Psychology is the scientific study of the mind and behavior; and defined behavior as anything recognizable; an action that can be observed and recorded and mental processes are internal and subjective. They are sensations, perceptions, dreams, thoughts, beliefs, and feelings. In general, they are affected by an organism’s: physical state (biological), mental state (psychological) and external environment. There are several perspectives in psychology and there are Psychoanalytic, Humanistic, Biological, Behavioristic, Cognitive and Evolutionary.
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis, a movement that popularized the theory that unconscious motives control much behavior. These became the core elements of psychoanalysis. Freud advanced the psychoanalytic theory of personality development, which argued that personality is formed through conflicts among three fundamental structures of the human mind: the id, ego, and superego. Freud alleged that people could be cured by making conscious their unconscious thoughts and motivations, thus gaining “insight”. Indeed, the goal of psychoanalysis is to make the unconscious conscious.
A humanistic viewpoint is an approach to psychology that emphasizes empathy and stresses the goal of human behavior. In politics and social theory, this method calls for human rights and equality. In counseling and therapy, this approach allows the psychologist to an emphasis on people’s feeling and realizing the human potential to help increase an individual’s self-image or self-actualization that things can make them feel worthwhile. The early growth of humanistic psychology was strongly influenced by the works of a few key theorists, especially Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers, who became well known for their humanistic theories. Humanistic psychologist attempt to see people’s lives as those people would see them. They tend to have an optimistic or positive outlook on human nature. They focus on the ability of human beings to think consciously and rationally, to control their biological desires and requirements, plus to achieve their full potential. In the humanistic view, people are responsible for their lives and actions and have the freedom to transform their attitudes and behavior.
Biological psychology is well-defined as ‘the branch of psychology’ that studies the biological basis of behavior, emotions and mental processes. Issues concerning the effect of hormonal changes, brain destruction, and drugs are central to this perspective. Behavioral neuroscience, also identified as biological psychology, biopsychology or psychobiology is the application of the principles of biology (in particular neurobiology) to the study of physiological, genetic and development. The biological approach to psychology, known as neuropsychology, is one of many approaches used to explain human mental processes and behavior. Neuropsychologists are the psychologist that examine mental processes and behavior using the biological approach.
Behavioral psychology is a branch of psychology that emphases on the study and variation of people’s behaviors including their actions, emotions, and thoughts. There are four familiar sub-disciplines of behavioral psychology: applies behavior analysis, behavior therapy, cognitive therapy and cognitive-behavior therapy. Methods that may be applied include cognitive reformation, behavioral modeling and most frequently, classical and operant conditioning. John Watson and B.F Skinner are two of the main proponents of this approach motivate how behaviors are learned and concerned with changing behavior through conditioning. The researchers and scientist who study behavioral psychology are those who try to understand why we behave the way we do and they are concerned with discovering forms in our actions and behavior.
The perspective that explains human thought and the processes of knowing, such as attending, thinking, remembering, expecting, solving problems, fantasizing and consciousness. Cognitive psychologists spend their time teasing out the detailed nature of those processes. Typically coming up with flowchart models that break such things as memory and language processing. This is not limited to how we process the structure of information but also what information means. The word cognition is a synonym for thinking and reasoning, two areas that cognitive psychologists have also studied via computation models. The cognitive study refers to the study of the mind and how we think. If one were to main in cognitive psychology that person would study attention span, memory, and reasoning, along with other actions of the brain that are considered a complex mental process. Learning is an example of cognition.
Evolutionary psychology is a theoretical tactic that attempts to explain useful mental and psychological traits such as memory, perceptions or awareness, language-as adaptations: i.e as the functional products of natural selection.
The purpose of this method is to bring the functional way of thinking about biological mechanisms such as the immune system into the ground of psychology and to approach psychological mechanisms in a similar way. Evolutionary psychology is concentrated on how evolution has designed the mind and behavior and on the developed properties of the nervous system especially those humans. ?
In the prehistoric era, knowledge and guidance were delivered from generation to generation in an oral tradition, before the writing system develops well. They said that psychology has a long past, but a short history. The long past because psychology lies in our curiosity to understand the living lives and why. It has a short history due to it only seems like an organized body of specific in the last hundred unusual years. The variance between the prescientific psychology and science psychology is the prescience focusses on philosophical concern whereby science psychology focusses on biology and medicine.
