. As a health or social care worker you should be careful to use these responsibly and be mindful of the confidentiality rights of all individuals including other workers.

Many workers have mobile technology with them at work which means it is possible to share information about their day or individuals without enough thought and so there are increased risks of breaching confidentiality. This is just as much a breach as leaving a record out of the filing system or remaining logged in to a computer when you are not present. Breaching confidentiality through use of social media, including taking or sharing photos or videos, may be a disciplinary offence, and in some cases may even be a criminal offence depending on what is shared.

Overall, you have a responsibility as a health or social care worker to safeguard an individual’s personal information. You should also treat personal information about other workers that you have access to in the same way. Your employer must have systems in place to meet the legal requirements about storing information and you must act within your employer’s agreed ways of working. Ask your employer to talk you through the system in use in your workplace to protect information.

Increasingly, personal information is stored in computer databases. It covers any data which can be used to identify a living person, including names, birthday and anniversary dates, addresses, telephone numbers, fax numbers, email addresses, etc.
The Data Protection Act 1998 regulates the use of this information (‘data’) to balance the individual’s right to confidentiality and an organisation’s need to use it. The Data Protection Act 1998 introduced rules on how to store information and the rights of individuals to access data related to them. As technology advanced the Act was revised. The Act relates to people living within the United Kingdom and provides a way in which individuals can be in control of information about themselves.

Your employer will have agreed ways of working in place to protect information. Those in relation to electronic information will include having a computer firewall and password protection. Passwords should only be shared with those who have permission to access the information concerned. If you have a personal password to access information at work, you should not share it with anyone else or allow it to be found by anyone.

There will also be practices related to paper-based systems, such as where they are kept and the procedure for access. Even when providing care and support in someone’s own home it is important to know what records there are and where they are kept. Ask your manager to explain your agreed ways of working about handling information and to answer any questions you may have. Digital working, digital learning and digital information sharing are becoming everyday practice in health and social care. There is increased understanding of the benefits of improved communication and access to a wide range of knowledge. It is now an aspiration that everyone delivering care and support will have the confidence to work digitally and the opportunity to develop their digital skills, whether with computers, smart phones or assistive technology.

Care plans are a key record about an individual’s needs and choices and include assessment of risks. They are vital tools in good communication between those who are providing care and support. They must always be kept up to date, complete, accurate and legible in order to ensure quality and consistency of care. They may become legal documents of evidence if at any point there is cause for concern or an enquiry. It is therefore vital you include all details of the agreed care, as well as writing neatly and in a way that is clearly understood, avoiding jargon, and ensuring that the information is factual and not based on opinion. Someone in your workplace will have the responsibility for checking care plans regularly to ensure they are fit for purpose

There might be times when you have concerns over the recording,storing or sharing of information. These could be to do with bad practice relating to confidentiality—for example, if files containing sensitive information have been left lying around or the key for the office has gone missing. Or, they could be to do with how to handle information about risks to the wellbeing of an individual. In either case your manager would be your first port of call. Managers must be told immediately about any concerns over breaches of confidentiality so they can take action. For example, if files have been left lying around for any unauthorised person to see, the manager must speak to the worker who took them out, remind all staff of the agreed ways of working, inform the person to whom the record relates and take any action possible to limit the damage caused. If a key has gone missing there need to be checks to see that nothing has been improperly removed and the locks need to be changed.

Health and social care workers have a duty to report unsafe or incompetent practice to their organisation’s regulatory body—for example, the Care Quality Commission (CQC). If the manager doesn’t take your concerns seriously it is your responsibility to make the report under the whistleblowing procedure. If your concerns are based on an individual’s information you will need to obtain their permission before making a complaint. Whenever you have major concerns about the recording, storing or sharing of information, you should make a written record, stating your concerns and who you have reported to. You should sign and date it as it might be used as evidence, at a later stage, that you reported your concerns properly.


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Information source:

Continue on a separate page if necessary…

QUESTION- ( 1.2 )

Explain how communication affects relationships in the work setting.


