My Ssec Capstone Project INTRODUCTIONBACKGROUND India has nearly 36 million micro

INTRODUCTIONBACKGROUND India has nearly 36 million micro

INTRODUCTIONBACKGROUND
India has nearly 36 million micro, small and medium enterprises (MSME), which constitutes more than 80 per cent of the total number of industrial enterprises in the country and contribute 8 per cent of the GDP. It is estimated that there are 600 modern MSME clusters and 2,000 rural and artisan-based clusters in India. According to the Working Group report on “Effectively Integrating Industrial Growth and Environment Sustainability” Twelfth Five Year Plan (FY 2012-2017), Micro, Small & Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) contribute 70 per cent of the total industrial pollution and are generally equipped with obsolete, inefficient and polluting technologies. MSMEs accounts for energy consumption of about 50 Million Tonne of Oil Equivalent (MTOE) and mainly use fossil fuel based energy such as coal, electricity and oil.

OBJECTIVE
As a part of Global Environment Facility (GEF) programmatic framework project for Energy Efficiency in India, a project was launched with the objective of increasing the demand for energy efficiency investments in target micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs) clusters, and to build their capacity to access commercial finance. The broad objective of this program are:
To create increased demand for EE investment by adopting a cluster approach to facilitate the development of customized EE product and financing solutions in targeted industry clusters, and to build their capacity of identified apex organization to assist MSME units in identifying additional EE projects in the future thereby adding in widespread replication.
To raise the quality of EE investment proposal from a technical and commercial prospective, thus to increase the capacity of both project developer and bank loan officer/ Branch managers to help shrink the gap between project identification and successful delivery of commercial finance.
To expand the use of existing guarantee mechanism for better risk management by banks to catalyze additional commercial finances for energy efficiency.
To establish a monitoring and evaluation system for the targeted clusters.
The World Bank is the implementing agency of this program while Small Industrial Development Bank of India (SIDBI) is the executing agency.

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SCOPE OF WORK AND DELIVERABLES
The project will be implemented in eighteen months duration which is divided into three phases.

The key activities of each phase is shown in REF _Ref511579430 h * MERGEFORMAT Figure 11 below:

Figure STYLEREF 1 s 1 SEQ Figure * ARABIC s 1 1: Key Activities of each phaseMAJOR ACTIVITIES UNDER THIS PROJECTThe project will be implemented in eighteen months following kick off meeting with SIDBI. The first steps would consist of developing brochures for the project and organizing the sensitization workshops. Further identification of industries from mix of cluster will be facilitated to conduct detailed resource efficiency audits to identify opportunities for EE investment, Cleaner production projects and Lean manufacturing opportunities across 70 MSME units and will submit detailed project reports for individual cluster units. ICF will develop M&V mechanism to provide implementation support to at least 50 MSMEs. The implementation support will also include supporting the MSMSe with details of local technology providers, financial institution details, details of schemes related to MSMEs, etc. ICF will prepare 50 implementation completion reports. ICF will also submit case studies including energy efficiency, renewable energy, lean management and cleaner production comprising all sectors.

MSME UNITENERGY PROFILEElectricity TrendA 3 phase 4 wire meters was installed to record the energy consumption of the MSME. It is observed that minimum unit consumption is 106485 kWh which is in the month of June & maximum unit consumption is 173615 kWh which is in the month of March.
Summary of Machine
Sr. No Machines Number of Machines Connected Load (HP) Connected Load (kW)
1 Jet Machine 4 65 48.49
2 Soft Flow 3 32.5 24.25
3 Jigger 16 122.5 91.385
4 Hank Dyeing 9 87.5 65.275
5 Total 32 307.5 229.395
Details of month wise electrical consumption for the year 2016-17
Month Unit Consumption (kWh) Unit Consumption (kVAh) Power Factor Cost In Lakh RsApr-16 108570 109845 0.99 9.4
May-16 119862 120927 0.99 10.39
Jun-16 106485 107412 0.99 9.29
Jul-16 129655 134225 0.97 11.78
Aug-16 130535 132480 0.99 11.6
Sep-16 126840 126895 1 10.87
Oct-16 138595 138675 1 12.29
Nov-16 118370 124910 0.95 10.96
Dec-16 119030 120055 0.99 10.25
Jan-17 125015 125080 1 10.71
Feb-17 127445 127515 1 10.86
Mar-17 173615 173765 1 13.3
Total (16-17) 1524017 1541784 0.99 131.7
Graphical representation of Unit Consumed (2016-17)

Graphical representation of cost of electricity (2016-17)

Fuel TrendPresently unit has started using the wood as fuel in place of pet coke because of the recent ban on pet coke and furnace oil imposed by the honorable Supreme Court. Switching to wood has increased the production cost for the MSME, as wood has a lower calorific value as compared to pet coke. Wood also contains higher moisture content. In the boiler, the company had modified the fuel firing area as nozzle type system a few months back. Now the condition has changed due to the ban and fuel change, the MSME needs to change the firing system again. It is suggested that fuel firing system needs to change to fire bar system as normally conventional boiler is having, providing better thermal efficiency of the boiler.

