My Ssec Capstone Project ESPS ‘International University of Kyrgyzstan’ Faculty of ‘Linguistics and Region Study’ Graduate Qualification Paper Specialization

ESPS ‘International University of Kyrgyzstan’ Faculty of ‘Linguistics and Region Study’ Graduate Qualification Paper Specialization

ESPS ‘International University of Kyrgyzstan’
Faculty of ‘Linguistics and Region Study’
Graduate Qualification Paper
Specialization: «Translation and Translation Studies»
Theme: «Translation of the Dialects in the Works on Charles Dickens Creations from English into Russian»
Executed by: Zhakypova Ayperi _________
(Signature)
Checked by: Dr.Ph.Sc., Prof. Kalieva Kanykei Akimovna _________
(Signature)
Dean of the faculty ‘Linguistics and Region Study’:
Dr.Ph.Sc., prof.Karaeva Z.K _________
(Signature)
Bishkek 2018
Table of contents
Introduction………………………………………………………………………….3
CHAPTER I:THEORETICAL BACKGROUND OF A THESIS
History of Dialect Evolution in England…………………………………………………………………………………….5
1.1 Features of Territorial Dialects…………………………………………….……8
1.2Emergence and Progress of Dialects……………………………………….……………………………………..12
CHAPTER II:TRANSLATION OF THE DIALECT IN THE WORKS IN CHARLES DICKENS’ CREATIONS FROM ENGLISH INTO RUSSIAN
2. Charles Dickens as a Dialect Writer…………………………………………….15
2.1 The Language of Charles Dickens and Classification of Dialects……………..17
2.2 Analysis of Dialects and its Translation into Russian in “David Copperfield” by Charles Dickens……………………………………………………………………29
Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………
Bibliography………………………………………………………………
Introduction
Language is the most important means of human being. Many peoples on the Earth have no means of representing their speech in the form of writing. In fact, some authorities estimate that there are more than two thousand languages in the world which have never been reduced to writing. Writing, therefore, must be considered a secondary manifestation of language. Likewise, other such representations and devices exist, some rather crude and some more elaborate; gesture, facial expressions, code signals, weather- vanes, and road signs are among them. The variety of languages is as great as variety of the peoples. Some languages have much in common – they belong to one family, other languages differ much and it seems that they have nothing in common but the thing that brings together all of them is that people use it to communicate with each other. One and the same language may differ in different regions of the country. The most widespread reason is the influence of the other cultures. Such form of a language which is spoken only in one area, with words or grammar that are slightly different from other forms of the same language is called the dialect Dictionary of contemporary English, Longman. Dialects are such varieties of a language that contrast in pronunciation, grammatical patterns, and vocabulary and that are associated with geographic area and social class. The two main types of dialects are the geographical dialect-spoken by people of the same area or locality and the social dialect-used by people of the same social class, educational level, or occupational group. The development of dialect variations clearly shows that language is continually evolving. Sometimes, when varieties of a language change to the point that they are mutually incomprehensible, the dialects become languages in their own rights. This was the case with Latin, various dialects of which evolved into French, Spanish, Italian, Portuguese, Romanian, and their various dialects. Although the term “dialect” is used popularly to refer to vernacular (i.e., non-standard) language varieties, linguists use the term in a neutral sense to refer to any variety – vernacular or standard. Years of sociolinguistic research have shown that dialects are merely different from each other. Our aim is to show this difference.

Almost every language has different variants of pronunciation that’s why it’s no wonder that there are: British, American, Australian or Canadian English. The linguistic variations of one and the same language differ from its dialects. These variations of English already are independent languages but its dialects will never become independent.

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The reason we chose this topic is to expand our knowledge of English, to penetrate the works of Charles Dickens. These materials will help us to understand and understand the peculiarities of the foundation of this language, its dialects and accents. Our goals are:
– To examine the most prevalent dialects;
– To illustrate the features of their use in the works of Charles Dickens;
Theoretical Framework
The underlying concepts of this thesis are focused on dialects, grammatical features, word choices and word spellings. Those components are significant concepts in a sociolinguistic study (Wardaugh, 1986:10) and they also appear in both fiction and the real life (Short, 1996:xi). In short, dialects in a written literary work are also uttered to describe regional status and social groups of the characters; similarly with the ones in a spoken form (Wolfram, 1991:261).

The topicality of this work is conditioned by the need for more a deep study of the dialect of Charles Copenhagen’s David Copperfield Dickens.

The scientific novelty of the research work is the identification of dialects in the novel “David Copperfield” by Charles Dickens as the theme of the final qualifying work.

Studying English dialects the following method of research will be applied:
– The method of linguistic geography which offers an explanation to ways and regularities of language development, characterizes features of language formation in a certain territory;
The subject of England dialects is very topical nowadays because the English language develops and changes and the dialects are forgotten. New words constantly replace the old ones. The old generations sometimes can’t understand the young because of the distinctions in their speech; their language is the same but the words are different.

Our work will consist of 3 chapters. The 1st part will include mostly the theory, i.e. the history and development of the English language because it’s very important for us to know the prerequisites of the appearing of the dialects. The 2nd part of our work is devoted to the literary dialect, Charles Dickens as a Dialect Writer. The 3rd part we will examine the works of Charles Dickens and the dialects used in his working categories or classifications, for example.

CHAPTER 1 THEORETICAL BACKGROUND OF A THESIS
History of dialect evolution in England
In order to understand the nature and origin of conditions prevailing in dialects today we must learn to understand the circumstances which fostered them. And first of all we want to start from history of the English language.

English is descended from the language spoken by the Germanic tribes (the Frisians, Angles, Saxons, and Jutes) that migrated to the land that would become known as England. According to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, around 449 AD, Vortigern, King of the British Isles, issued an invitation to the “Angle kin” (Angles, led by Hengest and Horsa) to help him against the Picts. In return, the Angles were granted lands in the southeast. Further aid was sought, and in response “came men of Ald Seaxum of Anglum of Iotum” (Saxons, Angles, and Jutes). The Chronicle documents the subsequent influx of “settlers” who eventually established seven kingdoms: Northumbria, Mercia, East Anglia, Kent, Essex, Sussex, and Wessex.

