In general both content and process theories of motivation assist organizations to better understand how to motivate employees
In general both content and process theories of motivation assist organizations to better understand how to motivate employees.
What motivates human beings is explained by the content theories. In this research we have already discussed content theories such as Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, Herzberg’s two-factor theory, Alderfer’s ERG theory and McClelland’s need theory. All these content theories signify individualist notion of motivation, and focuses on the importance of individual goals and success by undervaluing social influence (Pinnington and Edwards, 2000).
“These theories have also been criticized for propounding a male-dominant perspective on motivation. They have been described as being too specific to national culture in which they were developed and for promoting a gender-specific view of reality that favors men by prioritizing motivation in the workplace above motivation in other contexts such as home and family” (Pinnington and Edwards, 2000).
Process theories of motivation, which primarily seek answers for how to motivate people, have the advantage over content theories by explaining the ‘how’ dimension, instead of ‘what’. However, practitioners have found it difficult to implement such as expectancy theory in their organization and they have often questioned the benefits from doing so. Maybe that is why Hackman and Oldham’s theory of job design is seen as a useful version of expectancy 29 theory. It prescribes five specific areas of work organization to which practitioners can attend in practice (Pinnington and Edwards, 2000).