Details of month wise Fuel consumption for the year 2016-17
Month Pet Coke (t)
Apr-16 119.68
May-16 144.98
Jun-16 142.93
Jul-16 115.39
Aug-16 197.24
Sep-16 149.06
Oct-16 145.19
Nov-16 148.17
Dec-16 144.39
Jan-17 119.00
Feb-17 129.65
Mar-17 176.35
Overall 1732
Overall Energy ProfileThe total energy consumption of the unit during last 12 months was 1551.3 TOE which is equivalent to 322.2 lakh rupees. The thermal share of total consumption turns out be 91.55 percent. The total CO2 emission during this period is estimated to be 7116 tonnes.

Particular Buying Source Unit Rate Heat Value (Million kCal) Rs.(Lakh/y) % of Total TOE/y % of Total CO2
Emission (t/y) % of Total
Grid –Electricity UHBVNL 8.64 1311 131.7 40.9 131.1 8.45 1249.69 17.56
Thermal PET COKE 11 14202 190.6 59.1 1420.2 91.55 5866.27 82.44
Total 15513 322.2 1551.3 7115.96 Share of energy costs by different fuels / electricity

Share of thermal energy from fuels & electrical energy from Grid

Production
Month wise production of the unit:
Month Production (Kg)
Apr-16 150,208
May-16 142,710
Jun-16 135,062
Jul-16 140,121
Aug-16 202,850
Sep-16 195,813
Oct-16 175,290
Nov-16 185,417
Dec-16 194,968
Jan-17 209,568
Feb-17 207,841
Mar-17 179,326
Overall 21,18,904
Relation between Pet Coke Consumption vs Production

Relation between Electricity consumed vs Production
Specific Energy ConsumptionSpecific Energy Consumption (SEC) is defined as the Total Energy input to the plant boundary / Total quantity of production.

While calculating total energy input to the plant all energy sources are converted to a single unit i.e. Tonnes of oil Equivalent (MTOE) by using standard engineering conversions as shown below.

Month Production (Kg) Specific electricity consumption kWh/t Specific pet coke consumption t/t Specific energy consumption TOE/t
Apr-16 150,208 722.80 0.80 0.72
May-16 142,710 839.90 1.02 0.91
Jun-16 135,062 788.42 1.06 0.94
Jul-16 140,121 925.31 0.82 0.75
Aug-16 202,850 643.51 0.97 0.85
Sep-16 195,813 647.76 0.76 0.68
Oct-16 175,290 790.66 0.83 0.75
Nov-16 185,417 638.40 0.80 0.71
Dec-16 194,968 610.51 0.74 0.66
Jan-17 209,568 596.54 0.57 0.52
Feb-17 207,841 613.19 0.62 0.56
Mar-17 179,326 968.15 0.98 0.89
Overall 21,18,904 719.16 0.82 0.73
EXISTING PROCESSES, OPERATIONS AND ASSOCIATED UTILITIESBrief description about the methodology adopted for conducting resource efficiency audit of the unit and summary of major findingsThe following methodology was adopted for the detailed resource efficiency audit.

Walkthrough assessment
Basic information about the plant’s manufacturing processes was collected. This information was used to obtain the plant layout and assess the initial potential in the industry and focus areas.

Preliminary data collection involved collecting basic information to quickly determine if there was a merit in conducting a detailed assessment. The preliminary questionnaire is important to get first-hand information about the factory and ideally, most of this information should be available at the site. The screening criteria will include assessing if the MSME is a bonafide registered MSME, and if it complies with Environmental Social Management Framework, both prerequisites by SIDBI for project participation. The assessment also included, if there was a potential of energy savings investments beyond the commonly suggested improvements related to lighting, motors, air and steam leakages, etc.
Collate existed inventory of technologies applicable for each sector based on the studies conducted by ICF Team, SIDBI and other agencies. This helped in enhancing the focus of the detailed energy audit study.

Detailed energy audit
The detailed questionnaire for assessment reflected the approach required to conduct a thorough analysis and identification of opportunities for improvement. Some of this information was not available with the plant manager or respective departments presumably due to less metering at the process / equipment level. Hence, most of this information was generated by the local consultant doing the onsite audit through measurements, recording name plate rating of equipment, visual inspection, and observation. If SIDBI suggested mobile app for conducting future energy audits, then ICF team will use the app for data collection. Our team members will undertake training from SIDBI officials regarding use of this app. broadly, the audit process captured the following information:
Energy/Water consumption by major equipment,
Performance level of equipment (efficiency, specific energy/water intensity)
Visible areas of energy/water/chemical loss
Visible areas of potential health and safety hazards or preparedness to deal with such hazards (safety measures for fire, chemical, electrical; Structural safety; first aid measures; protective equipment, etc.)
Visible areas of potential environmental hazards (existence of ETP, chemical composition of effluent, etc.)
Visible areas for lean manufacturing or waste minimization
Feasibility of deployment of technical best practices (sector neutral and sector specific).

Brief description about manufacturing process along with process flow diagram of the unitProcess Flow DiagramThe following three processes are followed at the textile Dyeing unit:

Note: The Process wise data related to material and energy balancing was not available with plant nor it was possible to measure the data. We are estimating the details after due discussion with the MSME.

Process Description
The plant produces home furnishing products. The total production of the plant is 2118 tonnes per year. Dyers have nine hank dyeing machines, four jet dyeing, sixteen jiggers, three soft flow machines, and two stenter to manufacture the product. Detailed description of the processes is given afterwards.

Hank Dyeing
Hank dyeing machines are mostly used for dyeing of patterned wool carpet, Temperature control is done by programmable logic controllers.

