My Ssec Capstone Project PPR Details Periodic Progress Report

PPR Details Periodic Progress Report

PPR Details
Periodic Progress Report: First PPR
Project: Mis-alignment problem during manufacturing of bearing race in the rolling process.

Status: Reviewed
1. What Progress you have made in the Project?
In last same we are Visit Company again and we compare new die design and old die design. Then we calculate that the die dimension, design and we are working on the accurate dimension type die.

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2. What challenge you have faced?
We accept challenge that the temperature in forging it not controlled and due to that ovality occurs.

3. What support you need?
Support from the line in charge, internal and external guide and group members whose support throughout this problem.

4. Which literature you have referred?
(1) Mandal A jurbo, j. Deformation reaction of bearing rings by modification of heat treatment. (2)nuslusan m. Deformation after heat treatment and their influence on cutting process. (3)otopack j,fiservoa z. Implementation of cold rolling science journal October.

9007931290
Om Engineering College, Junagadh
PPR Details
Periodic Progress Report: Second PPR
Project: Mis-alignment problem during manufacturing of bearing race in the rolling process.

Status: Reviewed
1. What Progress you have made in the Project?
We went to another bearing industry and check main factors affected to ovality occurs.while in our project we checked to bearing material with different cooling temperature.moreover also we checked bearing race holding pressure.

2. What challenge you have faced?
Our problem is holding pressure at high temperature due to this pressure some time ovality occurs.

3. What support you need?
We support from the our design subject professor, internal guide and internet.

4. Which literature you have referred?
1 Seidelson C., Lixin H., Reddy V., Shumin D., Improved Centerless Grinding Productivity through Reduced Heat Treatment Distortion, International Journal of Science and Advanced Technology, ISSN 2221-8386, Volume 1 No 4 June 2011, pp 94 to 99. 2 B. Beekhuis, D. Stöbener, E. Brinksmeier, G. Goch, Compensation of part distortion in soft?turning of bearing rings, IDE 2011, Bremen, Germany, September 14th – 16th 2011, pp 53 to 61.

90079339370
Om Engineering College, Junagadh
PPR Details
Periodic Progress Report: Third PPR
Project: Mis-alignment problem during manufacturing of bearing race in the rolling process.

Status: Reviewed
1. What Progress you have made in the Project?
We went into the company and did the research which was practically performed in company. Like bearing material, cooling system, Temperature rolling support And etc. then find out the final difficultly of the problem.

2. What challenge you have faced?
Our problem is holding pressure at high temperature due to this pressure some time ovality occurs.

3. What support you need?
We support from the college faculties, company staff, Internet suffering.

4. Which literature you have referred?
D. Scott MacKenzie, Andrew L. Banka, Evaluation of flow fields and orientation effects around simple geometries during quenching. IDE 2011, Bremen, Germany, September 14th – 16th 2011, pp 91 to 100.

90079344178
Om Engineering College, Junagadh
PPR Details
Periodic Progress Report: Forth PPR
Project: Mis-alignment problem during manufacturing of bearing race in the rolling process.

Status: Reviewed
1. What Progress you have made in the Project?
We can provide the extra roller support to reduce the ovality of the bearing. And producing the bearing race by machining process instead of forging process.2. What challenge you have faced?
The modification in of die design and maintaining the parts by re-turning and changing by new parts in duration of time. 3. What support you need?
We need the help of internal and external, both the guides for providing the information about the project.

4. Which literature you have referred?
Aouici H., Mohamed AthmaneYallese, Kamel Chaoui, Tarek Mabrouki and Jean Francois Rigal, (2012), Analysis of surface roughness and cutting force components in hard turning with CBN tool : Prediction model and cutting conditions optimization, Measurement, (45), 344-353.