These Germanic invaders dominated the original Celtic-speaking inhabitants, the languages of whom survived largely in Scotland, Wales, Cornwall, and Ireland. The dialects spoken by these invaders formed what would be called Old English which was a very similar language to modern Frisian which was also strongly influenced by yet another Germanic dialect, Old Norse, spoken by Viking invaders who settled mainly in the North-East. English, England, and East Anglia are derived from words referring to the Angles: Englisc, Angelcynn, and Englaland.

For the 300 years following the Norman Conquest in 1066, the Kings of England spoke only French. A large number of French words were assimilated into Old English, which also lost most of its inflections, the result being Middle English. Around the year 1500, the Great Vowel Shift transformed Middle English to Modern English.

Modern English began its rise around the time of William Shakespeare. Some scholars divide early Modern English and late Modern English at around 1800, in concert with British conquest of much of the rest of the world, as the influence of native languages affected English enormously.

Increasing democratization of society in the XIX century, together with improved communications, began the slow process of exposing everyone to the rich variety of regional dialects existing in the country. On the other hand, the same developments spread the powerful influence of the standard form of the language, and progress in education, in the professions, and in society continued to depend on the possession of an acceptable accent and a grasp of the “correct” grammar and vocabulary. In the course of time the British Broadcasting Corporation would come to select its announcers and newsreaders on considerations of accent which went far beyond the dictates of intelligibility.

Yet with their roots firmly fixed in the history of the language, the dialects of England have persisted through the generations. Whatever was useful in each new age has been added to local speech as well as to the standard “supra-dialect”: Scandinavian and French words through invasion; Classical and Romance words in the Renaissance; words from many other languages through colonization and trade; continuous changes in pronunciation.

Thus English belongs to the western sub-branch of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European family of languages. The closest undoubted living relatives of English are Scots and Frisian. Frisian is a language spoken by approximately half a million people in the Dutch province of Friesland, in nearby areas of Germany, and on a few islands in the North Sea.

After Scots and Frisian, the next closest relative is the modern Low Saxon language of the eastern Netherlands and northern Germany. Other less closely related living languages include Dutch, Afrikaans, German and the Scandinavian languages. English speakers understand many French words, as English absorbed a tremendous amount of vocabulary from the Norman language after the Norman conquest and from French in further centuries; as a result, a substantial part of English vocabulary is quite close to the French, with some minor spelling differences (word endings, use of old French spellings, etc.), as well as occasional differences in meaning.

Unlike other languages English is analytic (i.e., relatively uninflected). Over thousands of years English has lost most of its inflexions, while other European languages have retained more of theirs. Indeed, English is the only European language in which adjectives have no distinctive endings, except for determiners and endings denoting degrees of comparison. Another characteristic is flexibility of functions. This means that one word can function as various parts of speech in different contexts (ex: the word “walk” can be used both as a noun and a verb). Another feature is openness of vocabulary that allows English to admit words freely from other languages and to create compounds and derivatives. English is a strongly stressed language with 4 degrees of stress: primary, secondary, tertiary and weak. A change in stress can change the meaning of a sentence or a phrase. In comparison with other languages English stress is less predictable.

The English vocabulary has changed continually over more than 1,500 years of development. The most nearly complete dictionary of the language, the Oxford English Dictionary, contains more than 600,000 words, including obsolete forms and variant spellings. It has been estimated, however, that the present English vocabulary consists of more than 1 million words, including slang and dialect expressions and scientific and technical terms, many of which only came into use after the middle of the XX century. The vocabulary is approximately half Germanic (Old English and Scandinavian) and half Italic or Romance (French and Latin), with copious borrowings from Greek in science and borrowings from many other languages. The English adopted the 23-letter Latin alphabet, to which they added the letters W, J, V. For the most part English spelling is based on that of the XV century. Pronunciation, however, has changed greatly since then. During the XVII and XVIII centuries fixed spellings were adopted, although there have been a few changes since that time. Numerous attempts have been made to reform English spelling, many during the XX century. The English vocabulary is more extensive than that of any other language in the world, although some other languages–Chinese, for example–have a word-building capacity equal to that of English.

Features of territorial dialects.

Dialects of English language have some divergences from rules of pronunciation and grammar. The learning of these divergences will help to understand the dialects better. We will know how the meaning of words was formed and developed. As all languages change over time and vary according to place and social domain we should ascertain why it happens. There is such a point of view that dialects is a “vulgar speech” that is used by uneducated strata of society. However, this statement is wrong because the literary normative is based on strict historical regularities. For profound understanding of etymology, history and theory, we should study territorial dialects.

Like all languages, English is constantly changing. Some changes spread out to cover the whole country; others spread only so far, leading to dialect differences between areas.

Cockney
The term cockney has had several distinct geographical, social, and linguistic associations. Originally a pejorative term applied to all city-dwellers, it was gradually restricted to Londoners and particularly to “Bow-bell Cockneys”:”Born within the sound of Bow Bells” (2013) those born within earshot of Bow Bells, the bells of St Mary-le-BowChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). “Cockney”. In the Cheapside district of the City of London. It eventually came to be used to refer to those in London’s East End, or to all working-class Londoners generally.Green, Jonathon “Cockney” (2017)Miller, Marjorie (July 8, 2001Oakley, Malcolm (30 September 2013) Linguistically, cockney English refers to the accent or dialect of English traditionally spoken by working-class Londoners. By the 1980s and 1990s, many aspects of cockney English had become part of general South East English speech, producing a variant known as Estuary English.Matthews, P.H. (2014)
Cockney is probably the second most famous British accent. It originated in the East End of London, but shares many features with and influences other dialects in that region.

Features:
· Raised vowel in words like trap and cat so these sounds like “trep” and “cet.”
· London vowel shift: The vowel sounds are shifted around so that Cockney “day” sounds is pronounced (close to American “die”) and Cockney buy verges near (close to American “boy”).

· Glottal Stopping: the letter t is pronounced with the back of the throat (glottis) in between vowels; hence better becomes (sounds to outsiders like “be’uh”).

· L-vocalization: The l at the end of words often becomes a vowel sound Hence pal can seem to sound like “pow.”
· Th-Fronting: The th in words like think or this is pronounced with a more forward consonant depending on the word: thing becomes “fing,” this becomes “dis,” and mother becomes “muhvah.”
Estuary English (Southeast British)
Estuary is an accent derived from London English which has achieved a status slightly similar to “General American” in the US. Features of the accent can be heard around Southeast England, East Anglia, and perhaps further afield. It is arguably creeping into the Midlands and North.

