Pollution of groundwater is associated with the entry into the aquifer of various pollutants
Pollution of groundwater is associated with the entry into the aquifer of various pollutants, when reaching the water intake facilities, the water becomes partially or completely unsuitable for use for the intended purpose.
Bacterial (mechanical) contamination occurs when various kinds of bacteria and viruses enter the exploitable horizon. Sources of bacterial contamination are fecal and domestic wastewater and agricultural wastes coming from areas with insufficient natural protection of natural waters, a faulty sewage network, absorbing wells and wells, unsettled wells, etc.
The main sources of chemical pollution of groundwater are industrial effluents entering the aquifer from sedimentation tanks, storage tanks, slurry storage facilities, etc. pollution can also occur through the spread of pollutants in areas of solid industrial waste, storage and storage of petroleum products, discharge of waste water into absorbing wells, as a result of pumping industrial wastewaters into deep horizons, etc.
Radioactive contamination of groundwater is associated with the work of nuclear industry enterprises, the development of radioactive elements, the disposal of waste and the discharge of radioactive wastewater. Most susceptible to radioactive contamination groundwater, having a direct connection with precipitation, open water.
Thermal pollution of groundwater is associated with an increase in their temperature beyond the permissible limits. This type of pollution can be accompanied by a change in the chemical composition of groundwater, the “flowering” of water, the growth of the content of microorganisms.
The main sources of mechanical pollution can serve as turbid surface and storm water.
Isolate microbial and chemical pollution of groundwater. Sources of pollution of groundwater can be industrial enterprises and communal facilities. With microbial contamination of groundwater, some pathogenic bacteria and viruses retain their vital functions for a long time (100 or more days).
Microbial pollution is more often exposed to groundwater. Foci of pollution are formed in the presence of fields of sewage and filtration, cattle yards, cesspools, through which direct filtration of contaminated water. And if the soils in the aeration zone lose their purifying properties, groundwater contamination begins. Pollution of groundwater can also occur when waste water is discharged into absorbing wells, pits, wells.
Pollution of artesian waters can occur when wastewater is discharged into absorbing wells, as well as when contaminated groundwater flows through corroded pipes and the annular space of abandoned wells that have defects. Pollution of groundwater by chemicals can go through contaminated surface water, through which the supply of underground water.
In industrial plants, sewage ponds use settling ponds, slurry ponds, storage ponds, evaporation ponds, tailings ponds, ash dumps, etc can also be a source of groundwater pollution. Surface-active substances (surfactants) can enter the groundwater. Pollution of surfactants is observed when using soil methods of wastewater treatment containing surfactants when replenishing groundwater reserves from surface water sources containing surfactants.
The source of pollution of groundwater can be atmospheric precipitation, polluting in the territories occupied by industrial waste, salt removal, in the areas of storage of petroleum products, raw materials and finished products of chemical industry enterprises, warehouses of pesticides and fertilizers.