The hanks to be dyed are loaded onto the rollers bars by avoiding overlapping of hanks, in lifted position. The dye bath is kept ready with proper liquor level and mixed homogenously, preferably with an external circulation pump. The hanks are lowered into the dye bath and movement is started, approximately 40-50% part of the hanks remains in the liquor and rest is exposed to atmosphere. The material is lifted up for addition of colors, chemicals, salt, alkali etc. or for raising the temperature of dye bath (in case of direct steam injection). In case of indirect heating the dye bath temperature may be increased at set rate of heating, but in case of direct heating the temperature rise is step by step.
The sample may be drawn at the completion of dye cycle and checked for shade, without stopping the machine. All operations can be done in the same machine.

Soft Flow
In the soft flow dyeing machine water is used for keeping the fabric in circulation. The conceptual difference of this equipment from a conventional jets that operates with a hydraulic system is that the fabric rope is kept circulating during the whole processing cycle (right from loading to unloading). There is no stopping of liquor or fabric circulation for usual drain and fill steps. The principle working behind the technique is very unique. There is a system for fresh water to enter the vessel via a heat exchanger to a special interchange zone. At the same time the contaminated liquor is allowed channel out through a drain without any sort of contact with the fabric or for that matter the new bath in the machine. Soft Flow machines usually reaches temperatures around 140 °C.
Jet Dyeing
Fabric is dyed by placing it in a heated tube or column where jets of dye solution are forced through it at pressure. Dyeing is done in a closed, tube-like system in which the fabric passes through a fast moving stream of pressurized dye liquor.
In this machine, the dye tank contains disperse dye, dispersing agent, leveling agent and acetic acid. The solution is filled up in the dye tank and it reaches the heat exchanger where the solution will be heated which then passed on to the centrifugal pump and then to the filter chamber.The solution will be filtered and reaches the tubular chamber. Here the material to be dyed will be loaded and the winch is rotated, so that the material is also rotated. Again the dye liquor reaches the heat exchanger and the operation is repeated for 20 to 30 minutes at 135 °C. Then the dye bath is cooled down, after the material is taken out.

Jiggers
Jigger dyeing machine is one of the oldest dyeing machines used for cloth dyeing operations. Jigger machine is suitable for dyeing of woven fabrics, up to boiling temperature without any creasing. Jigs exert considerable lengthwise tension on the fabric and are more suitable for the dyeing of woven than knitted fabrics. Since the fabric is handled in open-width, a jig is very suitable for fabrics which crease when dyed in rope form.

StenterStenter machines have two main features, high intensity convention drying system and provision for fabric width control. There are the chambers called drying section of high velocity air jets. The air jets used is heated to temperature level of the order of 200 to 220 °C for heat setting and drying process. Large quantity of air is recirculated and reused to conserve the heat inside the chambers.
The fabric is collected from the batcher to the scray and then it is passed through the padders where the finishes are applied and sometimes shade variation is corrected. The fabric is entered into the Mahlo (weft straightener) the function of the Mahlo is to set the bow and also weave of the fabric is griped by the clips and pins are also provided but the pins has a disadvantage that they pins make holes at the selvedge but the stretching of the pins are greater than the clips. These clips and pins are joined to endless chain. There are 4 chambers provided on the machine in the unit. Each chamber contains a burner and filters are provided to separate dust from air. The circulating fans blow air from the base to the upper side and exhaust fans sucks all the hot air within the chambers. Attraction rollers are provided to stretch the warp yarn.
After stentering we can increase the width of the fabric up to 1.5-2 inch. The speed of the machine is about 7-150 m/min. 3 meters fabric can run in each chamber. Temperature is adjusted according to the fabric.

Utilities BoilerThe dyer has installed a boiler of 5 TPH, The steam distribution system is designed for operation at 9.5 kg/cm2.

This boiler is of water tube oscillating grate and is used for steam generation, at the time of Audit the fuel used for boiler is wood, and the boiler is operating at 9.5 kg /cm2. The operating efficiency of the boiler is calculated by Direct Method and indirect method.

The wood is inferior fuel quality and has high moisture and hydrogen content and net available heat is lower than the pet coke. The company has to start the monitoring system for fuel consumption and steam generation output and need to work out the steam to fuel ratio and also time to time review the flue cost and its characteristics, to see the efficiency of the boiler and thermic fluid heater.

The boiler efficiency comes out to be 65.42% by direct method, whereas indirect method efficiency is calculated to be 68.72% as shown in annexure 8.

The production cost of steam using wood fuel is approximately Rs. 1.3 per kg of fuel.
ThermopacThe dyer is having Thermopac, of 1500 U (1500000 Kcal Hr. output) capacity. Temperatures of oil are typically 200 °C – 220 °C.

In the Thermopac, Variable Frequency Drive (VFD) is provided at ID Fan of the Thermopac. FD fan air flow is controlled manually through damper. There is no meter or monitoring system for hot oil flow.
Thermopac efficiency turns out to be 57.09% as shown in annexure 9.

AuxiliariesDG Sets
DG sets: Diesel generator is not operating regularly as the plant is getting continuous supply from UHBVNL. However whenever there is non-availability of power due to grid failure or some other unavoidable circumstances or maintenance of system etc. the generator is operated. Plant has installed 1 nos. of DG sets.

The design capacity of DG set is provided below:-Sr. NO. Rating of DG set Type of Fuel used Rated Voltage
DG-1 360 kVA Diesel 415
Note: Month wise fuel consumption and electricity generation details are not available with the plant.