Features:
· Similar to Cockney, but in general Estuary speakers do not front th words or raise the vowel in trap. There are few hard-and-fast rules, however.

· Glottal stoppingof `t’ and l-vocalization are markers of this accent, but there is some debate about their frequency.

West Country (Southwest British)
West Country English is one of the English language varieties and accents used by much of the native population of South West England, the area sometimes popularly known as the West Country.11
The West Country is often defined as encompassing the counties of Cornwall, Devon, Dorset, Somerset, Wiltshire, the City of Bristol and Gloucestershire; even Herefordshire and Worcestershire are sometimes also included. However, the northern and eastern boundaries of the area are hard to define. In adjacent counties of Berkshire, Hampshire, the Isle of Wight and Oxford shire it is possible to encounter similar accents and, indeed, much the same distinct dialect but with some similarities to others in neighboring regions. Although natives of such locations, especially in rural parts, can still have West Country influences in their speech, the increased mobility and urbanization of the population have meant that in Berkshire, Hampshire (including the Isle of Wight), and Oxford shire the dialect itself, as opposed to various local accents, is becoming increasingly rare.

Midlands English
Midlands English is one of the more stigmatized of Englishes. Technically, this can be divided into East Midlands and West Midlands, but I won’t get into the differences between the two just now. The most famous of these dialects is Brummie (Birmingham English).

Features:
· The foot-strut merger, meaning that the syllable in foot and could is pronounced with the same syllable as strut and fudge.
· A system of vowels otherwise vaguely reminiscent of Australian accents, with short i in kit sometimes verging toward kit (“keet”) and extremely open “loose” dipthongs.

· A variety of unusual vocabulary: some East Midlands dialects still feature a variant of the word “thou!”
Northern England English
These are the accents and dialect spoken north of the midlands, in cities like Manchester, Leeds, and Liverpool. Related accents also found in rural Yorkshire, although there are some unique dialect features there that I won’t get into now.

Features:
· Non-rhoticity, except in some rural areas.

· The dipthong in words like kite and ride is lengthened so that kite can become something like (i.e. it sounds a bit like “kaaaait”)
· Unique vocab includes use of the word mam to mean mother, similar to Irish English.

Geordie
Geordie usually refers to both the people and dialect of Newcastle-Upon-Tyne, in Northeast England. The word may also refer to accents and dialects in Northeast England in general. I would classify this as a separate region from the rest of Northern England because it’s so radically different from the language spoken in nearby cities.

Features
· Non-rhoticity (in the cities at least)
· The /ai/ dipthong in kite is raised to, so it sounds a bit more like American or Standard British “kate.”
Welsh English
Welsh English refers to the dialects of English spoken by Welsh people. The dialects are significantly influenced by Welsh grammar and often include words derived from Welsh. In addition to the distinctive words and grammar, a variety of accents are found across Wales, including those of north Wales, the Cardiff dialect, the South Wales Valleys and west Wales.In the east and south east, it has been influenced by West Country dialects due to immigration,citation needed while in North Wales, the influence of Merseyside English is becoming increasingly prominent.

Scottish English
This is the broad definition used to describe English as it is spoken in the country of Scotland. Note that Scottish English is different than Scots, a language derived from Northumbrian Old English that is spoken in Scotland as well. That being said, Scots has a strong influence on how English in Scotland is spoken.

Features:
· Rhotic, with trilled or tapped r’s.

· Glottal stopping of the letter t when in between vowels (similar to Cockney and related accents).

Emergence and progress of dialects.

One of the main features of contemporary British regional dialects (and dialects of other languages) is their conservatism. These or other deviations from the literary standard due mostly not evolution, namely the lack of evolution: the dialects are still many language phenomena of different periods in the history of language, as well as various foreign-language bedding – Scandinavian, Norman, etc. Another feature of modern English dialects is their variability at all language levels (phonetics, grammar and vocabulary in particular).

Many authors also point to the fact that the characteristic feature of a system of dialects so-called “redundancy”. Have in mind, for example, such speed, used in Ireland as: It’s sorry you will be instead of “You will be sorry” or paraphrases like “I do love” instead of “I love”, used in the south-western counties, piling negatives in a phrase, etc.

Social dialects include a number of functionally and structurally different phenomena:
1. Professional dialects – kind of social dialect, uniting people of one profession or one occupation. Slang (slang), dialects, consisting of more or less randomly chosen, modify and combine the elements of one or more natural languages and used (usually in oral communication) a particular social group to linguistic isolation, separation from the rest of the language community, sometimes as secret languages.

It may be noted such varieties of English slang, as:
a) the “reverse slang”: for example, yob instead boy;
b) “central Slang”: for example, ilkem instead of milk;
c) “rhyming slang”: for example, artful dodger instead lodger;
g) the so-called “medical Greek”: for example, douse-hog instead of house-dog.

A special position among the social dialects of English is so-called slang.

As rightly pointed out by Professor R.A Budagov, “public nature of language determines not only the conditions of his existence, but all of its features, especially its vocabulary and phraseology, grammar and style”. ??????? ?. ?. ???????? ???????? ?????. – ?.: ?????, 1965,210p
A special position among the social dialects of English is so-called slang. Under this concept is often summed up the most diverse phenomena of lexical and stylistic plan. Leading researcher English slang E. Partridge and his followers define slang as prevalent in the field of spoken very fragile, unstable, not codified, and often does erratic and random set of tokens that reflect social consciousness of people belonging to a particular social or professional environment. Slang is seen as a conscious, deliberate use of elements of common-literary vocabulary in spoken language in a purely stylistic purposes: to create the effect of novelty, unusual, different from the approved model, to transfer certain mood of the speaker, to give a concrete utterance, liveliness, expressiveness, precision, and, to avoid cliches. This is achieved, according to researchers, the use of such stylistic means as a metaphor (as Chesterton: “All slang is metaphor”), metonymy, synecdoche, litotes, euphemism.

