Quality Quality is the ability of something to perform or serve the purpose it is designed or meant to serve
Quality is the ability of something to perform or serve the purpose it is designed or meant to serve. It refers to being able to meet customers’ requirements, in terms of products (pupils) or services rendered (Aina and Oyetakin, 2015). It is therefore a continuum of worth, ranging from the highest levels of excellence or superiority. Every institution is to ensure that a high quality of education is being offered. Quality is characterized by fitness for purpose, value for money, perfection and excellence (Ekhaguere, 2005).
Likewise, quality of education refers to the extent to which the educational system meets or tends to respond to the economic needs of the society and pupil’s performance or standard of attainment in different schools or subjects. The complaint about decline in the quality of education means that standards of attainment have fallen or that the average level of achievement at different level as established through examination results or test scores or other forms of scholastic achievement has gone down steadily. Quality education then is very vital in every human existence and societal development. It increases the rate of development and enhances the standard of living. Whoever acquires quality basic education, receives the pivot for further development for himself and his society (Oni, J.O et.al, 2016).
Educational governance refers to authority and decision making within the system. Governance includes how the education system is organized and how power is allocated; what structures and decision-making processes are in place; formal roles and responsibilities; and the relationship between central and local authorities. As stated in the report of the Royal Commission on Learning, “The aim is to have an organizational design that furthers educational objectives, makes effective use of resources, redresses inequities, and gives all stakeholders a voice in important decisions about education.” In other words, the governance framework must be characterized by fiscal responsibility and accountability and should support the goal to improved student learning. The conceptual framework of governance includes a number of critical elements; accountability, transparency of process, clarity of roles and community input. (Watson N. 2003).
Countries such as the Philippines, Spain, Brazil, the Occupied Palestinian Territory, Colombia, Honduras, Nigeria and Croatia focus on the opportunity that the Convention on the Rights of the Child offers to develop local systems of governance that include children as a primary concern and even as main players. Such experiences prioritize the development of permanent municipal systems, such as work plans and city-level strategies for children, and to partnerships among stakeholders such as the municipal government, mayor, communities, NGOs and children (Riggio, 2002).
Good school-based governance comprises the following: a collective participation of all the key stakeholders in school management; lays a solid foundation for the long-term development of the school as it is the foundation of quality education; ensures the appropriate use of public funds in the best interests of students and the community; enhances the efficiency, effectiveness and overall performance of administrative management, which are vital to the continuous development of the school; and boosts the confidence of parents and the public in the school (School Development Division, 2010).
Republic Act (RA) 9155, also known as the Governance of Basic Education Act of 2001, provides the overall framework for principal empowerment by strengthening principal and leadership goals, and local school-based management within the context of transparency and local accountability. The goal of basic education is to provide the school age population and the youth with skills, knowledge, and values to become caring, self-reliant, productive, and patriotic citizens. With RA 9155, DepEd is pursuing decentralization further at the basic education sub-sector under a policy of shared governance, principal empowerment, and school-based management. According to George Garma, DepEd Regional Director for the Cordillera Administrative Region (CAR), “Governance of basic education begins at the national level. It is in the field offices at the regions, divisions, schools and learning centers where this is translated into programs, projects and services developed, adapted and offered to fit local needs.”