Information source:

Communication is important for all aspects of effective work in health and social care.
Communication is a two-way process which is affected by the environment in which the communication takes place. It is never straightforward – it is never about one individual, but always about relationships, environments and understanding the specific needs of the individuals you work with. Communication is about making sure that our needs are recognised or our wishes known by another being. It is about one living person interacting with another in any way, and about the other person listening, understanding and communicating back.

Perhaps the most important aspect of communication is that it is a two-way process. It is about both giving and receiving a message.

In order to relate to other people as individuals, we need to be considerate around their communication styles, preferences and needs, and to ensure that our own communication enables the other person to relate to us. All relationships are built on mutual, two-way communication. Communication is:

? about understanding other people’s needs and wishes
? about letting people know that you have heard and understood them
? about being honest and open about what you can and cannot do to meet those needs and wishes
? on its most basic level, about getting on with people – ie treating them with respect as individuals and as equals.

This is why good communication at work builds effective relationships with colleagues and service users, and why barriers to communication have to be overcome to aid effective mutual understanding

There are four main reasons people communicate: Instrumental communication We communicate in order to:

? ask for something
? refuse something
? choose something
? tell someone what we need or want.

Informative communication We communicate in order to:

? obtain information
? to describe something.
? give another person information

Expressive communication We communicate in order to:

? express our thoughts or feelings
? shares ideas. Social communication

We communicate in order to:

? attract attention
? maintain relationships.
? build relationships

Communication and relationships are very closely linked. The way in which we communicate with others will be affected by the relationship we have with them. In much the same way, the quality of communication has an effect on relationships. For example, when people don’t communicate effectively their relationship suffers. The links between communication and relationships should never be underestimated by health and social care professionals.

In health and social care settings, communication occurs:

? between individual workers and individual users of services
? between individual workers and groups of service users
? within groups of service users
? between team members
? within staff groups
? between staff members, managers and partner agencies
? between service users and their carers, family and friends
? between staff and service users’ carers, family and friends.

Communication is two ways. If carers are failing to understand what a person is communicating, the problem is with the worker, not the service user. The view taken should be more along the lines of ‘the person working with this service user can’t understand their communication’.

People communicate in a variety of ways, such as:

? touch
? gestures
? speech
? drawing
? facial expression
? sign language
? style of dress
? body movements and posture
? writing
? telephone
? electronically (eg. text messaging and email).

The three Vs of communication

There are 3 Vs involved in the giving and receiving of a message:

Visual cues – body language such as eye contact.

Vocal cues – the tone and pitch of the voice.

Verbal cues – the choice of language.

All the different types of communication can be categorised into three main areas:

? verbal communication
? non-verbal communication
? written communication.

Verbal communication

When thinking about verbal communication, people tend to focus on the words they use. However, research indicates that the words we use are less important than other aspects of communication in conveying or understanding our needs. Only a small proportion of communication is conveyed in the words we use with more being communicated by the tone, volume and pitch of the voice, and even more being communicated in the form of body language. Therefore, in using verbal communication you not only need to think about using words that treat people with respect and using words that people can understand, but you also need to think about the following areas:


The speed at which someone talks is very significant. It might indicate someone’s emotional state – for example, fast speech is associated with anger or excitement while slow speech can be associated with tiredness or a low mood. The speed at which someone speaks can be interpreted in a range of ways – for example, slow speech can be interpreted as showing a lack of interest.


People are often not aware of the tone of their own voice. However, it is important for health and social care staff to develop this awareness as tone of voice has such a significant impact on communication.


How loud or softly we speak has a very significant impact on communication. For example, loud speech can indicate anger or aggression and yet many health and social care staff raise the volume of their voice when talking to service users.


The ‘register’ of speech refers to how formal or informal it is. You will be aware that people often change the formality of their speech depending on their situation.