Dialects and literary standard (exemplary, normalized language, rules which are perceived as “right” and generally binding and which is opposed to dialects and colloquialisms) is inextricably linked not only because it appears dialect based on the standard, but also because, as a rule, locale is formed on the basis of dialect speech. Literary standard of English is no exception: in the 15th century. Britain abounded presence of many different dialects, to the extent that, as the inflow of population from the countryside to the city, these dialects are more and more confused and as a result formed locale (can you say that, initially, it was a form of London south-eastern dialect). Over time, this language was improved and was recognized as the language that is spoken by the educated part of the population. But it would be wrong to assume that the standard – is recorded form of pronunciation, which is not subject to change. The natural evolution of the language, as well as various extra linguistic factors leads to change and literary standard (but the process of change is very slow). Certain rules of language out of use and replaced by new ones because of the disappearance of one reality and the appearance of others.
As mentioned above, dialects are both regional and social , so it is no wonder that any individual speaker’s speech shows traces of his/her home town, his/her upbringing, education… Peter Trudgill calls the reader’s attention to the fact that there are certain parallels between the development of social varieties and that of regional varieties. He explains that the development of both regional and social varieties has to do with the existence of barriers: geographical, in the case of regional varieties, and social, in the case of social varieties. TRUDGILL, PSociolinguistics: “An Introduction to Language and Society” (2000)
The degree of deviation from the standard dialect speech standard is determined by several factors: the history and development of dialect, socio-economic structure of society, etc. In many cases, you can find the dialect speech language rules that are already out of use in the locale.

CHAPTER 2 TRANSLATION OF THE DIALECT IN THE WORKS IN CHARLES DICKENS’ CREATIONS FROM ENGLISH INTO RUSSIAN
2. Charles Dickens as a Dialect Writer
Is tempting to read Dickens’s work …as one long novel … partly because the plots seem to matter less than such things as his evocations of atmosphere and his handling of character “professor Kucich 1994: P. 403 said (86)
Norman Page discusses speech in novels and literary speech’s relation to speech in the real world in Speech in the English Novel (1973). Any novelist, Dickens included, is creating an illusion of realness by imitating real-life, and as Page suggests, the way in which speech is presented carries a distinct part in that endeavor. By making the characters’ dialects distinguishable from each other –or, in fact, by making the characters speak in the same dialect – the novelist is creating an illusion of real people.
Real speech acts are nothing like the dialogue that can be found in novels. In actual conversation, people make mistakes and corrections, stumble with words, stutter, mumble, pause, use filler words, and so forth. If a novelist was to attempt to incorporate all this into dialogue, the end-result would most likely be un-readable or at the very least not a pleasant read. The illusion of real-life speech the novelist is trying to create would suffer from the reader’s discomfort in trying to parse through sentences. The novelist thus walks a fine line between wanting to mirror the real world and producing intelligible text. Page (1973) notes that real-life speech is much more wasteful and disorganized than any written speech most of the time (p. 10). Usually, a novelist’s primary concern is not whether or not a character’s dialect is realistic, but rather whether or not the reader enjoys the reading experience and can be sucked into the fictional world the novelist has created. This is not to say that novelists do not draw inspiration from real dialects, on the contrary. Nevertheless, concentrating on whether or not a character’s speak is “realistic” is often quite futile.

Furthermore, it is common for literary dialect to actually be just a phonetic version of Standard English (SE) (Page, 1973, p. 54). Written SE does not signify, for instance, pronoun weak forms even though they are used in spoken SE. However, in literature, these weak forms are often what separates dialectal dialogue from SE dialogue. Page (1973) notes that this is a “long-established tradition” (p. 54) in English dialect writing. Charles Dickens is certainly not an exception in this matter, and his dialect using characters often have this trait.

Charles Dickens was born in Portsmouth, England, in 1812. He wrote twenty novels in his life time, all of which contain a rich variety of characters some of whom speak in dialect. He can be described as a genius when it comes to characterization, largely due to his talent in differentiating the voices of the characters. From a young age Dickens was exposed to different dialects and non-standard low-class English, as his father was sent to debtor’s prison and he went to work in a factory. Dickens also worked as a short-hand writer and journalist for a long time, and Page (1973) argues that this contributed to Dickens’s talent as dialogue writer (p. 134). Page also describes Dickens to have had “a marked natural aptitude” “in representing the spoken language” (p. 134).

One dialect Dickens was obviously a master in portraying is literary Cockney. It is good to note that Cockney has a long literary history and it has developed their own conventions and traditions. Literary dialects, such as Cockney, have often become almost completely separated from their counterparts in the real world (Page, 1973, p. 52). But it was not only Cockney that Dickens wrote, far from it. In fact, in GE only a handful of characters speak this dialect that was used mostly by the lower-class Londoners. Brooks (1970) reports that Dickens was fascinated and amused by “substandard speech” and often used socially marked language in his letters (p. 94). Consequently, the inconsistencies – and in fact inaccuracies – in Dickens’s regional dialects are certainly not caused by a lack of interest.

In GE, Dickens is able to differentiate the characters in a multitude of different ways. As I mentioned in the introduction, Dickens’s dialect usage has been broadly studied and discussed. On the one hand, critics praise him to be one of the greatest dialect writers of the Victorian era, and on the other some deem him to be inconsistent and not representative of the actual dialects of England.

2.1 The Language of Charles Dickens and Classification of Dialects.

THE LANGUAGE OF DICKENS
The success of the public readings to which Dickens, against Forster’s advice, devoted so much of his energy in his later life, shows that there is much in the novels that can appeal to an audience of listeners and viewers as well as to readers, and one cannot help feeling that Dickens would have been a tremendous success as what is nowadays called a television personality. The remarkable thing about the popularity of Dickens is that it has lasted as well as it has. Much of his appeal lies in his mastery of comic effects, and the appeal of humor is particularly evanescent. We have only to look through the work of other nineteenth-century humorists, as represented in the early volumes of Punch, to see how much more lasting the appeal of Dickens has been.

Not only are people still reading Dickens, but they show no diminution in their willingness to read about him. There has been no falling off in the quantity of books about Dickens and I think that there has been an improvement in quality. There are fewer books about the topography of Dickens, with such titles as The Country and Church of the Cheeryble Brothers and Bozland* and this is surely a matter for satisfaction, but the novels themselves are receiving more critical attention. One aspect of the novels that is receiving increased attention is the language in which they are written, and this is a subject that offers much scope for further investigation. The study of the language of any author serves two purposes. It can lead the way to a better understanding of the author’s meaning and a fuller appreciation of his literary skill, and it can provide material for the study of the history of the language. The same examples will often serve both purposes, and such a study has the further advantage of showing how closely linked the two approaches can be.

