IFY (Year 1)
Assessment Cover Sheet
Student Name Gloria Antonieta Diaz Aguena
NCUK Student ID UPC-18-0025
Module IFYCH002 Chemistry
Lecturer/Tutor Maria de Fatima Fernandez Lamarque
Date Submitted 12/10/2018
OFFICE USE ONLY
Date Received Instructions for Students
Please keep an electronic copy of your work.
Academic Misconduct: Student Declaration
All forms of academic misconduct (e.g. plagiarism, collusion, fabrication of results and subcontracting) are regarded seriously by NCUK and could result in penalties, including a zero mark (failure) and possible disciplinary action. Types of academic misconduct include:
Plagiarism – Copying information, thoughts or ideas from a published or unpublished source without acknowledging (showing in your work) where that information, thoughts or ideas came from
Collusion – Where two or more students work together to produce individual assessments that contain the same ideas and text
Fabrication of Results – Where a student presents a set of results that are not from his/her observations or calculations
Subcontracting – Where a student employs someone else to write his or her assessment
I declare that all material in this assessment is my own work and that I have given fully documented references to the work of others.
Signed: __________________________________ Date: _______________________________
NCUK will process personal data in accordance with the Data Protection Act 1998, and when it comes into force the General Data Protection Regulation.
Coursework 2 – Essay Feedback SheetNCUK Student ID: Student Name: Coursework Title: Submission Date: Marker 1 Name: Marker 2 Name: Criteria Weighting Marker 1 Marker 2 Section Feedback
Introduction 15% Body 40% Conclusion 20% Referencing 10% Language 10% Presentation 5% TOTAL 100% Additional Feedback
Coursework 2 – Essay Marking CriteriaGrade Introduction (15%) Body (40%) Conclusion (20%) Referencing (10%) Language (10%) Presentation (5%)
(80+) Introduction forms a very focused and purposeful backbone to the essay.
Clear, detailed and specific aims and objectives that link precisely to the essay assignment.
Relevant and informed background that provides clear context for the essay. Discussion is developed and sustained in a logical manner over the entire answer.
Accurate and thorough critical analysis and evaluation of material appropriate to level
Focussed, well thought out, relevant and complete.
Information obtained from a range of mainly academic sources.
Format is correct and complete
Displays a more sophisticated than expected understanding of the programme content at this level
Displays a more sophisticated than expected ability to connect understanding of content to a wider context at this level
Link between theory and practice is cohesive, logical and complete. Concise summary of the essay that relates consistently to the aims and objectives.
Future perspective is considered and relevant Correct format given for in-text references and bibliography
Cohesive linkage exists between in-text references and bibliography
Range of relevant mainly academic references used.
positioning of in text references within essay given
Complete bibliography referencing list cited Sophisticated management of scientific language displayed
Accurate use of chemical symbols and scientific terminology shown
Coherent and cohesive language that is easy to understand and is well organised across the paragraphs with clear linking and signposting.
A range of precise and accurate vocabulary is present.
A wide range of complex structures are used to very good effect.
Punctuation is accurate. Formatted correctly.
A (70% – 79%)
Introduction forms a focused and purposeful backbone to the essay
Clear and specific aims are presented that link to the essay assignment
Background provides relevant context for the essay Even development of ideas over the entire answer. Ideas are in the main logical
Focussed, well thought out, relevant and in the main complete.
Very competent attempt at critical analysis and evaluation of the material throughout
Information obtained from a range of at least five academic and non-academic sources
Displays a thorough understanding of the programme content
Displays a thorough ability to connect understanding of content to a wider context.
Link between theory and practice is in the main cohesive and logical. Concise summary of the essay that relates well to the aims and objectives.
Future perspective is mostly considered and relevant A minor number of slips in accuracy of format of referencing
but in the main accurate
Linkage between in-text references and bibliography in the main cohesive
Range of relevant academic and non-academic references used
Position of in-text references mainly correct
Referencing list mostly complete Thorough management of scientific language displayed
Chemical symbols and scientific terminology are in the main accurate
Same as A* but level of sophistication is missing
Formatting is largely correct. Very few minor formatting issues present.
B (60% – 69%)
Introduction is generally focussed
Aims are addressed in general.
Relevant context is given as an overview. Clear but lacks detail.
Uneven development of ideas over the entire answer. Ideas in the main are logical
Mostly focussed and in the main well thought out and relevant, but not always complete
Very competent attempt at critical analysis and evaluation of the material in sections
Lack of range of academic or non-academic sources used.
Displays a satisfactory understanding of the programme content
Displays a satisfactory ability to connect understanding of content to a wider context.
Link between theory and practice is in the main cohesive and logical with some minor mistakes or omissions present Concise summary of the essay that relates generally to the aims and objectives.
Future perspective is relevant but briefly considered A small number of slips in accuracy of format of referencing.
Some slips in the linkage between in-text references and bibliography
Relevant Academic and non-academic references from one main source type used
Some omissions present.