Non-verbal communication

Non-verbal communication (also referred to as body language) refers to the messages given out by body actions and movements rather than words. Body language is an important part of the communication process. As the saying goes, ‘actions speak louder than words’. Usually verbal and non-verbal communications are in agreement (eg someone saying ‘I’m happy’ and smiling) but at times they may contradict each other (eg someone saying ‘I’m happy’ while they look positively sad). There are some key guidelines in terms of body language.

When considering body language (and communication as a whole) try to remember the three Rs: Communication should always be:

? respectful
? receptive
? relaxed.


Respectful, relaxed, receptive ?
Disrespectful, tense, not receptive ?
Resting and/or still hands

Relaxed face

Relaxed shoulders

Posture is upright, able to breathe easily

Slow and deep breathing

General position comfortable and easy to retain when either sitting or standing

Mouth visible

Feet and legs still and comfortable

Appear interested in what is being said

Fidgeting and/or clenched hands

Creased brow, a drawn mouth

Raised and tense shoulders

Posture is strained or hunched

Rapid and/or shallow breathing

Requires lots of fidgeting and movement to remain comfortable

Mouth covered up or chewing finger nails

Feet and legs fidgeting or tapping

Doodle, sigh, look away, look at the watch, etc

These descriptions can also act as indicators of how someone is feeling. Sensitive observation provides insight into how the exchange is progressing. This is an important point because communication depends upon responding to the verbal and non-verbal messages provided by others within the exchange. Therefore, if a person’s body language becomes tense, the situation may be causing anxiety.

The use of touch in communication

Touch is a very powerful form of non-verbal communication. Think about the way that you might experience touch yourself – when someone you know well touches you, you might feel comforted and safe, but when someone you don’t know touches you, you might feel vulnerable and threatened

When used appropriately, touch can be a very positive form of communication in that it can:

? provide comfort and reassurance when someone is distressed, making them feel safe and secure
? show respect
? calm someone who is agitated.

However, when used indiscriminately, touch can:
? invade privacy, making people feel vulnerable
? embarrass people
? undermine trust
? be seen as harassment.

So, this is a sensitive area. The best approach is to keep touch to a minimum, because it can easily be experienced as threatening, inappropriate or uncomfortable, especially for a service user who may already be feeling vulnerable. If a health and social care worker needs to touch someone as part of the care process, they should explain what they are doing and always ask permission. Failure to ask permission and obtain consent is an intrusion on that person and an abuse of power.

Alternative methods of communication

Where people experience barriers to the more common forms of communication they may use alternative methods of communication (sometimes referred to as augmentative and alternative communication). This might include communication methods as follows.

Objects of reference

Using an object or a picture to indicate what someone wants. They could pick up a cup to indicate that he or she would like a hot drink or could use a picture or symbol to indicate this. A particular object or picture may have a specific meaning for that individual which may not be immediately apparent, which is where observations, together with feedback from others, will be especially helpful.


Perhaps using a tap on the arm to obtain your attention or guiding you to indicate what the person requires. In this way, someone might guide you to a room where they want to be or show you something of interest.

Behaviour, gestures and movement

These can be used by many people as a communication method. Behaviour that may be labelled as challenging or difficult may in fact be much more about a person communicating some aspect of their needs.


If people have relatively few or no words, they may use other sounds to indicate what they want. The meaning of some sounds may well be obvious, such as laughter or shouts of joy or pleasure. As with the use of objects of reference and touch, the association made with some sounds will be specific to that individual.


Where other senses are impaired, the sense of smell may take on added significance and some people may, for example, sniff different types of foods and toiletries to make their choice.


Some people may prefer you to make a drawing to indicate what choices are available or what may be taking place. Symbols are often used in communicating with people to help understanding.


Some people may prefer to write rather than to speak. This may be the case if someone’s speech is temporarily impaired due to illness or it may help them to clarify what they mean.

Case Study Example

Information source: Health and Social Care – Level 3 Diploma Candidate Handbook

Deshan is visiting his wife in hospital following a minor operaton. She has dementia and cannot fully understand what is happening to her, which makes both of them feel anxious. He wants to speak to someone about her progress and tries to catch the attention of passing nurses, but they all seem so busy. He hovers around the nurses’ station, where he is asked brusquely if he needs any help. The nurse answers his questions in a vague way, saying his wife is ‘doing well as can be expected’ and when he asks if she is being given a vegetarian diet he is told, ‘I expect so – if that’s what she requested.