Dickens made free use of dialect to distinguish between one character and another, but the dialects he uses are class rather than regional dialects. The dialect of which he makes the fullest use is that of London, but it is the class dialect of the London poor that forms the basis of the speech of many of his most successful characters, and their speech has few regional characteristics. Regional dialect is used from time to time as an element of local colour, as for example in the Yorkshire speech of John Browdie (MV), the Norfolk speech of Mr. Peggotty (DC), and the nondescript dialect of Stephen Blackpool (HT), but the first two of these are only minor characters and Stephen Blackpool’s dialect, though strongly marked, does not carry complete conviction. If Coketown can be accepted as ” a composite picture, but generally agreed to represent Manchester “, Stephen Blackpool’s speech likewise seems to contain features from more than one regional dialect.

A problem that has to be faced by every writer who makes use of dialect vocabulary is that of making sure that the reader, who may have no knowledge of the dialect in question, understands the meaning of the dialect words. Some writers rely on the context to make the meaning clear, and this method is usually effective, provided that the number of new words is not very large. Scott, who was an editor of texts as well as a novelist, provided his novels with glossaries and occasionally made use of footnotes. Dickens makes use of a device that might easily become wearisome if used to excess: he incorporates a gloss into the text, putting it into the mouth of the supposed narrator. Mr. Peggotty describes David and Em’ly as ” like two young mavishes “, and his description is followed by the comment, *’ I knew this meant, in our local dialect, like two young thrushes, and received it as a compliment” (DC, chap. 3). In the same chapter Mr. Peggotty addresses Mrs. Gummidge as ” old Mawther “, and this is followed by the comment, ” (Mr. Peggotty meant old girl)”. When Mr. Peggotty visits David at Salem House, he says, ” I’m a reg’lar Dodman, I am “. David then does his duty as glossator by adding ” by which he meant snail, and this was an allusion to his being slow to go ” (chap. 7). The same device is used occasionally in other novels: in Dombey and Son Captain Cuttle refers to his ” slops ” and there follows the comment, ” by which the Captain meant his coat and waistcoat ” (chap. 15).

Redundant personal pronouns are a feature of many regional dialects, and Mr. Peggotty provides a particularly good example. After producing ” two prodigious lobsters, and an enormous crab, and a large canvas bag of shrimps “, which he modestly describes as ” a little relish with your wittles “, he makes it clear that they have been boiled:
” The old Mawther biled ’em, she did. Mrs. Gummidge biled ’em. Yes,” said Mr. Peggotty, slowly, who I thought appeared to stick to the subject on account of having having no other subject ready, ” Mrs. Gummidge, I do assure you, she biled ’em.” (Chap. 7).The dialect of which Dickens makes the most frequent use is that spoken by the two Wellers and by a host of other characters. Most of them happen to live in London, but their dialect has few characteristics peculiar to Cockney or to any other regional dialect. It is the dialect of the average working man who has not had much schooling, and Ernest Weekley has shown that some of its characteristics were, during the eighteenth century, features of fashionable speech which by the time of Dickens had ceased to be fashionable. The characters who speak this dialect vary in the extent to which they use it. Jo in Bleak House speaks an extreme variety of class dialect. The following is a typical example:
” They’re wot’s left, Mr. Snagsby, out of a sovring as wos give me by a lady in a wale as sed she wos a servant and as come to my crossin one night and asked to be showd this ‘ere ouse and the ouse wot him as you giv the writin to died at, and the berrin-ground wot he’s berrid in. She ses to me, she ses,’ are you the boy at the Inkwhich?’ she ses. I ses, * yes ‘, I ses. She ses to me, she ses,’ can you show me all’ them places ? ‘ I ses,’ yes, I can ‘, I ses. And she ses to me’ do it,’ and I dun it, and she giv me a sov’ring and hooked it. And I an’t had much of the sov’ring neither.” (Chap. 19).This is made to seem more remote from Standard English than it really is by spellings such as ” wot”, ” wos “, ” sed ” and ” ses “, but it reads convincingly. Such features of syntax as ” the ouse wot him as you giv the writin to died at ” and the frequent insertions of ** I ses ” and ” she ses ” can be paralleled in the sub-standard speech of today. Like most genuine dialect speakers, Jo does not realize that he is speaking a dialect, and when he is asked what he means by ” Fen larks “, the best gloss that he can provide is ” Stow hooking it “.

Such phrases as these reveal a fairly thorough knowledge of the vocabulary of the underworld on the part of the author and call for a similar knowledge in the reader. Dickens’s interest in this vocabulary is shown elsewhere in his works. The two Bow Street Runners Blathers and Duff, who are sent to investigate the burglary at Mrs. Maylie’s in Oliver Twist, speak a distinctive dialect, with a plentiful mixture of cant, the variety of slang which is used as a secret language by criminals and their associates. Cant is used at the very beginning of the chapter when Blathers says that Duff is “in the gig, a-minding the prad “.” Prad,” from Dutch ” paard “, is a cant word for a horse, commonly used in the nineteenth century but not before then. Later Duff uses ” crack ” as a term for a burglary and Blathers speaks of ” blunt” in the sense ” money”. Both words are common in nineteenth century thieves’ slang. Much is made of the necessity for translating the language of Blathers and Duff, sometimes when the need for translation is not apparent, suggesting that some of these cant terms have passed into more general use since the time of Dickens. They agree that the burglary was not committed by a yokel, whereupon the doctor, Mr. Losberne, thinks it necessary to say, ” And, translating the word yokel for the benefit of the ladies, I apprehend your meaning to be, that this attempt was not made by a countryman ? ” A little later the doctor finds himself unable to translate:
” Well, master,” said Blathers, …” This warn’t a put-up thing.”
” And what the devil’s a put-up thing ? ” demanded the doctor impatiently.