DG SET SEC CALCULATION
The audit team has run both the DG to determine the heat rate, the calculations are depicted in below table.

DG-1 Performance Analysis
Parameters Unit Value
Grid Connected Yes/No NO
Install Capacity KVA 360
Generation kWh 14
Diesel Reading Initial 638
Final 625
Total Fuel Consumption Litre 13
Average density of fuel kg/lit 0.85
Operating Heat Rate kcal/kWh 8287.5
Running Hours Hrs 20 min
Pumps
Raw water pumping systemThe raw water requirement of the plant is catered by pumping out the underground water through two bore holes. There are two submersible pumps are installed each of 18 kW, which supplies water to the ground level tanks.
The booster pump supplies water from the ground level tank to the overhead tank. The booster pump has rated motor capacity of 7.5 kW. From the overhead tank, raw water is supplied to the whole plant.
Pump efficiency
The efficiency of any pump is defined to rate its capability of converting electricity into mechanical form of energy. Every pump is designed to handle certain load at which it has the most optimum efficiency. The most efficient pump has an efficiency of 60 to 75%, if the pump is oversized it will not give the best optimum efficiency even it is efficiently used, if the pumps are not designed properly ; also not maintained, their efficiency may go down up to 10 to 30 %
During the study, the energy audit team has measured the input power of pump as well as water flow by ultrasonic flow meter at various location which are stated below
Submersible Pump-1
Parameters Unit Design* Measured
Fluid Pumped Water    
Density of the fluid, ?* kg/m3 1000 1000
Suction head, hskg/cm2 0 -7
Discharge head, hdkg/cm2 0 0.2
Total Head M 50 72
Flow m3/h 80 28
Motor Power kW 18 15.15
Hydraulic Power kW 10.9 5.49
Shaft Power kW 17.1 14.39
Specific Power Consumption kWh/m3 0.22 0.54
Pump Efficiency % 63.74 38.16
Submersible Pump-2
Parameters Unit Design* Measured
Fluid Pumped Water    
Density of the fluid, ?* kg/m3 1000 1000
Suction head, hskg/cm2 0 -7
Discharge head, hdkg/cm2 0 0.25
Total Head M 50 72.5
Flow m3/h 80 20.15
Motor Power kW 18 16.12
Hydraulic Power kW 10.9 3.9809
Shaft Power kW 15.3 13.702
Specific Power Consumption kWh/m3 0.225 0.80000
Pump Efficiency % 71.24183 29.0533
Booster Pump-1
Parameters Unit Design* Measured
Fluid Pumped Water    
Density of the fluid, ?* kg/m3 1000 1000
Suction head, hskg/cm2 0 0.18
Discharge head, hdkg/cm2 0 4.12
Total Head M 30 39.4
Flow m3/h 50 11.18
Motor Power kW 7.5 6.16
Hydraulic Power kW 4.0875 1.2003
Shaft Power kW 6.375 5.236
Specific Power Consumption kWh/m3 0.15 0.55098
Pump Efficiency % 64.11765 22.9248
Booster Pump-2
Parameters Unit Design* Measured
Fluid Pumped Water    
Density of the fluid, ?* kg/m3 1000 1000
Suction head, hskg/cm2 0 0.2
Discharge head, hdkg/cm2 0 4.2
Total Head M 30 40
Flow m3/h 50 12.15
Motor Power kW 7.5 5
Hydraulic Power kW 4.0875 1.3244
Shaft Power kW 6.375 4.25
Specific Power Consumption kWh/m3 0.15 0.41152
Pump Efficiency % 64.11765 31.1612
Compressors
The compressor is used for pneumatic valves operation in various sections of plant ; for cleaning application. In general it is used for process machines cleaning for quality improvement.
Plant is operating 2 nos. of air compressors generating compressed air in the range of 6.4 – 6.6 kg/cm2. Plant has total installed compressed air generation capacity of 114 CFM. There is one small air receiver
Design details of compressors:S.no Description unit value
1 Compressor model   NZ-11-Z
3 Maximum Pressure PSI 100
4 Motor Capacity kW 11
5 Gross Mass kg 310
6 Make   Ingersoll
Compressor load study:The Audit team has taken the power measurement at compressor to determine the loading of compressor.

Compressor No-1
Parameter Unit Design Value Measured Value Remarks
Voltage Volt   408.8 Motor is optimally loaded
Current Amp   15 Power kW 11 8.24 Power factor     0.776 CFM   57   SEC Kw/100CFM 19.29   Motor Loading %   75% Leakage Prevention:-For checking on air leakages of compressed air, leakage test should be conducted during holiday. It’s understood that at present no specific steps are taken to check on air leakages. For estimating leakage load and unload time periods are to be noted for several cycles with no machine working conditions.

Leakage CFM = {t1 x Compressor CFM} / t1+t2
Where,
t1 = time during which compressor is loaded (Total of several reading)
t2 = time during which compressor is unloaded (Total of several reading)
Most of the supply air lines are kept in outside the not underground. It’s strongly recommended that fitters and plumbers in the department can locate the leaks with noise, use of soap solution to all valves, joints and accessories of compressors.

Reducing Working pressure and pressure drop in air lines:
The quantity and quality of air supply and power consumption would depend upon delivery pressure. Higher the air pressure, higher power demand as shown in table below.

