Mr. WrightenHIS 102
November 21, 2018
During the eighteenth century in Europe, the movement of intellectuals and philosophers had begun to dominate the majority of Europe which was known as the “Century of Philosophy” or the Enlightenment period. The Enlightenment period led to the development of numerous differentiating ideologies and philosophies of individuals that led to them go against the ideologies and religion of the authority and churches. Some of these individuals during that time that were known for their ideologies and philosophies were Rene Descartes, John Locke, David Hume, Montesquieu, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Voltaire, Adam Smith, Immanuel Kant, Francis Bacon, and Isaac Newton. During the Enlightenment period, liberalism was created based on the ideas of the Enlightenment thinker John Locke which focused upon individual liberty, freedom, peace, constitutionally limited governments, and a free market. Liberalism is known as a political ideology until the nineteenth century when it was made a political doctrine which takes the matter of protecting and enhancing the freedom of the individual to be the central problem of politics. Due to the practice of liberalism, it had resulted in the preeminent reform movement in Europe during the nineteenth-century which had left positive effects along with negative effects. As time went on, the original form of liberalism had developed into differentiating types of liberalism such as, neoliberalism which is the ideology and policy model which emphasizes the value of a free market, classical liberalism which is the ideology advocating private property, an unhampered market economy, the rule of law, constitutional guarantees of freedom of religion and of the press, and international peace based on free trade. There is also Progressive Liberalism which is a form of liberalism that focuses on generating social change, usual through the regulation of private markets, and last but not least the New Deal liberalism which is the belief in a large government, that is active in regulating the economy and society to achieve what it perceives as fairness. The relationship that can be seen between the nineteenth-century liberalism and the Enlightenment was that liberalism originated from the Enlightenment period, inherited similar ideologies, and their effects that they had upon the world today.
The first main idea about the relationship between nineteenth-century liberalism and the enlightenment is that the nineteenth-century liberalism originally originated from the Enlightenment period. The reason why is because, during the Enlightenment period, the Enlightenment thinker John Locke focused solely upon individual liberty, constitutionally limited governments, peace, reliance on the institution of civil society, and a free market for social order and economic prosperity fused together which resulted in the creation of liberalism. The ideas John Locke had left inspiration in the hearts of many which have led to a few of them creating major changes in the world and society itself and a few of these individuals’ names are Alexander Hamilton, Jonathan Swift, James Madison, Voltaire, Joseph Priestley, and Thomas Jefferson. According to James Schmidt, it says, “That conservatives used their views as arguments against liberalism and socialism should not allow us to overlook that the ambivalence inherent in progress and its idea intensified toward the end of the nineteenth century. It is an ambivalence that was already inherent in the Enlightenment and that belongs to the modern world itself” (Schmidt, ). This evidence helps support that liberalism originated during the Enlightenment period and continued to develop and manifested into multiple liberalisms during the nineteenth century. According to This evidence helps support that
The second main point about the relationship between nineteenth-century liberalism and the Enlightenment is their similar ideologies. The reason why is because both nineteenth-century liberalism and the Enlightenment focuses were upon going against the corrupted authorities. While the Enlightenment was a period of reasoning, science, legitimacy, ideology, and philosophy, liberalism was about the individual freedom, liberty, a free market and constitutionally limited government, but both shared similar ideas which was to remove one’s self from the higher power of authority which was considered tyrannical and to be able obtain your rights to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. The Enlightenment began during the scientific revolution which had occurred during in 1543 which was caused by Nicolaus Copernicus’s book “On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres”, which was about his heliocentric theory which states that the earth rotates around the sun and that the other planets don’t rotate the earth which confronted the beliefs of the church. The Scientific Revolution had lasted through the late eighteenth-century which led to the beginning of philosophies and theories which led to the beginning of the Enlightenment period. According to “.” The evidence above helps support that the Enlightenment and the nineteenth-century liberalism both focused upon removing one’s self from a higher power of authority and influence in order to be able to live a life that they can enjoy and live the best they can and to be able to do what they want without the government controlling it in one way or another.
The final main point about the relationship between nineteenth-century liberalism and the Enlightenment is the effects they had on the world. The reason why is because the Enlightenment period was a period of reasoning, science, philosophy, ideology, technology which results in them going against the church and authority along with the creation of different philosophies, ideologies, technology, and more which resulted in giving other countries and states the idea to revolt for their freedom. During the Enlightenment period, there were many arguments against the powers of authority and the way that they rule which resulted in people being thrown in jail or exiled from their home country and to never returned while liberalism was known for the political ideology which focused upon the ideas of freedom, liberty, life, free market, and peace. According to . The evidence helps support that . According to . The evidence above helps support that the nineteenth-century liberalism and the enlightenment had similar effects on the people due to
The enlightenment period and nineteenth-century liberalism have had a long history with one another which tie them together and shows a relationship between the two from the past. The first being that originally nineteenth-century liberalism originated from the Enlightenment era by the Enlightenment thinker John Locke which sole purpose focused upon individual liberty, freedom, a free market for social order, economic prosperity, and constitutionally limited governments so that people can live a life worth living for and allowing them to make their own living without and influence from higher powers and if felt like their freedom is being denied, then they are allowed to overthrow the government if it becomes tyrannical and will not listen to reason. The second point is that the nineteenth-century liberalism and the Enlightenment were based on similar ideologies. The reason behind this is because during the Enlightenment period the objective of the Enlightenment thinkers was to create new ideologies and create new philosophies that challenged the old philosophies and ideologies created by those in power and the church during that time. At the time when liberalism was created, its sole purpose was to grant people freedom from the corrupted governments which want to use their authority to wrong the citizens and allow the people to do something about it. The third point is that effects they had in our world against the authorities. The reason why is because during the Enlightenment many ideologies and philosophies went against the higher-ups and churches of those countries which lead to many arguments against them and the philosophers which can led sometimes to imprisonment, be exile or given the death penalty for going against their beliefs.
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Melton, James Van Horn. The Rise of the Public in Enlightenment Europe. Cambridge University Press, 2009.
Pagden, Anthony. The Human Science: the Enlightenment and Why It Still Matters. Oxford University Press, 2013.
Religion and the Enlightenment: from Descartes to Kant. Westminster John Knox, 1997.
Schmidt, James. What Is Enlightenment?: Eighteenth-Century Answers and Twentieth-Century Questions. Univ. of California Press, 2004.