In every disaster
In every disaster, Improvisation is considered a significant feature. According to Tierney, if an event doesn’t require improvisation, it is probably not a disaster. The definition of improvisation has been stipulated as the organizing during an event mean while on the other hand preparedness is define as the organizing before an event according to Kreps who completed many of the most detailed studies of organizational improvisation in disaster. Kreps also explains that preparedness and improvisation are considered the most important factors in emergency management. But, on the other hand, Kreps nevertheless considered preparedness, most especially planning, as the favored element. Another scholar who contributed to the theory of improvisation is Drabek. According to Drabek, the need for planning is necessary to reduce the incidence improvisation. Individuals and groups consider improvisation as a distinct capacity to employ. Improvisation encompasses the emergent and actual of what needs to be done while planning encompasses the normative of what ought to be done. One type of improvisation is creative improvisation. Waterborne evacuation of Lower Manhattan can be perceived as example of creative improvisation. towboats, dinner cruise boats, tour boats, yachts, and other craft converged on Manhattan and shuttled evacuees to Staten Island, Brooklyn, or various points in New Jersey during that event, while hundred thousand of people were evacuated in a spontaneous fleet of assorted vessels. Although the Coast Guard personnel who helped to coordinate this event drew on elements of search and rescue and crisis management plans that presupposed a much smaller incident, there was no pre-planning for such a kind of event. based on their own repertoire of knowledge and experience to determine that a response was necessary, participants in the evacuation and supply lift operation responded to cues within their environment.