Air Pressure, Kg/cm2.g Specific Power, Kw/100CFM
1 6.29
2 9.63
3 13.03
4 14.56
7 18.32
8 19.15
10 21.72
15 26.20
Generally pressure drop varies from about 0.5 to 1.5 Kg/cm2.The recommended pressure drop is about 0.3 Kg/cm2.Larger pipe size lead to less pressure drop and less power consumption, but high initial cost.

Reducing Compressed Air cleaning Practice
For cleaning purpose, separate line and receiver has to be provided. A review of cleaning practices and lowering of air pressure for cleaning air may be examined. The manner of running of compressors required during cleaning hours and other periods must be compared and energy consumption of these two time cycles must be checked to assess the gravity or otherwise of air usage for cleaning.
It is estimated that the loss of air from 1/8 ” opening would be 17 CFM and from ¼ ” opening its 70 CFM using 3.0 units and 12.0 units of electrical energy costing Rs 18.0 to 75 for every hours of use. This shows that air is quite expensive
Transformer and power supply system
The Dyeing unit is fed through one transformer – Transformer #1. The transformers used in the Dyers are star connected transformers.

Design specifications of transformer
Transformer No 1
Description Unit Value
KVA kVA 630
RATIO VOLT 11000/433
FREQUENCY HZ 50
TOTAL MASS KG 3700
Make ALSTOM
Percentage loading of transformer ; loss calculation
Sr. No. Transformer Design kVA of transformer Measured kVA of transformer LT Side % Loading of transformer (LT)
1 Transformer No-1 630 250 47
All the important electrical parameters and power quality parameters i.e. frequency, voltage, current, kW, Power factor, harmonics (THDi ; THDv), current and voltage unbalanced etc. is recorded for each transformer. The summary of recordings is as follows:
Transformer No-1, 630 kVA
Transformer No 1- LT Side
Data Minimum Maximum Average Remarks
Frequency 49.94 50.12 49.972 Average Harmonics content in current is 12.9 which is more than the permissible range of harmonics in current i.e. 10 %
Voltage V 415 422.5 416.9 % THDv5.9 6.1 6.1 Amps. 400.8 407.5 403 % THDi13.8 13.4 12.9 KW 242 250 248 Power Factor 0.894 0.902 0.891 Recorded voltage (V)
Name Average Min Max Units
L1 RMS 419.233 416.50 420.90 Voltage
L2 RMS 421.567 419 422.90 Voltage
L3 RMS 418.80 416.20 420.10 Voltage
Trend of voltage (V)

It can be seen from the above table that maximum voltage recorded is 422.90 V as against the standard value of 440 V. The desired voltage level can be achieved by adjusting the position of the tap changer.

Recorded current (A)
Name Avg. Min Max Units
A1 RMS 389.6 388.5 394.4 Ampere
A2 RMS 398.8 395.4 402.6 Ampere
A3 RMS 403.8 400.5 407 Ampere
Trend of current
It can be observed from the above table that current in all the phases are almost balanced.
Recorded THD
Name Avg. Min Max Units
A1THD 14.6 13.6 14.2 %
A2 THD 12.9 11.9 12.5 %
A3 THD 13.8 12.9 13.4 %
Trend of THD

The current harmonics (caused by nonlinear load) in all the phases have been observed to be beyond the permissible limit of Plus/Minus 10%, which needs to be addressed by providing the harmonic filters.

Recorded POWER
Name Avg. Min Max Units
W 1 81.26 80.34 80.69 kW
W 2 85.08 84.75 85.52 kW
W 3 86.4 85.56 86.39 kW
Trend of Power

The powers in all the phases are almost equally distributed. Unbalanced loading may result in unbalance voltage drop and thus unbalanced voltage levels for rotating 3 phase motors. If the unbalance is substantial, it increases rotor heating due to negative sequence magnetic flux generated in the stator counter to the rotor rotation, which induces negative seq. voltage on the shorting bars and hence negative sequence short circuit current in the rotor
Lighting
The company is not having separate feeders for the lighting.

Majority of the lighting fitting provided in the company is LED. In some of the place conventional tube light is there, the management has taken an initiative to convert the conventional lighting with LED tubes.

Lighting Level at various places is mentioned in table below:
Sr. No Section LUX Level Remarks
1 Transformer Room 80, 85, 90 ok
2 DG Room 70, 75, 60 Low
3 Boiler 80,75,70 Low
4 Jet Dyeing 65, 60,70 Low
5 Jiggers 120,130,150 ok
6 Office 180,190,210 ok
The LUX level at some places found to be low, which needs to improve by providing higher lumens LED bulbs.

RECOMMENDED ENERGY EFFICIENCY MEASURESEffluent Heat Recovery from Process Machines
Situational AnalysisBatch or non-continuous processing is common in textile dyeing plants. As a result of non-continuous processing, a large volume of wastewater is available intermittently from several machines at different locations in the plant. Equipment such as Jet dyeing machines and hank machines often operate continuously for long hours, requiring a large volume of hot water. This produces an equal volume of hot waste water simultaneously. Energy is wasted if we simply drain the water. It is possible to reuse the heat available in wastewater by installing the heat recovery system.
Observations/commentsDuring the energy audit in Saraswati Dyers, it was observed that the processed water is simply drained into to sewage after ETP. Opportunity for heat recovery is available if the waste water is properly utilized for preheating the boiler feed water or dyeing purposes. Approximate effluent discharge from hank dyeing machines is 1.80 Lakh liters/day with average temperature of around 90 °C.
Intervention
Through utilization of proper wastewater heat recovery system, reclaimed heat from the wastewater discharge can preheat incoming fresh water; thereby saving fuel costs, while enhancing the environment through the removal of thermal pollution.