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Om Engineering College, Junagadh
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
We hereby take the opportunaity to express our deep sense of gratitude to Prof. M.M.Ghodasara, (faculty Of Mechanical engineering department) for his kind support and timely guidance given to us for reaching our destination with perfection . We are thankful to him for his suggestions and ideas to make this project work even better. We are very much thankful to Prof. Abhishek G. Makati (HOD of mechanical engineering department) who permitted us to work on the topic and extended his kind support and help for the same the enthusiasm shown by him in our project proved to be a great source of inspiration.We are thankful to all the teaching and non-teaching staff members and friends who helped us directly and indirectly for the successful completion of this work.We are also thankful to RAVI TECHNOFORGE Pvt.Ltd. & S.S.Rout and others for their literature review for all kind support and guidance.

Thanking All,
Hariyani Dhaval S. 151023119009
Pethani Ankur V. 151023119018
Raval Anand B. 151023119020
Tilva Kush M. 151023119024
-13607-3246Om Engineering College, JunagadhI
ABSTRACT
One of the most important manufacturing processes is the ring rolling process, which is widely used to produce seamless rings. The ring rolling process has been one of the most important parts of the metal forming field since the middle of the 1st century. Despite this, the mechanics of ring rolling received very little investigation compared to other processes. Here in ring rolling process the industry use Hydraulic Forging Ring Rolling Machine and CNC turning Machine it is Indian type vertical machine. In rolling process, when thin and big diameter ring is rolled in machine, in some case it is become oval and 2point ovality is measured in Universal Mechanical comparator. We tried to solve the problem with some techniques like give one more roller support, by replacing forging line by machining line and make oversize the dies of forging line.

Due to this development, the rejection percent age will be decrees. And we get more production with less rejection.

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LIST OF FIGURE
Sr. No. Figure Description Page No.

1. Bearing Race 2
2. Manufacturing of Bearing Races 4 to 6
3. Die-Drawing 8
LIST OF TABLES
Table No. Table Description Page No.

1. Dimensional Table 1
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LIST OF CONTENTS
PAGE NO.

TITLE PAGE –
CERTIFICATE –
GTU COMPLIANCE CERTIFICATE –
PROJECT PROGRESS REPORT 1 –
PROJECT PROGRESS REPORT 2 –
PROJECT PROGRESS REPORT 3 –
PROJECT PROGRESS REPORT 4 –
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I
ABSTRACT II
LIST OF FIGURE III
LIST OF TABLE III
LIST OF CONTENT IV
CHAPTER: 1INTRODUCTION………………………………………………….…1
1.1 Company Introduction……………………………………………………1
1.2 Product Introduction………………………………………………………2
1.3 Project summary…………………………………………………………..2
1.4 Purpose……………………………………………………………….……2
CHAPTER: 2 LITERATURE REVIEW……………………………………………….3
2.1 Effect of ovality problem in roller bearing during heat treatment……………..3
2.2 Study on reduction of ovality in turned component………………………..……3
2.3 Improvement of product quality and productivity ……………….…………….3
CHAPTER: 3 PROCESSES OF MANUFACTURE BEARING RACE………………..4
3.1 Computerized Pit Type Electric Annealing Furnace ………………………………6
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CHAPTER: 4 WORK DONE ………………………………………………………7
CHAPTER: 5 STATIC ANALYSIS……….…………………………………………9
CHAPTER: 6 SPECIFICATIONS………………………………………………………………….10
CHAPTER: 7 CONCLUSION………………………………………………………………………..10
CHAPTER: 8 FUTURE SCOPE…………………………………………………………………….11
CHAPTER: 9 REFERANCE………………………………………………………………………….11-13607117838
Om Engineering College, Junagadh V
PERMISSION LETTER
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Om Engineering College, Junagadh V
CHAPTER: 1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 Company Introduction:-
Ravi Technoforge Pvt. Ltd. has been credited with ISO/TS 16949:2009. Ravi Technoforge Pvt. Ltd. Formerly known as Saurashtra Iron Forging Pvt. Ltd. Actively deals into Engineering & manufacturing of hot forged and CNC machined components since 1992. The company produces a wide range of complex or simple components in a diverse range of materials.