Satisfactory management of scientific language displayed
Chemistry symbols and scientific terminology are in the main accurate but some omissions are frequent
Same as A but minor slips in accuracy of language and vocabulary are present Formatting is in the main correct with minor errors or omissions present
C (50% – 59%)
Introduction is generally addressed
Aims are a repeat of the essay title. No further information provided
Context is vague but is in the main relevant Underdevelopment and gaps in ideas. Ideas in the main are logical
Generally focussed and thought out in parts but sections lack or have poor attempt in analysis or reflection
A basic attempt at critical analysis and evaluation in places but clearly incomplete
Lack of range and/or questionable academic or non-academic sources used.
Displays a satisfactory understanding of the programme content with some misunderstanding present
Displays a satisfactory ability to connect understanding of content to a wider context with some mistakes or omissions present
Link between theory and practice is in the main cohesive and logical with a number of minor mistakes or omissions present Concise summary of the essay that relates generally to the aims and objectives with some mistakes or omissions present
Future perspective is relevant but misunderstandings are present Major slips in accuracy of format of referencing.
Major slips in the linkage between in-text references and bibliography
Academic and non-academic references largely relevant with some irrelevant sources used
Position of in-text references are somewhat correct with errors present
Omissions obviously present. Satisfactory management of scientific language displayed with some misunderstandings present
Chemistry symbols and scientific terminology are in the main accurate but some omissions are frequent
Same as B but slips are more frequent. Lack of understanding of researched content and lack of ability to convey information clearly and accurately. Material missing
Essay still looks aesthetically pleasing but a number of more serious errors present
D (40% – 49%)
Introduction is missing some information or is not completely relevant to the essay
There are no clear aims present
Context is in the main unclear
Ideas are underdeveloped and vague but the discussion is on the right track. Ideas are not always logical, accurate or relevant.
Largely discursive. Lack of reflection or analysis.
Limited evidence for critical analysis and evaluation
Lack of referencing given.
Clear gaps in understanding of the programme content present
Clear gaps present in ability to connect understanding of content to a wider context. A lot of mistakes or omissions present
Large gaps in the cohesion, logic or completion of the link between theory and practice. Non concise Summary of the essay that relates generally to the aims and objectives with some mistakes or omissions present
Large gaps in understanding or consideration of future perspective
Format of referencing largely incorrect. Omissions are present
Linkage between in-text references and bibliography is largely absent or incorrect
Referencing list largely incomplete or inaccurate. Inability to locate source from given reference.
In-text references incorrectly positioned or missing
Irrelevant/incomplete references used
Large gaps in management of scientific language
Chemistry symbols and scientific language are inaccurate and incomplete
Same as C but in addition mistakes are creating confusion and strain for the reader.
Parts of the essay look aesthetically pleasing while other parts do not.
(35% – 39%)
Introduction is missing or largely irrelevant
Vague aims are largely inaccurate and irrelevant
Context is irrelevant or inaccurate Ideas are underdeveloped. Ideas are not always logical, accurate or relevant.
Largely unfocused, irrelevant and incomplete
No evidence for critical analysis and evaluation
No referencing given
Programme content largely misunderstood
Very little ability to connect understanding or content to a wider context. Serious and numerous omissions and mistakes present
Very little ability to link theory and practice. Major mistakes or omissions present. Conclusion is very broad and vague No referencing given
Very little ability to manage scientific language well
Chemistry symbols and scientific language are missing
Mistakes proliferate to such an extent that meaning is almost completely lost
Essay is mostly incorrectly formatted
(0% – 34%) Introduction is missing or irrelevant.
There are no aims present
There is no context given Little effort made to complete sections of the essay.
Completely unfocused, irrelevant and incomplete
No referencing given.
Programme content misunderstood
No link between content and wider context made. Wider context not referred to. Serious misunderstandings made.
Link between theory and practice missing or incorrect. Conclusion not present No referencing given
Not scientific in tone.
Chemistry symbols and scientific language are missing
Very little attempt at task or meaning impossible to decipher.
Essay not formatted correctly
“The Incredible Journey of Crude Oil”
Crude oil is a type fossil fuel that takes millions of years to form. It has helped countless economies and countries to become into what we can see now. Countries like Saudi Arabia and the United States have been greatly benefited from the exploitation of fossil fuels and are now amongst the economic leaders of the world. While countries like Venezuela have actually been led to their demise by its irresponsible production and abuse. In 2013, oil accounted for more than one third of the world’s primary energy supply and over 95% of transport’s energy use (Miller and Sorrell, 2014). This is mainly because substitutes are scarce and not as effective, and because oil is extremely cheap in comparison to its competitors. Although it is still sold in abundance, the reality is that there is only a limited supply, and it is predicted that soon we will see the end of fossil fuels forever. For this reason, it is important to take a step back and analyse how crude oil has changed the world. In this essay I will discuss how crude oil is formed, how it is refined, its components and their properties and uses, and the impact it has on the environment.
The formation of crude oil happened extremely long ago, with the newest deposit of it being estimated to be over 50 million years old. First, remains of dead sea animals and plants settled onto the bottom of the ocean and got covered by mud, silt, and sand, which slowly turned into rock. The temperature and pressure this rock layer put onto the settled matter, and the lack of oxygen, turned it into a “hydrogen-rich liquid” (Energy Trends Insider, n.d.), crude oil.
