H science of psychology maintains that the personality of a human being is a complex configuration which is structured in three levels:
(a) characteristics that appear in behaviors and various situations experienced by a person during his / her life .
(b) adaptations to the socio-cognitive tasks that a person is required to take in his life.
c) life stories that ” fabricates ” the individual for himself yourself (McAdams, 2001).
These stories are the voice of a person’s inner psychic world, they participate as building blocks in the creation of identity for the individual, and thus form important element in his life, after the construction process s identity and self-image, are functions of everyday life, while critical processes ychologikes y (Dragona, 2007).
Identity as a concept involves all of a person’s perceptions, feelings and beliefs (Dragona, 2007). In addition, it is a basic element of subjective reality and like any subjective pre- eminence, is in a relationship of interaction with society and thus identity is a product of social processes . It is maintained in time , but can be modified and reformed to a greater or lesser degree , due to both social and internal transformations of the individual. ( Berger , 1971).
In theory at least, identity is not imposed but is the product of choice. In our attempt to answer the question of who we are, with Pil egoume experiences her our personal and social life which we consider more important , to give our lives a sense of s unity and purpose. Then we bloom these events with symbolic messages, teaching conclusions, and other personal meanings that are meaningful to use in the present , as we look at the perversion in the past and try to envision the future ( McAdams , 2001 ) . The subjectivity of identity is also supported by Taylor who says to a first person: ” What I am as myself , my identity , is essentially determined by the way things matter to me ” ( Taylor , 1989 ) .
In the process of obtaining identity , individuals are not alone. Parents, school teachers , siblings, friends, the business world, the media and many other aspects of modern society , indirectly encourage adolescents and young adults to “adopt a life” ( Habermas & Bluck , 2000), to acquire an identity by realizing that they exist, that they have their own personal history, that they have their own place in the world and a future that belongs to them (Dragon, 2007 ).
There is a contradiction here. While Western societies “expect” by teenagers and young adults begin to consider professional, interpersonal and ideological offerings of society and eventually take res s commitments and individual positions in the world of adults s ( McAdams , 2001 ) , at the same time these societies alter the characteristics of these offers at a very fast pace , so that young adults often suffer the so-called ” identity crisis “. This phenomenon confirms the multidimensional concept of identity.
As McAdams (1985, in Habermas & Bluck , 2000) mentions life stories to present themselves, in biographical terms, consistently organizing memories and many other information about their lives.
The anthropology and sciences of sociology and psychology have developed two different approaches to life stories. One focuses on ” history ” and the other on “life” ( Peacock & Holland , 1993).
In the first “life” approach, history is considered a source for the presentation of events . These events give value to history and are worthwhile to narrate . Further analysis of this approach leads to two subcategories. This facing history as a photo of the actual and objective facts and that facing history as soul approach. The similarity in these two sub-categories is that the narrative text of history does not hold a prominent position but emphasizes the reality that emerges from the text. A further significant difference is that in the second sub-category reality is not so much about external events as the inner psychological forces of the protagonists of history . ( Peacock & amp; Holland , 1993).
McAdams is also associated with this view , who says that although life stories are based on biographical events, however, they go beyond these events, as people choose their experiences , use their imagination to interpret the past and envision the future, in order to create stories that make sense to themselves but also to their potential audience ( McAdams , 2001).
H second approach, related to the “story”, focuses on how the story is structured and how this translates into narrative, that narrative form. This approach attracts many supporters with the belief that no reality is represented by the narrative, but there is only the narrative that creates the reality . Characteristic is the view of the Paul theorist Ricoeur , who claimed that self is only created in the process of telling a life story ( Ricoeur , 1991). In essence, this approach highlights narration as ” the reality ” ( Peacock & amp; Holland , 1993).
This approach of narration as “reality” is not widely adopted. According to Crossley t he fact that people can not determine entirely neither the beginning nor the end of life, suggesting that the activities and projects lack the cohesion of literary stories. The reality of life, unlike a life story, does not have a ” prudent contract” to the class. ( Crossley , 2002).
Wanting to give a clearer picture of the relationship that links a person’s identity and the life stories concerning the individual, McAdams developed the model life identity, where he claimed that the identity takes the form of a story, full of s scene transitions, character, plot and theme As Tosh. So according to MacAdams individuals declaring the s adolescence fee before entering the world of adults, begin to reconstruct the past staff, realizing the personal realities of the present and predict the future in terms of an internalized and evolving history of the self, a unifying narrative that provides modern life with psychosocial cohesion and purpose ( McAdams , 2001).
According to McAdams p In order to fully understand the essence U U model thereof, we should consider two important parameters .
T he environment of an individual, which plays an important role in the construction of a story, since the person is in a particular family and between individual friends and acquaintances and lives in a particular society at a particular historical moment.