A characteristic feature of this technology is that of incorporation of heat exchangers with the purpose of heating up the incoming cold-water stream with hot wastewater leaving the machine.
BenefitsAnnual fuel savings are estimated to be 164.63 MT of Pet Coke.
Annual cost savings are INR 18.11 Lakh.

InvestmentTotal estimated investment required to install the Shell type heat exchanger is INR 9.1 Lakhs
PaybackSimple payback period for this project is 6 months.

Oxygen trimming system for BoilerSituational AnalysisBoiler is one of the major energy consuming units in any textile dyeing industry and it is very important to ensure the maximum operating efficiency of the boiler.
Observations/commentsDuring the audit, it was measured that the oxygen level in the flue gas is 14 per cent. This requires excess air about 200 per cent which is way beyond the benchmarks and results in reduction of boiler efficiency.
InterventionOxygen air trimming control system uses a special rugged zirconium oxide sensor (ZrO2). These Sensors have faster speed of repose and is ideal for oxygen measurement in combustion application and has greater measuring accuracy, durability and longer working life. The system consists of the in-situ oxygen measuring probe which detects the partial pressure direct in the flue gas ducting. The signal is sent to intelligent control circuit which regulates the primary and secondary air by using Variable Frequency Drive (VFD).
The maximum optimization of ID/FD draft fans by using control system ensures perfect combustion of fuel which will reduce NOx and CO emissions to great extent. The fuel and electrical savings are also substantial.

Considering the actual O2 and CO2 level in flue gas, it is possible to further adjust the VFD of FD fan to reduce O2 level to around 8%.

BenefitsThe total estimated savings by implementing this intervention are
Total fuel saving is 110.77 tones /annum
Total monetary saving is Rs. 12.18 lakhs /Annum
InvestmentPresent system cost is Rs. 3 Lakhs without VFD on ID/FD motors
Payback periodSimple payback period is 3 months
Oxygen trimming system for Thermic Fluid heater (Thermopac)Situational analysisThermopac is the other energy consuming utility in the unit which provides heat to stenter, jet dyeing and soft flow machines using oil medium. It is recommended to achieve maximum thermopac efficiency for fuel savings.

Observations/commentsSame as 3.2.2
InterventionsSame as 3.2.3
BenefitsTotal fuel saving is 150.55 MT/annum
Total monetary saving Rs. 16.56 lakhs per annum
InvestmentPresent system cost is Rs. 3 Lakhs without VFD on ID/FD motors
InvestmentSimple payback period is 2.2 months

Energy Conservation TurbineSituational analysisTextile unit requires considerable quantities of steam at lower pressure of 2.5 kg/cm2 to 3.0 kg/cm2. The prevailing practice in most dyeing units is that steam is produced at higher pressure and utilized after reducing the pressure through a PRV/PRDS.

Observations/commentsThe unit is producing steam at a pressure of around 9.5-10 kg/cm2, whereas process requirements are in the region of 2.5-3.0 kg/cm2.
InterventionsAn Energy Conservation Turbine (ECT) can help in generating electricity from valuable energy getting lost to the atmosphere through pressure reduction. ECT can utilize saturated steam for producing electricity, which would ease the load from the grid.
BenefitsTotal electricity savings are 180000 kWh per annum resulting in total cost savings of Rs. 15.55 Lakhs per annum.

InvestmentApproximately cost of turbine is Rs. 40 Lakhs.

Payback periodPayback period for this project is 31 months.

Installation of exhaust humidity control system in stenterSituational analysisIn most of the units, the exhaust air fan is kept in off position and the exhaust air comes out from fabric exit opening. When drying, there is an optimum exhaust rate which should be adhered to. Since a significant number of stenter still rely on manual control of exhausts, which basically means ‘fully open all the time’, the potential for energy saving is considerable. Manual control of exhausts is generally very difficult since the expected airflow patterns and the ones found in practice vary considerably. Hence the tendency to leave them fully opens.

Observations/comments41% of total energy given to stenter is utilized in evaporation of moisture. Thus the moisture present in the fabric gets evaporated and is taken out of the stenter with exhaust air. A mixture of hot air and water vapor leaves the dryer via the exhaust air duct. The energy required to heat the intake air makes up a significant proportion of the overall costs involved in operating the machine. The hot air/steam ratio is therefore a contributory factor in determining the economic efficiency of the entire drying process and must be considered more closely as the energy costs rise. The quantity of water evaporated per unit of time varies continually depending on the fabric weight, infeed and residual moisture, width of fabric and speed. It is not possible to achieve the most efficient use of hot air by constantly adjusting the exhaust air damper. Instead, the moisture content of the exhaust air must be constantly measured and the air dampers and extractor fans must be adjusted in line with the drying conditions or be automatically regulated.

InterventionsExhaust Humidity Controller- PLEVA sensor FS 91
Fabric Temperature Control- PLEVA TDS 95
Residual Moisture- PLEVA RR 1.3
By installing the proposed system, the moisture %age required to be present in the finished fabric is set and speed of the fabric is varied so as to attain exact moisture %age. As per the case studies available, 5 to 30% saving has been generated out of the proposition. To be on safer side, a saving of 5% has been considered. A reduction in fresh air intake by 50% reduces energy consumption by 57% as per the established thumb rules. Also, as per a case study, 30% energy saving was achieved by control of exhaust air moisture. A minimal 5% reduction in Energy can safely be considered by way of exhaust moisture measurement and control system.