THE HISTORY OF PRE-SCIENTIFIC ERA
i. Ancient Roots: which explains the terms of mystical or supernatural things and magical power to natural measures and come out the concept of good and bad.
ii. Greek Roots: ancient Greek started to use guesswork and logic in understanding the natural event.
iii. Philosophical roots: the early philosophers’
iv. In India, Buddha questioned how sensations and perceptions combined to form idea while in China, Confucius understands the power of ideas and the importance of an educated mind.
v. Socrates (469-399 B.C) and his learner, Plato (428-348 B.C) believed that mind was parted from the body and mind continued to exist after death, and ideas were inherent.
vi. It is different to Aristotle (348-322 B.C) recommended that the soul is not separable from the body and that knowledge (ideas) grow from experience and understanding.
vii. Rene Descartes, like Plato, assumed in soul (mind) body separation but doubted how the immaterial mind and physical body connected and communicated.
viii. Pre-scientific psychology with John Locke (1632-1704) said that the mind was a Tabula rasa or blank sheet, at birth, and experiences wrote on it.
ix. In general, understanding on how ideas are formed. Socrates and Plato agreed that some ideas are inborn while the mind is a black slate believed by Aristotle and Locke.
x. The influence of Islam in the Middle Age: They are two philosophers from the Islamic civilization and they are:
• Avicenna (Ibn Sina) (c. 980-1037)
Abu ‘Ali al-Husayn ibn Sina is better known in Europe by the Latinized name “Avicenna”. He is perhaps the most significant philosopher in the Islamic tradition and possibly the most influential philosopher of the pre-modern era. He is best known as a polymath, as a physician whose main work the Canon (al-Qanun fi’l-Tibb) continued to be taught as a medical textbook in Europe and in the Islamic world until the early modern period, and as a philosopher whose major summa the cure (al-Shifa’) had a key impact upon European scholasticism and especially upon Thomas Aquinas (d.1274). Primarily a metaphysical philosopher of being who was anxious with the understanding of the self’s existence in this world in relation to its contingency. Ibn Sina’s philosophy is an effort to build a clear and comprehensive system that accords with the religious needs of Muslim culture.
• Ibn Rushd (Averroes) (1126-1198)
Abu al-Walid Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Rushd, well known in the Latin West as Averroes, lived during a unique period in Western logical history, in which interest in philosophy and theology was fading in the Muslim world and just beginning to display in Latin Christendom. His influential commentaries and unique explanations on Aristotle recovered Western scholarly inn ancient Greek philosophy, whose works for the most part had been neglected or abandoned since the sixth century.
PSYCHOLOGY SCIENCE IS BORN (SCIENTIFIC ERA)
The psychology science began in 1879 when Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) the first founder to psychological research in Leipzig, Germany. He administrated the first psychology experiments by calculating individual time reaction to simple task and established the first psychology lab in Germany. Psychology as science convey beneficial to other subjects of human science as below;-
Edward Bradford Titchener joined the Cornell University faculty and introduced Structuralism can be defined as psychology as the study of the elements of consciousness which is the supposed structure of our mind. Example, describing about an apple. Apple is crisp, juicy, round, colored and sweet. Structuralism which tried to figure human’s thought and elements by having the individual report on how they feel about it. Both Wundt and Titchener studied the basics (atoms) of the mind and emotion to the body.
A school of psychology that focused on how mental psychological and behavioral processes function, on how they enable the creature to survive, adapt and flourish. It is influenced by Darwin and William James (1842-1910) who established the school of Functionalism, which conflicting Structuralism. The first textbook title Principles of Psychology was written by William James. James believed that ‘Consciousness served as a function’ and the memories would expose our present actions.
A school of psychology established in the 20th century that provided the groundwork for the modern study of sensitivity, perceptions, on how people perceive and experience objects as the whole pattern. The word Gestalt is used in modern German to mean the way a thing has been ‘placed’ or ‘put together’.
Max Wertheimer (1880-1943), Kurt Koffka (1886-1941), and Wolfgang Kohler (1887-1967) were three German psychologists who introducing psychologists in the United States to various Gestalt principles.
THE UNCONSCIOUS MIND
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) and his followers stressed the importance of the unconscious mind and its effect on human behavior.
The term “Behaviorism” refers to the school of psychology founded by John B. Watson. Psychological Science develops on how Watson (1913) and later Skinner emphasized the study of overt behavior as the subject matter of scientific psychology.
Focused on each individual’s potential and stressed the importance of developing, growth and self-actualization. It began as a feedback psychoanalysis and behaviorism in the 1950s. Carl Rogers (1902-1987) and Abraham Maslow (1908-1970) and a few others emphasized current environmental influences on our growth potential and our need for love and acceptance. The character of a person as a unique and organized whole. To know the person well, one needs to collect information about the individual’s whole life story and experiences.
All the discussed schools of thought in psychology have fade today but they have influenced psychology greatly. Psychology today selecting the best from each school and working with other scientists to improve and achieve their goals better.