Life stories differentiate one person from another. People differ from each other in relation to their self-defined life stories in ways that are no different from the way they differ in more conventional psychological features such as behavior, motivation, intelligence, and so on ( McAdams , 2001).
Therefore, the life stories of a person provide a view of the human personality is an essential component of what constitutes the identity of the individual that can not be approached only by behavioral features or socio-cognitive adaptations ( McAdams , 2001).
Newer approaches to storytelling , go beyond life-centered and storied approaches, and pave the way for a multidimensional appreciation of the power of these narratives of life stories as cultural, social and psychological constructions. On another level, these narratives contribute to creating and building social relationships and collective identities, to a greater or lesser degree depending on social circumstances. We need to adopt a broader understanding of the narrative analysis of life stories as crucial in social and psychological processes ( Peacock ; Holland , 1993).
The narrative is a means used several times people to communicate their life stories with other people, to narrow or wider circle. However narratives in general, not only for life stories but also stories about the everyday experiences of people . ( Murray , 2003) .
At this point we need to clarify the notions of “history” and “narration . ” Although these concepts are often used together, oh However there is a difference in interpretation. The “story” is the set of events and experiences represented, while “telling” indicates the way in which the story is told, both in terms of “thinking mode” and in terms of speech structure. H narrative for a story may change, but the history remains intact (Brakke, Houska, Zhao, et al. , 2015).
When people narrate a story , they give narrative form to their experienced experience ( Bamberg , 2012) . E pilegoun, interpret and narrate Tai experience EZ They were the terms of their own understanding and their cultural worldview (Braid, 1996). They place characters in space and time and understand what happened or what they think happened. So can a n argued that narratives illustrate why things are the way they are or have become such (Bamberg, 2012). This ability of narrative to incorporate human experience is its central and essential feature ( Braid , 1996).
The Bruner identified a number of important properties of the narrative, some of which are:
a) It consists of a unique set of events, mental states and events that relate to human beings as characters or actors.
b) It may involve real or fantastic stories.
c) Forges links between the extraordinary and ordinary ( Bruner , 1990) .
The Sarbin, proposed for the action of the people “principle of figisis”. A DTH is the idea that people think, perceive, imagine, interact and make moral choices according to the narrative structures. The Sarbin states: ” the narrative is the organizational principle for human action ” . This expression means that the concept of storytelling can be used to explain the pursuit of people to impose a structure in the flow of experience their. ( Sarbin , 1986) .
The Murray considers that the main function of the narrative is to impart the taxi when a disruption occurs. By telling a story, the narrator tries to organize the disorganized and give him meaning ( Murray , 2003) .
The Braid believes that people can create different narratives of the same events because of the different t s identity, different views, interests, approaches or their perceptions. Moreover, if people belong to different cultures, then their narratives for the same events may deviate even more ( Braid , 1996).
The narrator of a story may or may not is the protagonist or plays another important role in history, but always expresses a specific view and rewrites the narrative from its own point of view. According to psychology, the view of an individual includes not only knowledge of the facts, but the beliefs and prejudices that can influence what tells others, and the context in which is narrated. The way in which the stories they tell, what is said and the other not called, can have profound effects on subsequent personal and social behavior (Brakke, Houska, Zhao, et al. , 2015).
H narration as intentional communication involves the selection of what is to be presented as a narrative. Regardless of whether the narrative’s goal is to present or investigate what happened, transforming the experience into narrative involves a great creative work on the narrator ‘s role . The narrator has to make the right choices about how the events are arranged , how the narrative is presented and executed. Selects words capable of activating visual, acoustic or touch sensations associated with the communication of experience. In the narrative construction the narrator can use a wide range of rhetorical and poetic skills, taking into account his audience, and more specifically the way in which narrators follow narratives ( Braid , 1996).
We will refer to the notion of constructing meaning below , but at this point we can emphasize that Brayl ‘s narrative language views are also developed by Crossley , who stresses the importance of creating a narrative psychology approach, recognition the central role played by language and stories in the process of constructing meanings, which stems from social constructivist approaches ( Crossley , 2002 ) .
In addition , the narrator ‘s ” artistic representation ” is of particular importance , which contributes to the creation of the coherent narrative ensemble and therefore directly influences the storytelling process to become experiential to the audience. In this context, narrative art produces experiential experiences without, however, identifying them. These personal experiences for the audience as u j the narrative performance itself emerging through the dynamic q between narrator listener and event (Braid, 1996).
Speaking about the coherence of narratives automatically put some questions to imantika. What does a narrative mean to be coherent? Are there objective coherence criteria for a narrative? If a story is not coherent , why should its narrative be coherent and to what extent does the coherence of a narrative alter the real inconsistent story?