Reasons for communicating:

to give and receive information;
to make and maintain relationships;
to express needs and feelings;
to share thoughts and ideas;
to affirm a person’s understanding

None of the above reasons for communicating were demonstrated in the case study.

QUESTION- ( 1.3 )

Explain ways to manage challenging situations


Information source:

What is challenging behaviour?

Challenging behaviour used to be called ‘problem behaviour’, ‘difficult behaviour’ or ‘socially unacceptable behaviour’. It means that behaviours are a challenge to professionals, teachers, carers and parents.
A person with challenging behaviour is not a ‘problem’ to be fixed and is not doing something ‘wrong’. But behaviour is a sign that something isn’t working. It shows that there is some unfulfilled need or a problem with communication.
Behaviour is challenging if it causes harm or if it stops people fulfilling some aspect of their lives, such as:
Someone cannot go to school because they show some aggressive behaviour.
Someone cannot go swimming because they tend to run off.

It is the impact of these behaviours that makes them challenging. Challenging behaviour can be:
Self-injurious: Head-banging, scratching, pulling, eye poking, picking, grinding teeth, eating things that aren’t food.
Aggressive: Biting and scratching, hitting, pinching, grabbing, hair pulling, throwing objects, verbal abuse, screaming, spitting.
Stereotyped: Repetitive movements, rocking, repetitive speech and repetitive manipulation of objects.

Non-person directed: Damage to property, hyperactivity, stealing, inappropriate sexualised behaviour, destruction of clothing, incontinence, lack of awareness of danger, withdrawal.

Disability and challenging behaviour
Challenging behaviour is more likely if a person is disabled. A mix of impairments, environment and interpersonal relationships make it more likely that a disabled person may develop a behaviour to meet their needs.
For example, someone with autism may learn that hitting people takes them out of their personal space. Remember, each behaviour has a function for the person displaying it.
Mental health, challenging behaviour and disability
People with learning difficulties may have the same mental health and emotional difficulties that others do. But they may be less well equipped to deal with them. It can be difficult to deal with anxiety if you do not have the words to describe what you are experiencing. It can be difficult to cope with depression if you do not have the social support to help you.
Sometimes challenging behaviour can be a sign of a wider problem with someone’s mental health. Refusal to eat may be a sign that the person is feeling down, or aggressive behaviour could be a sign of high anxiety. It’s important to see the problem from the perspective of the person showing the behaviour.

Managing challenging behaviour

Make sure the individual feels valued and listened to.
Make sure that where communication disorders exist, the individual has a method of communicating effectively.
Give the individual other ways of communicating a need.
Reduce, where necessary, expectations of the individual and of care staff.

Determine triggers in the environment, such as noise or attitudes and beliefs in carers that might provoke or maintain challenging behaviour.
Help the individual and their carers to recognise distress.
Develop the individual’s coping strategies for dealing with problems
Anticipate potential problems and intervening where appropriate (for example, by providing additional support, redirection to another activity or reducing noise level).
Training and support for care staff in prevention and management of problems.
Care staff sharing knowledge and expertise.
Provision of a variety of activities and materials that are appropriate and meaningful.
Ensuring appropriate levels of support.
Ensuring that all involved with an individual provide a consistent approach.

There are few golden rules in supporting people who display challenging behaviour.
One is that happy people tend not to challenge. Find out what makes the person happy and make it happen more in their life, then you may find that the behaviour starts to disappear.
Challenging behaviour is often seen in people with learning disability and other types of impairment. This behaviour represents a challenge to us to address something that is not working in that person’s life.
It’s reasonable to expect that with comprehensive assessment, appropriate levels of stimulation, communication techniques, carer support and consistency, encouragement and teaching of new coping skills, behaviour can be managed effectively.
It’s important to set realistic goals for the individual and aim to increase the person’s quality of life and minimise the impact of the behaviours displayed.