BenefitsTotal electricity savings are 18021 kWh / Year
Total fuel savings are 48 MT per annum
Total monetary savings are Rs. 6.84 Lakhs / annum
InvestmentApproximately cost of intervention is Rs. 3.65 Lakhs.

Payback periodPayback period for this project is 6.4 months
Installation of fabric temperature control system in stenterSituational analysisPresently, processing Polyester or Blended fabrics essentially do heat setting on stenter. Although Temperature and Dwell time is very critical for final quality of the fabrics in terms of coloration, color fastness and dimensional stability, there is no precise control for the parameters resulting in loss of productivity and also inferior quality.
Observations/commentsAs per the present system, it is the chamber temperature which is being monitored and controlled. It can very well be said that the two most critical parameters are not being ensured resulting in loss of productivity and also erosion in quality. The situation becomes worse when fabrics of different blend ratios and different weight are processed under same temperature setting of various chambers of the stenter resulting in vitiation of the process parameters and hence delivery of poor quality at a very less productivity levels.

InterventionsThe proposed system consists of several non-contact types infra-red temperature sensors fitted in the roof along the length of the stenter in the latter part of the stenter. The sensors find exactly where the required temperature is achieved and signal is consequently given to the VFD of the main chain motor to either increase or decrease speed so that the minimum dwell time is ensured. By installing the proposed system, the precise temperature required for heat setting is achieved and also the requisite dwell time is ensured, thus ensuring maximum possible output and also ensuring the best possible quality in terms of intended characteristics out of the heat setting process.
BenefitsTotal electricity savings are 24029 kWh / Year
Total fuel savings are 64 MT per annum
Total monetary savings are Rs. 9.12 Lakhs / annum
InvestmentApproximately cost of intervention is Rs. 2.2 Lakhs.

Payback periodPayback period for this project is 2.9 months
Condensate recovery systemSituational analysisThe requirements of the disperse dyeing is that the fabric should be dyed at a temperature between 115 °C to 135 °C for sufficient period so that uniform dyeing occurs and also color fastness is achieved. This heating is done by way of supplying heat to Dye Water through steam in a heat exchanger.

Observations/commentsSteam consumption of a jet dyeing machine of capacity 300 kg is nearly 180 kg/hour. By not recovering the heat from condensate, heat is getting wasted away.

InterventionsA condensate recovery pump can be installed can be installed near jet dyeing and soft flow machines. The condensate can be used to heat boiler feed water, thereby contributing to energy savings.

BenefitsTotal fuel savings are 110 MT per annum
Total monetary savings are Rs. 4.95 Lakhs / annum
InvestmentApproximately cost of intervention is Rs. 2.2 Lakhs.

Payback periodPayback period for this project is 4.8 months
Replacement of existing mangle roller with Roberto roller for better squeezing of fabric on StenterSituation analysisThe mangling process consists of passing the open width fabric through a rough containing liquid to be applied and the nip formed by two rollers under the pressure. For applying dye and other liquors, a soft-soft combination of mangle rolls is used. For water removal, a hard-soft combination is used.
Observations/commentsSignificant benefits from using the unique Roberto squeeze roller in fabric in wet processing. Roberto rollers has been using successful in fabric applications over several years. The first mangle can achieve 80 % residual moisture using a standard rubber roll – and the process needs at least 20% of softener – then the pressure at the second squeeze needs to be set to deliver 100% residual moisture into the stenter.

InterventionsThe more water it can remove from the fabric, the better. In most cases, the Roberto will be 20% better at removing moisture than a rubber roll. This is achieved through the Roberto’s special microporous covering, which has established it as the leading high-expression squeeze roller for liquid extraction from textile fabrics. The fabric reaches the second bath with a 60% moisture level, instead of 80%. Adjusting the second nip pressure will now leave only 80% residual moisture in the fabric as it passes into the stenter.

Vacuum dehydration of fabricSituation analysisStenter is used for drying and heat setting of the fabric. Heat exchange happens through oil from thermic fluid heater, which heats up the air in stenter chambers which carries away the moisture from the fabric sped in stenter. The more the moisture content is, more heat is required.

Observations/commentsIn Saraswati dyers, mangle rollers are present to squeeze out some amount of moisture. There are significant savings, if the moisture can be more efficiently removed.
InterventionsAn efficient way of dehydration of fabric using vacuum can be installed before stenter. This would result in lower moisture present in the fabric going in the stenter. Therefore, stenter speed can be increased accordingly as lesser moisture is present, requiring lesser heat. This would also result in increase in production as average stenter speed is increasing.

RECOMMENDED LEAN MANUFACTURING PRACTICESWorkplace Improvements (5S)Situation analysisIt is clear that while entering into lean, we should reduce wastages.
Observations/commentsThe most visible wastage are the unwanted materials / machines / tools/ zigs and dies in the premises along with non-structured workplace.