Starting from the basic assumption that stories exist to be able to narrate, the simple conclusion is that their narratives must be understood within a particular social context, for a particular audience. Narratives that show events randomly or ignore the expectations of content that an audience may have about human nature and social relationships may be considered inconsistent or incomplete in general ( McAdams , 2006) .
A multidimensional interpretation of narrative coherence is given by Braid o he mentions in the Journal of American Folklore 109 (1996) » page 6, that :
“Consistency as an important feature of a narrative is the combined product of the narrator’s understanding of what has happened, of the creative art manifested in the poetics of narrative performance and its emerging dynamics of performance. Therefore, the consistency that listeners perceive in the follow-up of a narrative is made not only by the dynamic relationships of narrative events, but also by the interpretation and presentation by the narrator of his experience, the dynamics of the attributed event, to take account of the experiential resources that listeners bring with them in the storytelling ” ( Braid , 1996) .
Based on the above interpretation, it may be inappropriate to seek objective coherence criteria for a storytelling and preferring to refer to “patterns” of narrative coherence, in relation to the narrative traditions of a particular society, as McAdams says . As an example he mentions the religious stories of the Holy Books concerning the Second Coming, the existence of Paradise, the battle of Christianity with Satan , stories that are very coherent for Christian societies, and for non-Christians, these stories are incomprehensible McAdams , 2006).
But is it necessary to have coherence in a story in order for it to be narrated? Are there inconsistent narratives? Perhaps the answer is given by Gergen , who claims to be the modern man receives in his life crowd and great variety As stimuli and must meet ever-changing requirements, so the facts and events of his life are lacking consistency s. In addition , modern life creates a saturated self whose life experiences are often chaotic and without any coherence. Therefore, the narrations of his real life are likely to be incomprehensible and uncoherent for a very large one with a potential audience ( Gergen , 1991) .
STORIES FOR CHILDREN AND The CONSISTENCY THE
According to Bruner , narrative understanding is one of the first forces of mind that appear to the young child and among the most widespread forms of organizing human experience ( Bruner , 1991) .
Based on the findings of Habermas and Bluck , the narrative identity fully expressed through the acquisition of four different cognitive skills, each of which is associated with a form of narrative coherence. Since the beginning of elementary school t a children begin to tell their own personal stories. They remember and narrate simple events in stories beginning, middle and ending. In this way, they give their personal experiences a sense of time consistency . This one time consistency refers to the ability to set events of a single event in a logical order ( Habermas ; Bluck , 2000). As they grow older, children learn what events happen in an ordinary life. They can create a story that contains information about their coming to life, their first experiences in the family, the occupations of their parents, but they can also include information about their expected future actions such as leaving home for finding work As and the creation of their own family. Children so they understand the autobiographical cohesion ( Habermas ; Bluck , 2000). The individual can see his own life as a variation in a general autobiographical scenario ( McAdams , 2006).
In puberty, people make causal narratives to explain how different events are linked to one another in a biography. The narratives are enriched with causal coherence where characteristics, attitudes, beliefs and preferences can be explained in the context of life events that have triggered their appearance. For example, a teenager can explain why he rejects the liberal political values ??of his parents, or why he wants to pursue a particular profession. He may also explain what events led him not to follow the profession he had originally decided to want, or why he chose a new goal in his life ( Habermas ; Bluck , 2000).
Also interesting is the so-called thematic consistency which characterizes a personal story when a person can present a general theme, value or personal interest that incorporates many different episodes into his life and conveys the essence of who he is and what his or her relationship with this. The story in this case is coherent to the extent that the listener is convinced that the different events of history actually express the same subject ( Habermas ; Bluck , 2000).
Both the causal and the thematic coherence, the narrator justifies a conclusion for himself of (I want to be a doctor , I am a “closed” man) , an explanatory narrative. Related studies show that both causal as and the thematic consistency not often found in e autobiographical accounts in early puberty, but are more common in the teenage years and young adulthood ( Habermas ; Bluck , 2000). Moreover, according to McAdams people differ substantially in relation to their ability to tell life stories that have causal and thematic coherence ( McAdams , 2006).
When individuals have reached adulthood, they are usually capable and willing to build stories about the past and for themselves that present temporal, biographical, causal and thematic coherence. Autobiographical memory and understanding of storytelling have now evolved to the level at which they can work to create their personal identity ( Habermas ; Bluck , 2000).
A ‘thrifty’ definition of the history , is that with a history is the understanding of a series of events in which a p rotagonistis interact with the environment inside Cpd a particular framework Ic ( Brakke , Houska , Zhao , et al , 2015). Very important for understanding a story is the addition of Bruner , that a story can be understood only when its parts and its totality can coexist together ( Bruner , 1991).