Ravi Technoforge Pvt. Ltd. manufacture various types of hot forged rings machined in CNC for bearing races like Ball bearings, Tapered bearings, Spherical bearings, Railway bearing components. The plant manufacturing production capacity for forged and turned rings are as follows.

Dimensional Range of Product (Forged & Turned Rings)
  Min Max
Outer Diameter 70 mm 350 mm
Inner Diameter 40 mm 300 mm
Width 20 mm 150 mm
(Table No- 1 Dimensional table)
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1.2 Product Introduction:-
In the case of ball bearings, the bearing has inner and outer races and a set of balls. Each
race is a ring with a groove where the balls rest. The groove is usually shaped so the ball is a slightly loose fit in the groove. Thus, in principle, the ball contacts each race at a single point. However, a load on an infinitely small point would cause infinitely high contact pressure.

3131820106680-177165106680
(fig-1.1) ( fig -1.2)
1.3 Project Summary:-
In rolling process, when thin and big diameter ring is rolled in machine, insome case it is become oval and 2-point ovality is measured in Universal Mechanical comparator. And oval rings are not turned well because of wrong roundness of diameter. If it is touring in lathe machine, black spots are obtained and it is not useful. It is reject piece. Comparator detect the variation of about 0.35mm to 0.5mm.

Rejection rate of this type of bearing race is about 8% to 15%. So, production rate is about 3500 to 4000 race in one shift. As per calculation about 300 to 600 pieces are rejected in one shift.

It is very big loss of men power and machine power. After rejected the bearing race is become scrap. So controlling the rejection of outer bearing race is very necessary.

1.4 Purpose:-
The main purpose of our project is to prevent the -171453286760out of roundness of bearing and also reduce the rejection of material. Increase the life of part such that related to bearing and reduce multi time inspection.
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CHAPTER: 2 LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Effect of ovality problem in roller bearing during heat treatment:
This research concerns about ovality problem in bearing outer and inner races rises during heat treatment process. Mainly ovality is a metallurgical and geometrical problem in cylindrical roller bearing. Ovality is the degree of deviation from perfect circularity of the cross section of the core. Ovality mainly occur during quenching process due to uneven cooling of inner and outer race of bearing.

2.2 Study on reduction of ovality in turned component:
Experiment result shows that ovality is highly depend depth of cut as compare to feed rate and cutting speed. With increasing depth of cut more force is exerted on work piece which increase an ovality. Cutting speed and feed rate are less sensitive to ovality compare to depth of cut.
2.3 Improvement of product quality and productivity:
There are varieties of problems related to product quality and productivity in industries due to varying degree of abnormality and inefficiency which ultimately causes rejection.
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CHAPTER : 3 PROCESSES OF MANUFACTURE BEARING RACE :

•Raw material (SAE 52100)
•Forging Process
•Computerized Pit Type Electric Annealing Furnace
•CNC machining
•Crack Detector Machine and Steel Sorting Machine
•Quality (Physical and Laboratory) Inspection
•Final Products.

In Forging Process (with temperature in centigrade) here are five processes taking place as per bellow:
3654425250190
•Induction heating of Round Bar (1050)
(fig-3.1)
• Bar cutting as per requirement (1050)
36766504699083820020320
(fig-3.2)
•Punching (1030)
533400107315
365442566040
(fig-3.3)
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•Piercing (1020)
28575173355
56959580010
(fig-3.4)
•Rolling off Race (1000)

(fig-3.5)
44323082550304482583820
(fig-3.6) (fig-3.7)

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362458062865•Final sizing of Race (980)
171450102870
(fig-3.8)
3.1 Computerized Pit Type Electric Annealing Furnace :After Annealing Process the race transports to Machining Department. There are proof machining , final machining process takes place. And then the race checked by Crack detector Machine and Quality (Physical and Laboratory) Inspection.