From what had said and done, psychologists can do and make conclusions about the attitude, feelings, thoughts and other mental processes which may be behind the behavior. When we defined psychology as ‘science of behavior’, we are not excluding the mind. We can study to understand internal processes that would otherwise be hidden from us. Psychology as a human science is an approach to psychology in which our expectations and methods are consistent with our experience of ourselves as human beings. Usually, the natural science has relied on quantitative, experimental research systems to achieve their goal of prediction, estimate, and control. Psychology as science convey beneficial to other subjects of human science as below;-
Scientists look inside the brain, as in autopsy or during a surgical operation. All they see is gray matter (the brain). Emotions, memories, perceptions cannot be seen physically, like a heart defect or rash skin. In the comparative method, different species of animal can be studied and compared, thus can help in the research to understand human behavior. Physiology studies on how the nervous and hormones systems work, brain functions and the changes can be affected by the behavior. Animals inherit from its parents (genetics). We might understand the high cleverness is inherited from one generation to the next.
Integrates science, practice, and concept in order to know, relieve and predict discomfort and disability, health, causes and treatment of the disease. Provides comprehensive and continuing on mental and behavioral healthcare for individual and families session or consultation to agencies and societies, supervision, research-based practice and education and training. The scope clinical psychology covers multiple diversities, all ages, and varied systems.
• Health psychology: a study of observing behavior, biology and social influence health and illness
• Counseling psychology: General practice and health service provider and focuses on how people purpose both personally and in their relationship at all ages, help in typical life stresses, emotion, social, work, physical health, sense of well-being and resolve crises. Also offers treatment, assessment, diagnosis and simple psychological symptoms.
Investigate internal mental processes such as learning, memory, problem-solving on how people think, communicate, link, learn and remember. Development psychology is the scientific study of systematic psychological changes that people experience over the period of his / her lifespan. They use the computer analogy means that the information processing researcher focus mostly on logical aspects of cognitive processing.
Evolutionary approaches to medicine can shed light on the ancestries of disease. The approach may be beneficial in psychiatry, which normally addresses conditions with heterogeneous performance and presentation and unknown and mysteries causes. Evolutionary is that some conditions now classified as a disorder (because they cause distress and impartment) may actually be caused by functioning adaptations working ‘normally’. Thus evolutionary approach proposes that psychiatry should occasionally think differently about distress and impairment. Besides, it looks at how human behavior has been overblown by psychological adjustment during evolution.
Forensic psychologists investigate, study and analyze research from their own research and other professional. It also involves applying psychology to criminal examination and law. Their interest and concern lie in understanding why certain behavior occurs and help to minimize and prevent that behavior. Forensic psychology is said to be the combination of both law and psychology and play a role in understanding behavior and preventing crimes. The psychologist interested found working in prisons, rehabilitation centers, police departments, jails, law firms, school, to name a few.
Computer Science and Psychology is an interdepartmental main designed for those who interested in taking part in these two fields. Each area provides theories and tools that can be applied, information investigation, processing and manipulation of statistic and data. Information processing in humans resembles that in computers. Examples of this interaction include cognitive science, biological perception and artificial intelligence. The information processing paradigm of cognitive psychology views that minds in terms of a computer when processing information. There are similarities between the operations of a computer (input and output, the use of a central processor and storage system) and the human mind. We need the technologies today (computer) to analyze the information on how brains work cognitively with emotions and thinking. (Left or right function based on activities, and neuroscience studies). A significant part of computer science research is determined by psychology in the informal sense. Input processes are concerned with the analysis of the stimuli and the storage processes cover everything that happens to stimuli internally in the brain and can include coding and manipulate. The arrival of a computer that cognitive psychology the terminology and metaphor needed to study the human mind. The start of the computer allowed psychologists to study, investigate and understand the difficulties of human cognition by comparing and matching it with something simple and well understood. The use of the computer as a tool for thinking on how human mind handles information known as a computer analogy. Basically, a computer codes information, stores information, use information and produces an output (retrieves info).
Sociology and psychology are both interrelated and interdependent. It’s concerned with the exploration of the depth of human’s mind and behavior in society, the response of the former as ‘the study of man’s mental life and behavior. Thus, sociology studies society whereas psychology is a concern with human behavior and both psychology and sociology regarded as positive science. They depend to each other for their existence practices scientific methods to understand and explain how behavior, feeling and thoughts of people are influenced by the actual and imagined presence of other people, the study of human society and relations and systems towards a positive science of human behavior and experiences.
The study of using anthropological concepts and methods. The areas of interest are personal identity, subjectivity, consciousness, emotion, reaction, feeling, cognition, madness, mental health, and motivation. Like economic or political anthropology, psychological anthropology can be seen as a perspective on the social as well as being a subfield of the bigger discipline. As a reflective try, psychological anthropology shines a light not only on the cultural vehicles of thought (language, symbolism, the body) but on the idea and concepts we use to think about those means. Some of the basic categories of psychology-self, mind, emotionless transparently than expected. ?