A more psychological approach to stories is that stories of a person ‘s life are psychosocial structures co-organized by themselves and the cultural context within which they are incorporated and meaningful in one’s life ( McAdams , 2001) . Central to this approach is to develop a phenomenological understanding of “meaning” that is a component of human consciousness ( Crossley , 2002).
We notice that the meaning of “meaning” appears in history when it is treated in terms of psychology.
The Bruner expand thinking of and to construct a narrative on a story , saying that the act of creating a narrative is much more than is selected Dyn events from real life, memory or imagination and placing them in proper order. The events themselves must be tackled in the light of the overall narrative, become that “functions” of history ( Bruner , 1991).
The Braid In line with Bruner on the part of the “functions” of the story , refers to coherent narratives as accurate representations of the real world, which reflect the experience interpreted the narrator. Moving beyond the narrator, Braid talks about the role of the listener by pointing out that participating in a narrative process is an experiential process that can create mental states and thoughts that reasonably or emotionally involve the listener. These states of mind and flow of thought are constituents of the term called experiential meaning ( Braid , 1996).
While McAdams , as we have discussed above, refers to the meaning of the narrator, Braid advances the concept of meaning and the listener. And even the Braid speaks and he , like Bruner , on the process ‘assembly q ‘ experiences in meaningful totalities as a way of understanding As a narrative ( Braid , 1996).
In the design of this process that says Braid , it helps our theory Gestalt by which psychologists Gestalt suggest the ” breaking ” of a single field into discrete objects of sense , which are continuous k connected by organizational rules , until a coherent new gestalt of recognizable objects is perceived . Similarly , the sense of experience experienced in a narrative , means a process by which a person breaks the flow of experience in major identifiable units and then the ” reassembles ” a coherent legal and substantial understanding totality . This process is constantly shaped over time until the final coherent and conceptual representation of the whole is clear ( Braid 1996).
For the construction of concepts each person has interpretive tools related to organizational rules. When Braid the tools they have cultural origins and may be an ideology, or a broader worldview . Apart from the tools described herein, previous experiences are also factors d Configuration meanings today and this because of past experiences can form the basis for interpreting experiences and way of thinking today ( Braid 1996).
RELATIONSHIP AND BURNER
A personal narrative is generally an interaction of the narrator , as the central person of narration, and the listeners. Characteristics of narration such as narrative language, the use of narrative rhetoric and poetry, and the narrator’s personal style may vary according to the audience or not. We can tell stories to ourselves, to our friends, to our family, to our peers, to a community for various purposes. In addition, the narrative flow may be influenced by whether the narrative has already been created by the narrator and the listener simply follows it without being able to interact with the narrator in real time, or if the narration is done face to face with the listener . In the first case, we could claim that the listener is a “passive receiver” of the narrator’s messages, while in the latter case the listener participates more actively in the narrative, his reactions can affect the narrator in his narrative way, that can be done with the narrator can affect the quality and clarity of messages received, as at least experienced the same as the listener. As Bavelas mentions , Coates , ; Johnson , the listener in the live narrative can also be a narrator ( Bavelas , Coates , ; Johnson , 2000). In any case, the narrator takes into account the type of audience, even without having decided before, in order to present his own personal experience and interpretation.
What is important is the previous relationship of the listener with the narrator and the relationship that is created during the narrative process . From the narrator’s point of view, this relationship determines the passion and creativity that he himself pays for or has pretended to display his messages. It has to create intimacy ( Braid , 1996), and trust the listener in the sense of “rewarding” the listener for the time and effort he has done to follow his narrative and understand the meanings he wants to communicate.
For their part, the listeners will also make an effort to engage even emotionally with the narrative, to extract coherent meanings by trying to understand the narrator’s experiences as if they were happening to them ( Braid , 1996).
This is also the main purpose of following a personal narrative, the discovery of narrative “truth,” which is judged by its verity rather than its verifiability ( Bruner 1991), otherwise there is no reason to follow it. In order for this effort to be successful, the listener should suppress any mistrust in advance of the narrator and narrative and stand naked against them, ready to experience the narrative process ( Bruner , 1991) . To make this experience more enjoyable to the listener, a coherent investment in telling , as well as a narrative flow guidance to help listeners understand the facts, experience them through their own processes of meaningful processing , while at the same time paralleling their existing experiences , resulting in the creation of new experiential resources who can contribute to their struggle to understand the world in which they live ( Braid , 1996).
In the classroom, the study of personal stories through narratives enables us to give a more accessible human dimension to the Other, resulting in the continuous commitment of the students to the lives of others ( McNeill , ; Douglas , 2017) . These Others could be the participants in a classroom or a school unit.
In addition, contact with p rosopikes stories can allow students give thought to their worlds and experiences of different students and because written p Orie derived mainly from lived the reality, recognize students living these worlds and experiences as ” true “, thus coming in contact with perceptions and realities different from their own ( McNeill , ; Douglas , 2017) .