APRIL, 2018

TOC o “1-3” h z u Introduction PAGEREF _Toc513055521 h 11Climate change and capture PAGEREF _Toc513055522 h 21.1Climate change PAGEREF _Toc513055523 h 21.1.1Causes of climate change PAGEREF _Toc513055524 h 21.2Capture PAGEREF _Toc513055525 h 22Fisheries Potential Impacts PAGEREF _Toc513055526 h 22.1Potential impacts and impact pathways PAGEREF _Toc513055527 h 22.2Impacts by sector PAGEREF _Toc513055528 h 12.3Market and trade impacts PAGEREF _Toc513055529 h 13Adaptation PAGEREF _Toc513055530 h 24Mitigation PAGEREF _Toc513055531 h 35Conclusions PAGEREF _Toc513055532 h 36Bibliography PAGEREF _Toc513055533 h 4

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IntroductionThe climate change is a consequence for the increasing of gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, chlorofluorocarbon; these gases are increasing in the atmosphere that block the exit of the sun rays because they are able to absorb gases and after can lead to increase the temperature in the earth, this a large-time can bring many consequences such as acidification in the sea, alterations in all marine system, life cycle life fish, flooding, melting on Iceland, acid rain, increasing of the temperature.

Fisheries can be affected direct and indirect for this phenomenon, many fish will not able to adapt to climate change because some fish cannot tolerate certain temperature level in the sea, with respect the acidification of the sea, all fish can not tolerate this change, this can affect the life fish, which long-time can disappear or extinct for the capacity not tolerable of this factor.

Economic and social are meaning affected for the climate change, many commercial fish can migrate to another optimal conditional in temperature, pH, food, and other factors, which fish can able to migrate, reproduce and complete their life cycle, population will not catch commercial fish like they used to catch before, because of the climate change. This can bring problems to feed child and families that depend on fish like protein source, malnutrition can affect people health for the long time, diseases can appear and bring big consequences in the population.

Nowadays, there are many ways to take aware about our actions that are leading to destruct our earth, human activities are responsible to affect our environment in all their aspects, such as deforestation, burning fuel, and other factors. People know about the climate change and their consequences, but they are not doing well to protect our ecosystems and reduce the damage environments, is few said many people are doing well, politics are not making laws about to protect and control the environment in detail and deep. Finally, our system depends on us to take care and not damaging in many ways, the resources are limited and we have to conserve and give to our future generations.
Climate change and captureClimate changeThere many definitions about the climate change, but actually many authors define in different ways for example I chose the definitions of Mohanty et al., 2010 said climate change is the average temperature over long period of time and this could affect the environment and the life in the earth because the average temperature can bring an abnormal change in the future causing terrible catastrophe.
Causes of climate change
There are two mean causes, such as natural and anthropogenic, in the natural are such as volcanic, cars, burning fuel, deforestation, etc, all of them are releasing to the atmosphere. All these factors causing damage in the atmosphere over long period of time and are contributors to the increase of the temperature in the earth. These gases normally are absorbed by the gases in the atmosphere, these gases are called greenhouse gases, this can be natural (water, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, ozone) and anthropogenic such as chlorofluorocarbon and this gas is produced by chemical industry and humans used to release in the environment (Mohanty et al., 2010).

CaptureAccording to Dawn et al., 2009 climate change can affect direct and indirect ways on marine and freshwater capture fisheries, and this can reduce the fish stock into the water, making some trouble on the population like economic, food, social, etc., so actually these problems are making effect into the ocean where many fish are migrating to other places because these place are optimal conditions for their growth and spawning and breeding.

Sharp, 2003 and Dawn et al., 2009 considered effects on the global fisheries caused by climate change, making many problems in the environment and dynamics of fish species, and society in the future. The fish capture can be affected by many processes such as ocean acidification, habitat damage, migration, changes in the environment like marine and freshwater, all these factors can reduce fish stock and affect the habitat of many species. Damage in the environment could bring many problems and reduce the fish stock in a determine time or in the future, in which could bring hole consequences in the future.

Many damage environment are affected by human activities because they the only responsible of the climate change in the earth. Marine and freshwater can be affect by the climate change in all their aspects because there are many ways to affect the environment and aquatic life in which many fish could suffer some changes abnormal or out of their aspect limit.

Fisheries Potential ImpactsPotential impacts and impact pathwaysAccording to Daw et al., 2009 climate change can impact direct or indirect fisheries, affecting ecosystems, political, and economic or social systems. Table 1 shows a summary about the fisheries potential impacts.
Table 1: Fisheries Potential Impacts
Climate change Fisheries Potential Impacts
Ecosystem Political Social or Economic
Biophysical effect, change in yield, change in species distribution, change in seasonality of production, migration of species. Markets, Labor, fuel prices, fishing activities, Management, Effort, Livelihoods, relative profitability of other sectors, reduce health due to diseases, resources available for management.

Source: summary from Draw et al., 2009
Impacts by sector
According to Draw et al.; 2009 small-scale fisheries are more expose to the climate change because they live close to the seaward communities and take more risks such as flooding, and storm in which affect the communities. Coral reefs, for example, support small-scale fisheries and they are at risk from elevated water temperatures and acidification in addition to a range of more direct local impacts in which could affect fish stock in a determine area.
Nichols et al.; 2007 said that mangroves and seagrass are often target areas of small-scales fisheries because they provide breeding or nursery areas for important species, and may be impacted by sea level rise or flooding, and their ecosystem and food web, we know these problems could affect the ecosystem environment and damage caused by the sea level increasing.