” We call it a put-up robbery, ladies,” said Blathers, turning to them, as if he
pitied their ignorance, but had a contempt for the doctor’s, ” when the servants is
in it.” (Chap. 31).All two speakers accept the view that levels of speech are to be recognized and that the prescriptive grammarian has the right to lay down what grammatical forms shall be used in addressing men of high social position. The use of ” English ” as a term of praise to describe what is correct has its parallels elsewhere in Dickens and in the colloquial speech of today. Mr. Bucket, the police inspector in Bleak House is indignant when his orders are queried:
” Up, I tell you! Up! Ain’t it English ? Up!” (chap. 57).A feature of Victorian middle-class dialects was the fondness for euphemism. It is common in the language of Miss Mowcher and her clients. The variety of names for rouge that she mentions can be regarded as an example of secret slang : ” One Dowager, she calls it lip-salve. Another, she calls it gloves. Another, she calls it tucker-edging. Another, she calls it a fan. / call it whatever they call it.” (DC, chap. 22).

The class dialects used by Dickens are for the most part those of lower-class speakers, but he showed himself also able to reproduce the chief features of upper-class dialect. The friendly young member of the Barnacle family in Little Dorrit is a convincing example of one type of upper-class speaker with a limited vocabulary which is nevertheless adequate to indicate his shocked sense of outraged decencies. Mr. A. 0. J. Cockshut says that in portraying this character ” Dickens hits off perfectly that subtle note of informal formality of the English upper class at work (‘ You mustn’t come here, saying you want to know, you know ‘). MI Elsewhere the same kind of language is caricatured in the speech of ” the simpering fellow with the weak legs ” in David Copperfield:
” Oh, you know, deuce take it,” said this gentleman, looking round the board with an imbecile smile, ” we can’t forego Blood, you know. We must have Blood, you know. Some young fellows, you know, may be a little behind their station, perhaps, in point of education and behaviour, and may go a little wrong, you know, and get themselves and other people into a variety of fixes and all that but deuce take it, it’s delightful to reflect that they’ve got Blood in ’em.” (Chap. 25).

The chief characteristics of this kind of speech are its repetitiveness and the speaker’s fondness for meaningless expletives. The same chapter provides an example of one special variety of the speech of the hangers-on of the upper classes, who shroud their speech with mystery in the hope of creating a good effect. Henry Spiker and Gulpidge ” entered into a defensive alliance against us, the common enemy, and exchanged a mysterious dialogue across the table for our defeat and overthrow “:
” That affair of the first bond for four thousand five hundred pounds has not
taken the course that was expected, Spiker,” said Mr. Gulpidge.

” Do you mean the D. of A.’s ?” said Mr. Spiker.

” The C. of B.’s !” said Mr. Gulpidge.

Mr. Spiker raised his eyebrows and looked much concerned.

” When the question was referred to Lord I needn’t name him,” said Mr.

Gulpidge, checking himself
” I understand,” said Mr. Spiker, ” N.”
There is a very close parallel to this way of talking for effect in Nicholas Nickleby, when Pyke and Pluck have undertaken the easy assignment of impressing Mrs. Wititterly:
” Is there anybody,” demanded Mr. Pluck mysteriously, ” anybody you know, whom Mrs. Wititterly’s profile reminds you of ?”
” Reminds me of ! ” answered Pyke, ” Of course there is.”
” Who do you mean ?” said Pluck, in the same mysterious manner. ” The D. of B.?”
” The C. of B.,” replied Pyke, with the faintest trace of a grin lingering in his countenance. ” The beautiful sister is the countess; not the duchess.” (Chap. 28)
Two of Dickens’s upper-class characters have the habit of talking de haut en has with that superficial courtesy that can be more offensive than direct rudeness. Mr. Tulkinghorn replies to Guppy’s stipulation that a friend should be present during their discussion:
” The matter is not of that consequence that I need put you to the trouble of making any conditions, Mr. Guppy.” (BH, chap. 39).Cutting across the distinction between upper-class and lowerclass speech, we sometimes find occupational dialects. These can best be studied in Dickens in the speech of his lawyers, who illustrate the principle of variety in uniformity. There are strong resemblances between the language of Conversation Kenge and that of Vholes in Bleak. House, but there are also differences. One characteristic that they share is prolixity. Kenge uses long and involved sentences, which he is not always able to finish. Three times in chapter 3 his speeches include the words ” the a “, which contribute nothing to the meaning of the sentences in which they occur and which may be assumed to represent the noises made by a practised bore to prevent anyone else from interrupting while he thinks what to say next. He has the orator’s trick of piling up a series of phrases each introduced by the same word or phrase: ” every difficulty, every contingency, every masterly fiction, every form of procedure known in that court” (chap. 3). He affects to be fastidious about his choice of words and introduces needless phrases like ” shall I say?” and ” I would say “, as if to apologize for the words that he chooses. Both of these characteristics are illustrated in the following passage:
” Mr. Jarndyce . . . being aware of the I would say, desolate position of our young friend, offers to place her at a first-rate establishment; where her education shall be completed, where her comfort shall be secured, where her reasonable wants shall be anticipated, where she shall be eminently qualified to discharge her duty in that station of life unto which it has pleased shall I say Providence ? to call her.” (Chap.3).Sometimes Dickens’s ” special languages ” seem to be introduced for their own sake rather than to give individuality to a character. His love of light-hearted and exuberant parody is illustrated by the introduction of the two Literary Ladies into one of the American scenes of Martin Chuzzlewit (chap. 34). Their names are Toppit and Codger, but it is doubtful whether many readers of the novel remember their names; they are thought of as the two literary ladies who seek to persuade the mother of the modern Gracchi to introduce them to Elijah Pogram on the grounds that they are ” Transcendental “. They make no contribution whatever to the plot and are clearly introduced because Dickens wanted to parody a particular way of writing. Each of them makes a short speech and they are then heard of no more:
” To be presented to a Pogram,” said Miss Codger, ” by a Hominy, indeed, a thrilling moment is it in its impressiveness on what we call our feelings. But why we call them so, or why impressed they are, or if there really is, oh gasping one! a Pogram or a Hominy, or an active principle to which we give those titles, is a topic. Spirit searching, light abandoned, much too vast to enter on, at this unlooked-for • • M crisis.