After an Incident:
After an Incident you encourage those involved in incidents to contribute to reviewing the incident you offer time, space and support so that everyone involved can express their feelings and examine their behaviour you explore constructively with everyone involved the reasons for, and consequences of, the abusive and aggressive behaviour you make referrals to the appropriate people if specialist help is required you make clear and constructive contributions to team discussions about incidents of abusive and aggressive behaviour and agency practice in dealing with them you manage your own feelings aroused by the incident in a way which recognises your right to have such feelings and recognises that not all incidents are capable of prevention you complete records accurately and clearly and store them according to agency requirements you provide accurate and clear information to others so that issues and needs can be addressed.

Recording Why? – legal requirement, accountability, passing on information, identifying patterns, trends ABC analysis Antecedents, what led up to the incident Behaviour, details of the incident Consequences, actions taken following, reactions, responses Analyse – patterns of behaviour leading up to incident (individuals, interactions, relationships, environment, identifying triggers, identifying changes in risks Analyse – what effect do the Consequences have on individuals, interactions, relationships, environment Future planning for avoidance, diversion, defusion, staff training

Case Study Example

Information source:

Mr B also has dementia of the vascular type. Mr B is married and is 86 years of age; he came to Aranlaw from hospital where he was admitted following a fall in another care home. The home had been unable to manage his level of night time wakefulness and desire to walk about, sometimes for several hours at a time and so they had increased his night sedation hoping that this would help him to sleep. The sedation did make him very sleepy; however it increased his disorientation and did nothing to reduce Mr B’s determination to get out of bed and look for his wife.
Mr B’s wife was highly anxious about how we would cope with his wakefulness at night; she had arranged the previous admission to a care home when her own health problems forced her to reconsider her resolve to care for her husband at home. Mrs B was able to give us a full life history for her husband and we were immediately able to see that many of Mr B’s behaviours were the result of him believing that he was still working.
On arrival at Aranlaw it was immediately clear that Mr B did not understand where he was or why he was here; we used the life history information we had been given by his wife to try and engage him. Mr B’s mobility was quite poor and I was concerned that it might get worse if he was administered the night sedation he had been prescribed since being admitted to respite care. After consulting with Mrs B and Mr B’s GP and Community Mental Health Nurse I agreed we would not sedate him at night but would instead monitor him closely and use a pressure mat by his bed to alert staff when he got up; this was not so that we could prevent him getting up but so that we were aware of him being out of bed and could monitor him discreetly whilst he walked freely around the home.
Mr B has dementia at stage 2; at this stage the person’s factual memory is very poor and they rely heavily on emotional memories to make sense of their situation, the person with dementia at stage 2 is disorientated in time, often by several decades and in place, perhaps believing they are at work or in a hotel. When talking the person will often find it difficult to remember nouns and they will lose the thread of thoughts and sentences. The person no longer has the thinking ability to try and cover up their memory difficulties.
Initially Mr B showed many of the behaviours that are consistent with being fearful and feeling lost at stage 2; he was constantly looking for his wife, even if she left him for a few moments he would frantically search for her. He frequently got lost and was unable to find his own room. Mr B became very angry with staff if they tried to stop him following his wife when she left the building, he would repeatedly come to the office and ask how he was going to pay for his care worrying about having no money. When he left his room he would gather up personal items that he recognised like his glasses, comb and toothbrush and take them with him wherever he went, often putting them down and then becoming anxious that he could not find them.
Staff encouraged Mr B to sit down and talk to them, asking him to tell us more about what he does at work; when he mentioned people by name we asked about their role at work and made sure that we didn’t correct Mr B when he told us that he was late for a meeting or had a train to catch shortly. We asked his advice on financial matters as this was his area of expertise. When Mr B was worried about not being able to get in touch with his colleagues we offered to help him write to them. When he was angry we acknowledged this and gave him the opportunity to tell us what had upset him. We found that he was much more relaxed if he was given a daily newspaper. Mr B responded well to eye contact and to a gentle touch on his arm when he was upset.