InterventionsAwareness to employees about the losses and advantages in the shop floor area, deploying 5s activities like listing down unnecessary items consecutively deposals and making all material into its specified location ( primitively 1S, 2S and 3S) in shop floor leading to greater cost and floor savings, having every day GEMBA or 5S meet, conducting 5S internal and external audits to make the system sustain, competence in 5S to a fixed time periods making the concept of how all can be done better situations among the organization
Benefits
Improvements in work place ergonomics / employee morale / product quality / productivity / direct rejection. Annual savings are estimated to be INR 3.1 Lakh.

InvestmentTotal Investment of intervention is INR 1.10 Lakhs
Payback periodPayback period for implementing this project is estimated to be 5 months
Visual ManagementSituation analysisWhile doing any process, the time spent to search the right tool and other required material contributes to process delays. There is possibility of accidents occurring too.

Observations/commentsProper tags and visual aids are not available, contributing to excess search time for finding the tools and resources.

InterventionsProper visual aids to be placed for tools and resources. By giving awareness to the staffs at both management and operator level, the ergonomics of the facility can be improved by providing KPIs to the staffs. Thus, they will also know what area to concentrate for improvements.

Benefits
Improvements in work place ergonomics / employee morale / product quality / productivity / direct rejection. Annual savings are estimated to be INR 0.9 Lakhs.

InvestmentTotal Investment of intervention is INR 1.10 Lakhs
Payback periodPayback period for implementing this project is estimated to be 15 months
Reduce Changeover/Setup time in Machine Shop and improve productivitySituation analysisLong changeover and setup times for any machine between different product runs create considerable downtime. Buying additional equipment was proposed to prepare for a forecasted increase in demand.
Observations/commentsQuality defects and raw material waste issues considered “inevitable” in that operation.

InterventionsUsing S.M.E.D. (Single Minute Exchange of Die) methods, we suggest to study the entire operation and create a procedure that minimizes downtime. Due to the nature of the operation, we also propose to organize tools and fixtures using 5S. Ergonomic tools to properly stage needed items and reduce risk of injury and operator fatigue. Quality defects can be reduced by implementing a series of strategies for scheduled machine maintenance and calibration. Raw material waste can be addressed after preparing a Standard “Go, No Go” procedure and a Standard Operating Procedures for machining.

Benefits
Improvements in product quality / productivity / direct rejection. Annual savings are estimated to be INR 3.28 Lakhs.

InvestmentTotal Investment of intervention is INR 1.17 Lakhs.

Payback periodPayback period for implementing this project is estimated to be 5 months
MaintenanceSituation analysisOne organization is evaluated as best in where there are high possible changes of OEE and TPM concepts resulting in low breakdowns of the machines. While the same also gives out the production rate of the organization along with its quality.
Observations/commentsPoor maintenance of the any machine will lead to creation of frequent breakdowns leading and line stoppages leaving to low productive output ratios.

InterventionsThe unit can adopt and deploy systems like OEE and TPM activities along with few of preventive and predictive maintenance techniques. Thus the breakdown decreases resulting in large cost savings and effective productive ratio over all the products that were to be produced by the machine.

Benefits
Improvements in product quality / productivity / direct rejection. Annual savings are estimated to be INR 1.76 Lakhs.

InvestmentTotal Investment of intervention is INR 1.10 Lakhs
Payback periodPayback period for implementing this project is estimated to be 8 months.

Quality ImprovementsSituation analysisQuality is concerned as the top factor in all manufacturing as well as non-manufacturing (service) units. In-house defects can affect overall quality of the products. Therefore the same product can harm the reputation and pricing of the unit. In-house defects that may not even reach customer has potential disaster of causing heavy loses of cost while producing or manufacturing the product. The rework adds to the non-value and it is an act of over processing while we spend more the resources twice or even thrice to make the product again right as per customer requirements.
Observations/commentsIn here the rate of in-house defects and reworks can be reduced.

InterventionsThe unit can deploy and develop few of the quality improvement techniques like firewall and final quality gate to entirely eliminate the defects that might reach the customer.
Team should be aware of finding and analyzing what is the base problem. Techniques like the 7 QC tools, 8D, CAPA, 5 why analysis will assure the success in these. Awareness to the operative staffs about the defects should be given as the individual should know that if he produces a NC product he / she is making the organization to lose money. The same can be highlighted through COQ where the cost of quality is calculated.

Benefits
Improvements in product quality / productivity / direct rejection. Annual savings are estimated to be INR 3.74 Lakhs.

InvestmentTotal Investment of intervention is INR 1.70 Lakhs
Payback periodPayback period for implementing this project is estimated to be 6 months

RECOMMENDED CLEANER PRODUCTION MEASURES
Ultrasonic Level Controller for Jet Dyeing machinesSituational AnalysisIn soft flow and jet dyeing machines, water level controller, the name itself indicates that an electronic device or circuit kit used for controlling the water level can be termed as a water level controller. It is difficult to know the level of water in the overhead tank such that wastage of water can happen frequently
Observations/commentsTo conserve water, avoid overflow of water in the overhead tank which may cause loss of water, loss of expensive chemicals, loss of electrical power, etc.

InterventionUltrasonic water level controller using microcontroller is an innovative electronics project application for controlling water level.

BenefitsIt’s very difficult to quantify the saving but it vary from 5 to 10 % steam saving than the conventional manual practice.

In terms of monetary and energy savings, the annual monetary savings is estimated to be Rs 5.6 lakhs
InvestmentCost of Ultrasonic water level controller is Rs. 2 Lakhs for 8 number of machines
PaybackPayback period is 4.3 months

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONCONCLUSIONREFERENCES

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