Formation of Crude Oil
It is extracted from reservoirs by drilling wells into them and relying, for a short term, on the natural pressure of the reservoir itself to raise up to the surface.
Once in the refinery, the crude oil is separated, converted, and treated. The following diagram shows clearly how fractional distillation takes place. The crude oil is put in a distillation column that is extremely hot at the bottom and cool at the top. The hydrocarbons with shorter chains and less weight will turn into gases and rise towards the top of the column. The heavier ones will not turn into gases, but will remain liquid and will be separated from the bottom of the column. Then there is the conversion. This can be many different reactions, like cracking, coking, and alkylation. What these do is break long chain molecules into shorter ones, or rearrange molecules to turn them into different substances, which perhaps have more value. Finally, they are treated before going into storage. The treatments usually are for perfecting the final selling products. For example, blending different compounds to get gasoline, or diesel, etc.
There are many components in crude oil, but I’m going to mention the most common and important ones, going from the compounds with the lowest to the highest boiling points. Refinery gases have boiling points below 40ºC, these include methane, ethane, propane, and butane. These alkanes have short carbon chains (from 1 to 4 carbons). They are used for cooking and for heating. Then there is petrol, a blend of alkanes with 5-7 carbons in a chain, with boiling points ranging from 20 to 70 ºC. It is mainly used as fuel for cars, motorcycles, and any other small transport vehicles due to its easy igniting. Naphtha comes next, with boiling points between 70 to 160ºC. Although not the most useful compound itself, it is cracked into smaller, more useful organic molecules such as alkenes (which can be turned into polymers/plastics), or other alkanes. Kerosene, also known as paraffin, works as fuel for jet engines, aircrafts, and even rockets. It is also used as fuel for lighting and has a boiling range of 160-250ºC. Diesel is also used as fuel for some cars, but mostly vans and trucks. With a boiling range of 250-350ºC, it is not easily ignited, and only does so under great pressure. Between 300-370ºC there are a lot of other useful compounds, including lubricating oil, for reducing friction, fuel oil, used for ships and power stations, and wax, used for furniture and candles. Finally, there is bitumen, with compounds with boiling points of over 370ºC. It is used for finishing roads, and for making roofs waterproof.
Even though it is an extremely valuable resource, crude oil does have its downsides. The exploitation of it has led to the use of a technique called hydraulic fracturing, or fracking. It consists of the removal of fossil fuels from porous rocks deep underground. This extraction technique has led to deforestation, and uses around 8 million gallons of water in each extraction. It also requires the use of chemicals which can contaminate drinking water, without the possibility of making it safe for consumption ever again. Some of these chemicals have also been known for being highly hazardous and carcinogenic. Methane, a product of crude oil is a greenhouse gas and contributes to global warming. Other products such as polymers and plastics are not biodegradable and when burned, contaminate the air we breathe. Fuels can also be dangerous for humans when they undergo incomplete combustion and release carbon monoxide into the air, which is poisonous for humans and animals.
Crude oil is a resource which is quickly running out. Some alternatives (renewable energy) have been proposed, but until now, they are not the most accessible for everyone in the world. By exploring where crude oil comes from and where it goes, I’ve realized it is very important for humans to be responsible about how we use this invaluable energy source. The benefits of using crude oil seem endless, but sadly the resource is not, so it is time to become more conscious about how we live our everyday lives, as one day we might live in a world where no fossil fuels are left.
Eia.gov. (2018). Oil and the Environment – Energy Explained, Your Guide To Understanding Energy – Energy Information Administration. online Available at: https://www.eia.gov/energyexplained/index.php?page=oil_environment Accessed 4 Oct. 2018.
Energy Trends Insider. (n.d.). Crude Formation And Production | Energy Trends Insider. online Available at: http://www.energytrendsinsider.com/research/crude-oil/crude-formation-and-production/ Accessed 3 Oct. 2018.
EnvironBusiness.com (2018). Fraction Distillation. image Available at: http://www.environbusiness.com/uploads/images/images/fdistillation.gif Accessed 4 Oct. 2018.
Formation of Crude Oil. (n.d.). image Available at: http://static2.mbtfiles.co.uk/media/docs/newdocs/as_and_a_level/geography/physical/rocks_and_weathering/31349/html/images/image00.png Accessed 4 Oct. 2018.
FuseSchool – Global Education (2013). Crude Oil Fractions and their uses | The Chemistry Journey | The Fuse School. video Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JZdvsQzOKuk Accessed 4 Oct. 2018.
Kurzgesagt – In a Nutshell (2013). Fracking explained: opportunity or danger. video Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Uti2niW2BRA Accessed 4 Oct. 2018.
Miller, R. and Sorrell, S. (2014). Introduction: The future of oil supply. Philosophical Transactions: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, online Vol. 372,(2006), pp.1-27. Available at: http://www.jstor.org/stable/24502098 Accessed 3 Oct. 2018.