Gradually Mr B could be seen to be much more settled and less fearful about what was happening to him, he was much happier to engage with routines within the home; he had favourite places to sit and was much happier to spend time with staff when his wife was not at Aranlaw. He would tease staff and was always there with a compliment for the ladies! We did not have to increase his sedation again as he slept well for the first part of the night only getting up if he was worried about something he believed needed doing at work; as he now trusted us we were able to talk to him about his concerns and together agree that we would deal with things first thing in the morning or if he was really worried he would dictate a letter to staff and we agreed to get it typed up the next day.
Mr B continues to live at Aranlaw, on some days he will tell us that he is thinking of retiring and taking things a bit more slowly and on other days he will seek out one of the managers for us to go over figures that he believes relate to mergers he is involved in. We schedule meeting times with him and then go to his room at the agreed time to take notes.

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QUESTION- ( 2.2 )

Describe the factors to consider when promoting effective communication.


Information source:

It is essential for care workers to communicate effectively using appropriate methods that take into consideration the individual’s circumstances. If the methods are too complex and the carer is not able to deal with it on their own, they will have to seek specialist advice, which is appropriate for the individual service with different language or disabilities or learning difficulties such as

a translator/interpreter for those with different languages;

hearing aid for those with hearing difficulty or impairment or use of British Sign Language;

a specialist for those with physical disabilities such as stroke/Parkinson’s;

a deaf-blind communicator (visual/hearing loss);

the care practitioner needs to be sure that a suitable equipment or audio-visual aid is provided to assist the disabled people.

Local Councils provide interpreter and translation services in so many foreign languages, which are advertised in many public services, and it is up to the care practitioners to request for the services so that the care professionals can understand the clients, or the operations can be explained to them to clear up any confusion.

You need to also consider a number of factors. For example:

Tone and pitch of your voice, does it suit the situation or topic? A louder more direct communication may be required if trying to get the attention of a group of people. However this would not be suitable in a situation whereby a client is upset say for example if they have wet themselves and are embarrassed, this would need a quieter and understanding tone to reassure them.

Use of language is important, when talking to a client you need to choose your words to suit the client. However, if you talking to an adult using very simple instructions this may be deemed as patronising, so it is important to choose your language carefully.

The speed in which you talk is also key. When talking to children I tend to get down to their level and talk to them at a relatively slow speed, this way they are more likely to understand me more than if I was walking round above them talking as though I would talk to adults.

Non-verbal communication:

Facial and hand gestures, again this needs to be tailored to the situation or topic. In the example above, a smile and perhaps a hand on their shoulder is sufficient to the situation. Whereby frowning and waving arms as if annoyed would be detrimental to the feelings of the client.

Eye contact is an important factor as this engages the audience, keeping them focused on what you are discussing. By making eye contact you are directing your conversation at that specific person, demonstrating that you are devoting your time and are not able to be distracted as if you would by looking around.

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Body language plays an important part, for example folded arms can indicate you are being defensive or not open to suggestions, whereas slouching, hands on hips, rolling of eyes and huffing can seem rude and disrespectful.

Safeguarding adults: Mediation and family group conferences
Case Study Example
Information source:
Christine is 72, she has lung and heart disease and vascular dementia. She has very limited mobility. Her husband, Harold, is 71 and also in poor health.
Christine had a stroke last year that caused significant cognitive impairment and a second stroke this year.
The options for Christine are:
to return home, with or without home care
to remain in hospital
to be placed in a residential care home.