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CHAPTER: 4 WORK DONE
In starting we go to the industry and meet the plant manager of this industry. They told us to visit the plant in our own way and tell them what we learn and understand. We visit the plant for 2-3 times and we see the machine like CNC turner, cordinate measuring machine, shot blasting machine, press machine etc. After this, our external guide told about the process during our visiting period and we understand the process after this we know the actual process of the manufacturing of bearing race. Then we find the problem in this process after sometime and we start to find the solution of this problem with the help of our external guide and internal guide.

we understand the process after this we know the actual process of the manufacturing of bearing race. Then we find the problem in this process which is ovality, in dimension of bearing race.

After this visiting period we try to solve the ovality problem in bearing race. We want to know about the product more wisely to find our solution and we have to find some important information or literature survey about this product and we did it. We fill the PPR and PSAR of this project this take more time of our project.

We are also try to solve the ovality problem with the help of various ways like the ovality mainly produces due to uneven temperature distribution during heat treatment and grinding process and due to uneven cooling during quenching process, change in die design, change in temp according to bearing material, change in tool bit material and provide the external rolling support.
Now firstly we are working on die design and external rolling support. This two ways are mostly reduce the ovality problem that’s why we choose this two methods according to us. When we change in die design then extra material are used in bearing. During the turning process and cooling process shrinkage occurs. Before we used the extra material during process the part is generated with desired dimension.

We tried to solve the problem with some techniques like give one more roller support, by replacing forging line by machining line. Due to this development, the rejection percentage will be decrease. And we get more production with less rejection.

Now in this semester we can refer the older literature survey. Then after we can visit the company and take much needed information.

After this we can fill the ppr with the help of our internal guide. Than next we can prepare the Business Modal Canvas. After that we can analysis on the die with the help of our friend which is known about the anises software.

We can analysed the result of this analysis is as per our requirement. The analysis result we can send to external guide. And he can say that they perform with the new die design and analysis result.

-171452614295-171452661920
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(fig-4.1 Die-Drawing)
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CHAPTER: 6 STATIC ANALYSIS6.1 Temperature and Thermal Analysis:

A – Steady state thermal analysis

B – Static structural analysis

Analysis
Object Name Steady-State Thermal (A5)
State Solved
Definition
Physics Type Thermal
Analysis Type Steady-State
Solver Target Mechanical APDL
Options
Generate Input Only No
Steady-State Thermal Initial Condition
Object Name Initial Temperature
State Fully Defined
Definition
Initial Temperature Uniform Temperature
Initial Temperature Value 22. °C
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Steady-State Thermal (A5) ; Solution (A6) ; Results
Object Name Temperature Directional Heat FluxState Solved
Scope
Scoping Method Geometry Selection
Geometry All Bodies
Definition
Type Temperature Directional Heat Flux
By Time
Display Time Last
Calculate Time History Yes
Identifier Suppressed No
Orientation   Y Axis
Coordinate System   Global Coordinate System
Results
Minimum 1000. °C -3.9725e-006 W/m²
Maximum 1000. °C 3.6271e-006 W/m²
Information
Time 1. s
Load Step 1
Substep1
Iteration Number 1
Integration Point Results
Display Option   Averaged
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CHAPTER: 6 SPECIFICATION12.SAE (52100) Bearing Race Material
Grade- SAE 52100
International Steel Grades
DIN : 100 Cr 6
ASTM: SAE 52100
Chemical
Composition C MnP S Si Cr Ni Mo Cu O
(max.) Al(max.)
% 0.93
/1.05 0.25
/0.40 0.025
max. 0.015
max. 0.15
/0.35 1.35
/1.60 0.10
max. 0.10
max. 0.10
max. 15
ppm0.050
Application :For use in the manufacture of anti-friction bearings.