” Mind and matter,” said the lady in the wig, ” glide swift into the vortex of immensity. Howls the sublime, and softly sleeps the calm Ideal, in the whispering chambers of Imagination. To hear it, sweet it is. But then, outlaughs the stern philosopher, and saith to the Grotesque,’ What ho! arrest for me that Agency. Go, bring it here !’ And so the vision fadeth.” (Chap. 34).Dickens is no doubt here taking his revenge for the boredom he had suffered during his visit to America. In a letter to Forster, dated 3 April 1842, he mentions a general who had called on him in Washington with two literary ladies. He describes the general as ” perhaps the most horrible bore in this country ” and declares ” The LL’s have carried away all my cheerfulness” But it is probable that the very distinctive manner of speech of the literary ladies also had a literary source. At the time of Dickens’s visit to America Transcendentalism was a popular theme for parodists, and the official periodical of the movement, The Dial, contains many passages, intended quite seriously, which illustrate the kind of writing which Dickens was no doubt trying to burlesque. The following is a typical example:
The soul lies buried in a ruined city, struggling to be free, and calling for aid. The worldly trafficker in life’s caravan hears its cries, and says, it is a prisoned maniac. But one true man stops, and with painful toil lifts aside the crumbling fragments; till at last, he finds beneath the choking mass a mangled form of exceeding beauty. Dazzling is the light to eyes long blind; weak are the limbs long prisoned; faint is the breath long pent. But oh ! that mantling blush, that liquid eye, that elastic spring of renovated strength. The deliverer is folded to the breast of an angel.

One of the simplest linguistic devices that can be used as an aid to characterization is the catch-phrase, and it is a device of which Dickens was very fond. When we think of Mr. Dick, most of us at once think of King Charles’s head. Similarly we remember that Barkis is willing, that Mrs. Micawber never will desert Mr. Micawber and that Wemmick is fond of portable property. We have become very familiar with the trick of catch-phrases in the mouths of innumerable music-hall and variety artists. It is possible to take an unsympathetic view of these catch-phrases and to say that their use rests on the assumption that a commonplace idea becomes funny if it is repeated often enough. It may be, however, that part of the secret of Dickens’s success is that he makes things easy for his readers by his constant repetitions, and his catch-phrases are remembered by readers who are not used to reading with close attention. Such repetition gives pleasure to unsophisticated readers and audiences because it reminds them of other amusing contexts in which the catchphrase has been used. This is no doubt the reason why the mere mention of certain place-names, such as Wigan or Aberdeen, is enough to bring broad smiles to the faces of an audience. There is an element of self-congratulation in the satisfaction with which a reader recognizes a catch-phrase or an allusion to one, especially if the allusion is indirect. For example, Vholes in his interview with Richard Carstone assures him, with apparent irrelevance : ” I never impute motives; I both have, and am, a father, and I never impute motives” (BH, chap. 39).

Some characters have distinctive linguistic characteristics which are more subtle than catch-phrases but which serve the same purpose of individualizing the character in a way that is easy to recognize. In Dombey and Son Susan Nipper makes frequent use of a sentence-pattern in two parts, introduced by “may” and “but” respectively. Examples are :” I may wish, you see, to take a voyage to Chancy, Mrs. Richards, but I mayn’t know how to leave the London Docks.” (Chap. 3).

” A person may tell a person to dive off a bridge head foremost into five-andforty feet of water, Mrs. Richards, but a person may be very far from diving.” (Chap. 5).” I may not have my objections to a young man’s keeping company with me, and when he puts the question, may say ‘ yes,’ but that’s not saying ‘ would you be so kind as like me ?’ ” (Chap. 12).

The mistakes made by foreigners in the use of English have frequently been used with comic effect by novelists and playwrights. Dickens was more aware than most novelists that the absurdities are not all on one side, but in The Pickwick Papers he follows the conventional line in making fun of Count Smorltork’s attempts to speak English (chap. 15). The Count experiences the difficulties that English pronunciation commonly presents to foreigners: ” th ” and ” w ” represent unfamiliar sounds and consequently *’ things ” becomes ” tings ” and ” Pickwick ” becomes *’ Pig Vig “; confusion between voiced and voiceless consonants adds to this difficulty in pronouncing ” Pickwick “, thus producing ” Big Vig ” beside ” Pig Vig “; lightly stressed syllables are not always heard, with the result that” very ” becomes ” ver ” and ” politics ” becomes ” poltics “; one unfamiliar word is easily confused with another, and ” comprises ” becomes ” surprises ” and ” expiring frog ” becomes ” perspiring fog “, The degrees of formality appropriate to social occasions are very difficult for foreigners to master, and when the Count thinks that he has mastered the name of Mr. Pickwick, to whom he has just been introduced (” Peek—christian name; Weeks—surname; good, ver good “), we have the sudden burst of informality: ” How you do, Weeks?”
The insular attitude to foreigners and their language is satirized more fully in Little Dorrit in the description of the difficulties experienced by John Baptist Cavaletto in Bleeding Heart Yard:
they began to think that although he could never hope to be an Englishman, still it would be hard to visit that affliction on his head. . . .They spoke to him in very loud voices as if he were stone deaf. They constructed sentences, by way of teaching him the language in its purity, such as were addressed by the savages to Captain Cook, or by Friday to Robinson Crusoe. Mrs. Flemish was particularly ingenious in this art; and attained so much celebrity by saying ” Me ope you leg well soon,” that it was considered in the Yard but a very short remove indeed from speaking Italian. (LD, Book I, chap. 25).

In calling attention to some aspects of the language of Dickens I have confined my attention to the language used by the characters in the novels without making any attempt to analyse the author’s own style which he employs in narrative and descriptive passages. I have made no attempt to treat the subject exhaustively and I am sure that any reader of Dickens could produce further examples to illustrate the points that I have made. If my comments have little value, I am not without hope that what I have said will be of interest to lovers of Dickens, since I have heard it said that a genuine Dickensian will read anything written about Dickens if only for the sake of the quotations.

Analysis of Dialects and its Translation into Russian in “David Copperfield” by Charles Dickens
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“like many fond parents, I have in my heart of hearts a favourite child. And his name is David Copperfield.”
By Charles Dickens
Language, according to Scholes (1960:17), is basically a means of communication to express ideas, feelings and imaginations. The language use cannot be separated from the social group of a region that uses the language. It provides people with the place in a society to convey information, to learn about the world, and to gather with others.
Language in this world – including English – is produced in spoken or written forms. The relationship between those forms is close as mentioned by Scholes (1966:186) that the form of writing has social value of speaking, and this case has been presented continuously as narrative literature of the ancient world.
Though a novel is in the written form, it represents factors appeared in the conversation of the real life through its basic elements. They are, first, characters which represent participants who use dialects to convey information and express feelings at the same time through utterances. Next is setting. It represents times and places of utterances and the physical circumstances in general. While, the third is theme. This element represents topics and the purposes of speech dealt with expressing moral and social ideas. Then, the last element is plot which represents the complexity of the participants in exploring the function of the speech.