The local authority wants to move Christine to a nursing home and believes she may need to be subject to a Deprivation of Liberty Safeguards authorisation in order to travel to the home and stay there. It believes this is in her best interests and that Harold, due to his poor health, is unable to provide the level of care she needs at home. Harold wants his wife to return home and rejects any suggestion that this is not in her best interests.
Christine’s incapacity to decide where to live is not in dispute. A meeting involving representatives from the local authority and Harold did not result in agreement about Christine’s best interests. The care manager, Sean, suggests mediation to try to resolve the impasse. Harold agrees to be referred to mediation. The mediator, Siguta, visits Harold and Sean separately to explain the process and its underlying principles
Siguta considers whether Harold needs an advocate. Siguta visits Christine in hospital to gain as much information as possible about her past and present wishes and preferences. She also speaks with an independent mental capacity advocate (IMCA) who had previously represented Christine’s views. Due to Christine’s incapacity to decide where she lives, Siguta is satisfied that it would not be appropriate for Christine to take part in mediation and everyone agrees to this. However, Siguta will ensure that her views are represented in mediation.
Establishing the arena
At the mediation meeting, Siguta re-establishes the ground rules, including voluntary participation, confidentiality and the mediator’s neutral role. She explains that the outcome of mediation will be driven by Sean and Harold and she will encourage them to offer creative solutions to their problems.
Defining and clarifying issues
Siguta invites Harold and Sean to explain why they have come to mediation, what they each want to work out and what outcome they each want to see. She offers Sean and Harold an opportunity to respond to the other’s opening statement once they have both finished. Siguta begins to draw out ‘interests’ (what each person needs) rather than ‘positions’ (what each person wants), to begin to find common ground between Sean and Harold.
Agenda setting, prioritising and planning
Siguta decides that, despite there being some tension, it is appropriate for everyone to remain together in the joint session. She knows that if there is high conflict, she can suspend the joint session and set up separate meetings (‘caucuses’). Siguta encourages Sean and Harold to work together to produce a list of issues, which she writes on a flip-chart. This helps to ensure that no important issues are missed and also to plan the structure of the session.

Discussing the issues and generating options
Siguta takes each issue in turn, quickly establishing the following.
While the local authority is willing to support Christine to return home and to offer 49 hours homecare, it believes that Harold will not cooperate with this and it would put an added strain on his health, which would also put Christine’s health and welfare at risk.
Harold wants more home care, amounting to 63 hours per week.
Harold is in despair at the prospect that he and his wife might be separated after living together for 40 years. He strongly believes the care he gives to his wife is better than the local authority can provide.
Harold had occasionally stopped services in the past as he thought the services were unreliable and poor quality. He simply wants adequate support so that he can care for his wife at home.
Christine has often expressed a wish to be at home with her husband.
Harold would agree to a nursing home placement if he felt his wife wanted it.
Harold should be consulted but a decision must be made in Christine’s best interests under section 4 of the Mental Capacity Act. A placement in a nursing home would almost certainly entail the deprivation of Christine’s liberty, possibly for the remainder of her life. Sean accepts that this should be the last option for the local authority.
Harold acknowledges that his wife will need GP and district nurse support if she returns home.
Sean thinks Harold finds it difficult to compromise. Harold believes that it is the local authority that has refused to compromise. Both men now appear to accept some responsibility for the breakdown in their working relationship.

Siguta tries to identify middle ground and help everyone to rebuild bridges, once again focusing on ‘interests’. Sean adds that:
the cost difference between 49 hours of support and the 63 hours that Harold wants are likely to be lower than the costs associated with litigation in the Court of Protection, which is where this dispute is likely to move to if agreement cannot be reached soon
Harold’s carer’s assessment may be able to attract additional funding; it may be possible for care workers to attend later in the day, which is Harold’s wish
both parties accept they have to establish a better working relationship
the local authority will withdraw its wish to be an emergency key holder, to respect Harold’s wish for privacy.
Harold adds that:
he could fund some additional care provision himself, which he has done in the past, if the local authority is unable or unwilling to meet his request for 63 hours’ weekly care
Christine is more likely to make better progress at home where he is able to motivate and persuade her to accept care

he is likely to feel better within himself if he can care for his wife. It gives him a sense of purpose and wellbeing
Christine would not benefit from being separated from him.