According to Daw et al.; 2009 large-scale fisheries can be affected by El Nino in which a clearly example are the costal from Peru and their fisheries where Peruvian anchoveta used to take place in a determine area and are abundant, and this can affect the fisheries industry in Peru, which these resources could be vulnerable to the climate change in the future could be catastrophic. Delgado et al.; 2003 said that the aquaculture industry can be affected by the climate change because they depend on fishmeal from capture fisheries and this will bring some reductions fish catch in the ocean.

Daw et al.; 2009 said the inland fisheries are affected by changes in precipitation and run-off such as flooding in which may increase the level river more than their normal limit. That means, when the river level is going up for the flooding, the catch level can decrease and impact the economic situation in the population.

Market and trade impactsBuck, 2005 and Daw et al.; 2009 said that market and trade could be affected by different impacts such as hurricane, typhoon, flooding, and other phenomenon caused by climate change, could bring huge problems for the market such as sell their product, export their good to another country and the fish stock could reduce because of the migration, the demand of the product could reduce too in which will bring impacts on the economic.
According to Daw et al., 2009 adaptations to sea level rise and increased storm and surge damage include hard (e.g. sea walls) and soft (e.g. wetland rehabilitation or managed retreat) defenses, as well as improved information systems to integrate knowledge from different coastal sectors and predict and plan for appropriate strategies, many fish could not adapt to the changes caused by the climate change because not many species are resistant to the possible change in which could affect their life cycle and then could die in the a period of time. MitigationFisheries activities contribute to emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG), which are responsible for human-induced climate change, both during capture operations and subsequently during the transport, processing and storage of fish (Daw et al., 2009). There are some mitigations for the fisheries such as reducing the emissions of CO2 form fisheries operations; we can reduce oil use per fishing vessel to reduce the emissions of CO2; increasing fuel costs can reduce the number of vessels because the budget cannot be comfortable to fishing operate; another point we can reduce emissions of trade which reduce the amount the ship to move a specific fish commercial to another country; finally and last alternative would be the use biodiesel use in fisheries.
ConclusionsCapture fish can be limited for the climate change because many fish will migrate to good areas with optimal conditions to spawn and reproduce, leading to increase habits change.

There are potential impacts on the fisheries such as large-scale, small-scale and artisanal marine fisheries for the increasing of the temperature in the sea, which many fish can not tolerate this mean factor, even flooding can affect the mangroves where fish use to breeding, spawning and living, another factor is the acidification of the sea that can lead to die fish in a determine area.

Mitigation is an alternative to conserve our nature resources, there many ways to mitigate in fisheries to reduce damage in the environment, one alternative more effective would be reduce the time of catch and close some areas to conserve area where fish use to spawning and reproduce for a long time or definitely to reduce impacts on climate change. Though, vessel are main gas emitters of CO2 in the atmosphere when they are fishing and transporting their fish in the market.

Finally, we need a good management about how to reduce these gases in the atmosphere, we can reduce the level of damage in the environment, because if we don´t take care of climate change, many negative things could happen in the future such as extinctions of some fish species, socio-economic conflicts in the population.
BibliographyDaw, T., Adger, W. N., Brown, K., & Badjeck, M. C. (2009). Climate change and capture fisheries: potential impacts, adaptation and mitigation. Climate change implications for fisheries and aquaculture: overview of current scientific knowledge. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper, 530, 107-150.

Delgado, C.L., Wada, N., Rosegrant, M.W., Meijer, S. & Ahmed, M. (2003). Outlook for fish to 2020: meeting global demand. Penang, International food policy research group and Worldfish Centre. 28 pp.

Hoegh-Guldberg, O., Mumby, P.J., Hooten, A.J., Steneck, R.S., Greenfield, P., Gomez, E., Harvell, C.D., Sale, P.F., Edwards, A.J., Caldeira, K., Knowlton, N., Eakin, C.M., Iglesias-Prieto, R. Muthiga, N., Bradbury, R.H., Dubi, A. & Hatziolos, M.E. (2007). Coral reefs under rapid climate change and ocean acidification. Science, 318(5857): 1737–1742.

Mohanty, B., Mohanty, S., Sahoo, J., & Sharma, A. (2010). Climate change: impacts on fisheries and aquaculture. In Climate change and variability. InTech.

Nicholls, R.J., Wong, P.P., Burkett, V.R., Codignotto, J.O., Hay, J.E., McLean, R.F., Ragoonaden, S. & Woodroffe, C.D. (2007). Coastal systems and low-lying areas. In M.L. Parry, O.F. Canziani, J.P. Palutikof, P.J. v. d. Linden & C.E. Hanson, eds. Climate Change 2007: impacts, adaptation and vulnerability, pp. 315–356. Contribution of working group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge, UK, Cambridge University Press.

Sharp, G.D. (2003). Future climatic change and regional fisheries: a collaborative analysis. Rome. FAO. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper, No. 452: 75 pp.