The novel being discussed in this study, David Copperfield, presents unforgettable characters from multi socio-cultural, geographical and educational background in 1800s (at the Victorian Times) because of the background of its author – Charles Dickens. The characterization of ‘David Copperfield’, for example, is drawn nearly as Dickens’s self by living constantly in Portsmouth, Chatham, London, Yarmouth, Lowestoft, Broadstairs, and the Isle of Wight; having not much formal schooling; having the mother who could not spend much time on him; finding much misery and poverty at the same time finding wickedness and crime; working at a factory forcedly; and having no friends at his early years. Then, after experiencing a long period of suffering and unhappy childhood, Copperfield went to school and ended up it as “first boy” of the school, worked for a law firm, and married a woman he loved.
The I decided to study the dialects used by the characters in a novel because they are presented by its author in the written form. Though, through that form, they are able to imitate the dialects of the real life to present an imaginary scene to the readers. Then, I chose Charles Dickens’s novel entitled David Copperfield as I agreed with Gavin’s statement (1992:x) that Charles Dickens in that novel presents the finest chapters ever written in English fiction through the reproduction of the dialects in England at the Victorian Times (1800s), for instance, the character Uriah Heep’s words “I’m ‘umble” (Leech & Short, 1981:167). Beside that, she is also interested in the theme of the novel that focuses on the human relationships across regions and social gaps.

The sociolinguistic approach is used in this study to uncover the relationship between the characters in the novel and the dialects used in producing utterances. In order to find out the kinds of dialects used in the novel being discussed, the writer took linguistic features – word choices, word spellings and grammar – as the parameter of this study. It is because dialects in literature also represent the linguistic features in orthographical system (Short, 1996:81). And next, the writer also analyzed the factors that affect the characters in David Copperfield to use their dialects in communicating with others in that novel.

To avoid misinterpretation, the writer defines some key terms used in this study as follows:
Dialect: ? Wolfram (1981:1) says that the term ‘dialect’ is shared by a group of speakers in a particular social and geographical variety.

According to Leech & Short (1981:167), dialect is the particular set of linguistic features which correspond to the speech communities.

? Concerning Short (1996:81), dialect is related to what part of the country people come from.
? According to Holmes (1992:146), a dialect is used to express solidarity and affective meaning, and acquired in informal contexts.

? Radford (1999:57) states that a dialect is the ungrammatical form of a dialect used by a person who has a lack of educational training and discipline in learning.

In this study, the writer uses the term ‘dialect’ as a set of linguistic features which correspond to geography, class, or other social aspects of a participant to express solidarity and affective meaning in informal contexts (Leech & Short, 1981:167).

Standard English:
? Holmes (1992:83-84) says that Standard English is an influential or prestigious language variety, codified and stabilized, and used for communication at court, for literature and for communication. ?
Radford, et al (1999:17) states that Standard English is the variety of language that has been written in grammar books, pronunciation and spelling conventions, and is promoted by the media and other public institutions, and is considered to be the “correct” way to speak. Since Holmes and Radford have nearly the same statement about the term ‘Standard English’, the writer defines it as the variety of English language that has been written, codified and stabilized (for instance, in grammar books, dictionaries, and pronunciation and spelling conventions), and used in formal contexts.

David Copperfield is the eighth novel by Charles Dickens. The novel’s full title is The Personal History, Adventures, Experience and Observation of David Copperfield the Younger of Blunderstone Rookery (Which He Never Meant to Publish on Any Account). It was first published as a serial in 1849–50, and as a book in 1850. The novel features the character David Copperfield, and is written in the first person, as a description of his life until middle age, with his own adventures and the web of friends and enemies he meets along his way. Copperfield finds career success as an author, and is a person of deep emotions.

Many elements of the novel follow events in Dickens’s own life, and it is often considered his veiled autobiography.

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?????????? ?. ?. ???????????? ???? ? ?????????? ????????. – ?., 1936
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Green, Jonathon “Cockney”. Oxford English Dictionary. Retrieved April 10, 2017.

Miller, Marjorie (July 8, 2001). “Say what? London’s cockney culture looks a bit different”. Chicago Tribune.

Oakley, Malcolm (30 September 2013). “History of The East London Cockney”. East London History.

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http://benjamins.nl/cgi-bin/t_bookview.cgi?bookid=VEAW%20T5TRUDGILL, PSociolinguistics: An Introduction to Language and Society. London: Penguin, 20001974.

Black, Joseph Laurence (2007). “Charles Dickens”.

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Bussmann, Hadumod. 1996. Dictionary of Language and Linguistics. London: Routledge..

Graham Storey: David Copperfield – Interweaving Truth and Fiction (Twayne’s Masterworks Studies). 111 pages. 1991 Boston: Twayne Publishers.

Colledge, Gary L (2009). God and Charles Dickens
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Dickens, Charles. 1992. David Copperfield. Hertfordshire: Wordsworth Classics.

Malmkjær, Kirsten (ed.). 1991. The Linguistics Encyclopedia. London: Routledge.

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Dickens, Comedy and Disintegration.” Dickens: The Craft of Fiction and the Challenges of Reading. Milan, Italy: Unicopli, 2000.

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“Charles Dickens and His Works.” Rev. of The Pickwick Papers. Fraser’s Magazine Apr. 1840: 398-400.

Dickens was very successful in fusing the elements of his style that it is only by analysis that the reader and audience become aware of the discrete elements of his style .and as professor Kucich 1994: P. 403 said (86):
“Is tempting to read Dickens’s work …as one long novel … partly because the plots seem to matter less than such things as his evocations of atmosphere and his handling of character “??????? ????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ?????, ??? ?????? ?????? ??? ???????? ? ????????? ?????? ? ?????????? ????????? ?????? ?????. ????????? ????? 1994: P. 403 ?????? (86): «????????? ?????? ?????? ???????? … ??? ???? ??????? ????? … ??????? ??????, ??? ?????? ??????? ??????? ??????, ??? ????? ????, ??? ??? ?????? ? ????????? ? ??? ????????? ? ?????????? “

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