Solutions and securing agreement
Siguta is able to secure a very broad agreement to Christine’s returning home, supported by the local authority’s care plan. However, Sean makes clear that this is subject to some conditions being agreed between Harold and the local authority.
Siguta observes that Sean and Harold are working together with more confidence. She checks that the options being generated have the potential to work, are likely to be accepted outside mediation and meet all of the concerns raised.
The mediation agreement
Siguta prepares an outcome statement describing what has been agreed and what further steps need to be taken, and by when. She asks Sean and Harold to show their approval by signing the agreement.
Follow-up and review
At Harold’s request, and in light of the fact that more detailed issues have to be agreed, a review meeting is arranged to take place in two months’ time. This provides everyone with an opportunity to check that the outcomes of mediation continue to work and, with their consent, to make adjustments to it to reflect any change in circumstances.Cookies

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QUESTION- ( 3.1 )

Explain how people from different backgrounds may use and/or interpret communication methods in different ways.


Information source:

It is very important to understand how people from different backgrounds may use or
interpret communication methods. Communication methods can sometimes have different meanings in other cultures. You will need to ensure to familiarise yourself with the cultures of those you are caring for so you can understand how to effectively communicate with them, and continue to treat them with respect and dignity. What is acceptable in one culture may be an offence or in some cases a taboo in another culture.

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Information source:

Take for example: It is not acceptable for a woman to speak when men are speaking unless asked to speak. It also not acceptable in certain culture for women to shake hands with men. As a healthcare worker, it is part of your responsibility to study client care plan and be aware of the different cultures and how your actions could affect them.

For example: Let’s say that you’re traveling to a country where you don’t speak the language. You didn’t have time to pick up a dictionary or a book of common phrases, so you’ll have to get around using only hand gestures. At a restaurant, you try to indicate which dishes you’d like by nodding or giving the server a thumbs-up, but all you get is the opposite of what you wanted and an offended look. No one will look you in the eye, and one person seemed downright offended by your attempts to point out on a map where you’d like to go. What gives?

Image source:

We may think that non-verbal communication is universal, but it’s not. Every culture interprets body language, gestures, posture and carriage, vocal noises (like shrieks and grunts), and degree of eye contact differently. In the example above, the poor traveller might have expected that nodding his or her head up and down would indicate yes, but in some countries, it means just the opposite. In the Middle East, nodding the head down indicates agreement, while nodding it up is a sign of disagreement; in Japan, a up-and-down nod might just be a signal that someone is listening source: Wang, Li. The thumbs-up signal is vulgar in Iran. The “OK” signal made by forming a circle with the
thumb and forefinger refers to money in some countries, while in others it’s an extremely offensive reference to a private body part. Point with the wrong finger, or with anything Information less than your entire hand, and you risk offending somebody, and while some cultures value eye contact as a sign of respect, averting your eyes may be the sign of respect in others.

The list goes on and on: Some countries consider a handshake rude, and it’s always rude to hand an object to another person with your left hand in the Middle East — after all, that hand is reserved for matters of personal hygiene. While burping after a meal is considered the height of uncouthness here in the U.S., a hearty belch is a sign of appreciation for the cook in India. In some places, people value a certain degree of personal space in
conversation, while those from the Middle East might get right up in your face when they want to converse. In Latin America, it’s expected that you’ll get very touchy-feely with both strangers and friends — perhaps exchanging a hearty embrace — whereas in the U.S., such
contact might be considered sexual. And restrain the desire to pat a child on the head in Asia; there’s a belief that such a touch would damage the child’s soul.

Facial expressions might be the only form of nonverbal communication that could be considered universal. It was Charles Darwin who first proposed that all cultures express emotions the same way with their faces, a hypothesis that was supported by laboratory
studies in the 1960s. Researchers determined that there are six universal facial expressions: anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness and surprise Information source: Matsumoto. In more recent years, other researchers have argued that looks of contempt and embarrassment may also constitute universal expressions. No matter where you are, it seems, you must remember that your body is always saying something, even when you’re not speaking.

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