Metallurgical Properties:
Macro Etch : C2R2S2 max. ASTM E 381
Inclusion Rating : A 2.5/ 1.5,
B 2/1,
C 1/2 / ½,
D 1/1,
E 45 A
Grain Size : Fine grain size – ASTM No. 6-8
Decarburization ;
Surface Imperfections : 1 % of size max.Microstructure : SEP 1520 Rating
CN 5.7 max./ 4.2 max. ,
CG- 2.1/ 2.3
C2 6.3/ 7.4 max. PA 3.1 max
Mechanical Properties :Coils, Hot rolled,
Annealed – : 207 BHN max.Coils, Hot rolled : 350 BHN max.

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CHAPTER: 7 CONCLUTION
Rejection rate of this type of bearing race is about 8% to 15%. So, production rate is about 3500 to 4000 race in one shift. As per calculation about 300 to 600 pieces are rejected in one shift..
The standard hardening and tempering parameters has been suggested to reduce the ovality up to minimum level. To reduce ovality in quenching process oil or salt bathing is more preferable compare to conventional water bathing. Also during grinding process speed of the grinding wheel (rpm) should also control to excessive heating which may cause deformation in bearing rings.

According to above solution the rejection will be decrease 3 to 5% by our group and external guide opinion.

We completed our project in ravi techno forge pvt.ltd. After complishent of our project we conclude that, there are many reason behind the ovality in bearing race, such as temperature variation, holding pressure, tool bit material and main reason is shrinkage in a bearing material at the time of heating.
Overall according to us, ovality mainly occurs in small diameter bearing and small thickness of bearing.

6.1 Result :Before :
3 to 4.5% rejection rate
Reject 120 to 150 piece per shift.

The actual rejection rate and theoretical rejection rate is quite different.

After :
Used for small diameter and low thickness bearings.

1.5 to 2% rejection rate
Reject 40 to 80 piece per shift.

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CHAPTER: 8 FUTURE SCOPE8.1 Future scope is given below:
Bearing industries
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CHAPTER: 7 REFERANCE1 Panda A. , Jurko J. and Pandová I. Deformation Reduction of Bearing Rings by Modification of Heat Treating, Heat Treatment – Conventional and Novel Applications , INTECH – 2012, pp 41 – 54.
2 Neslušan M., Mrkvica I. , Konderla R, deformations after heat treatment and their influence on cutting process, ISSN 1330-3651, 2011, pp – 601 to 608.
3 Otoupalik j,Fiserova z.,Neslusan m. Kolarik k. , Implementation Of Cold Rolling Process In Bearing Industry, MM science journal October -2015, pp – 645 to 648
4 Seidelson C., Lixin H., Reddy V., Shumin D., Improved Centerless Grinding Productivity through Reduced Heat Treatment Distortion, International Journal of Science and Advanced Technology, ISSN 2221-8386, Volume 1 No 4 June 2011, pp 94 to 99.
5 B. Beekhuis, D. Stöbener, E. Brinksmeier, G. Goch, Compensation of part distortion in soft-turning of bearing rings, IDE 2011, Bremen, Germany, September 14th – 16th 2011, pp 53 to 61.
6 Jörn Lütjens, Holger Surm, Martin Hunkel, Houcem Gafsi, Volker Renken, Sven Schüttenberg, Compensation of roundness deviations of bearing rings by heat treatment., IDE 2011, Bremen, Germany, September 14th – 16th 2011, pp 36 to 72.
7 D. Scott MacKenzie, Andrew L. Banka, Evaluation of flow fields and orientation effects around simple geometries during quenching. IDE 2011, Bremen, Germany, September 14th – 16th 2011, pp 91 to 100.
8 Clausen, B.; Frerichs, F.; Klein, D.; Kohlhoff, T.; Lübben, Th.; Prinz, C.; Rentsch, R.; Sölter, J.; Stöbener, D.; Surm, H.: Identification of process pa rameters affecting distortion of disks for gear manufacture – Part I: casting, forming and machining. Proc. 2nd Int. Conf. on Distortion Engineering IDE 2008, September 17-19 2008, Bremen, Germany, p. 29-39.
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