My Ssec Capstone Project EFFICIENY OF ADVERTISING TOWARDS POSITIVE SALES IN TANZANIA BREWERIES COMPANY LIMITED BY JESCA E

EFFICIENY OF ADVERTISING TOWARDS POSITIVE SALES IN TANZANIA BREWERIES COMPANY LIMITED BY JESCA E

EFFICIENY OF ADVERTISING TOWARDS POSITIVE SALES IN TANZANIA BREWERIES COMPANY LIMITED
BY
JESCA E. MUJEMULA
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TOC o "1-3" h z u DECLARATION PAGEREF _Toc381346189 h iCHAPTER ONE PAGEREF _Toc381346190 h 11.0INTRODUCTION PAGEREF _Toc381346191 h 11.1 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM PAGEREF _Toc381346192 h 11.2 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY PAGEREF _Toc381346193 h 21.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS PAGEREF _Toc381346194 h 31.4 SCOPE OF THE STUDY PAGEREF _Toc381346195 h 31.5 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY PAGEREF _Toc381346196 h 3CHAPTER TWO PAGEREF _Toc381346197 h 42.0LITERATURE REVIEW PAGEREF _Toc381346198 h 42.2EMPIRICAL CASE STUDIES PAGEREF _Toc381346199 h 62.3RESEARCH GAP PAGEREF _Toc381346200 h 102.4CONCEPTUAL FRAME WORK PAGEREF _Toc381346201 h 10CHAPTER THREE PAGEREF _Toc381346202 h 143.0RESEARCH METHODOLOGY PAGEREF _Toc381346203 h 143.1 INTRODUCTION PAGEREF _Toc381346204 h 143.2RESEARCH DESIGN PAGEREF _Toc381346205 h 143.3RESEARCH TECHNIQUE PAGEREF _Toc381346206 h 153.4POPULATION OF THE STUDY. PAGEREF _Toc381346207 h 153.5SAMPLING TECHNIQUES PAGEREF _Toc381346208 h 153.6SAMPLE SIZE PAGEREF _Toc381346209 h 163.7DATA COLLECTION METHODS PAGEREF _Toc381346214 h 163.8 TYPES OF DATA TO BE COLLECTED PAGEREF _Toc381346219 h 173.9DATA ANALYSIS PAGEREF _Toc381346221 h 17REFFERENCES PAGEREF _Toc381346222 h 18APPENDECIES PAGEREF _Toc381346223 h 20
CHAPTER ONE
GENERAL INTRODUCTION
Advertising is the process of making goods or services known to the public. It has been always an effective way of connecting sellers and buyers. Advertising is also seen at the ancient times as in many advertisements were used in past centuries at Egypt, Greece and Babylon. On 1704, the first newspaper was made and it enhanced advertisement till today. Now days advertising is done through televisions (TV), radios, and websites
In business world advertising is one of the important element when you want to develop in business because it is used as way of convincing customers or sellers to do business. In this vein, advertisement has been recognized as a marketing tool with a broader exposure and a long lasting effect in the viewers mind (Abideen&Saleem), Abideen and Saleem (2001) further point out that the concept of advertising is based on promotion as one of the 4P’s in the marketing mix.
Tanzania Breweries Limited (TBL) Limited is an oldest breweries company that started from 1930 as it was named Tanganyika brewery.  TBL is involved in distribution, production and selling of nonalcoholic malt beverages, alcoholic fruit beverages and malt beverages. TBL headquarters is located at Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania.

BACKGROUND INFORMATION
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
SITUATION
Advertisement is more significant in the business because it creates products and service awareness in the market. There are different advertising concepts that have been addressed in different studies by researchers; nonetheless, the effectiveness of these concepts in influencing the purchasing decisions of consumers hence it provides positive sales in Tanzania Breweries
OBSERVED
Tanzania Breweries Company (TBL) makes lot of advertisement. They normally use newspapers, magazines, televisions or even radios. They rely a lot on media as a result they spend a lot of money on advertising but the sales of their products are not increasing as it supposed to be.

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EXPECTED
TBL should be the most dominating company in the market by making a lot of sales in the business because it makes a lot of advertisement and it maintains its production and position in the market
GAP
There is still minimal evidence that through advertising organizations can boost their overall performance in the market. TBL uses other ways also to enhance its sales like product quality, promotion and other ways which stimulates the sales of TBL.

Thus this study is aiming to find out the appropriate ways of managing the overall system of advertising and sales promotion to enhance sales and increase the market share and to overcome the firmness it faces from its competitors in and out of the country.

This seeks to examine the advertising and sales promotion particularly towards enhancing sales of the TBL products. Specifically the study seeks to answer the following questions;
What are the advertising strategies used by TBL?
What promotional campaigns does TBL do to enhance its sales?
What are the effects of advertisement in TBL?
How much budget of TBL is allocated in all forms of advertising its products?
1.2OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
Eriksson and Kovalainen (2008) affirm that research aim and objectives are fundamental in any research study; they form the basis from which all the research procedures originate. The main aim of this research proposal is to assess the effectiveness of advertising towards enhancing sales in Tanzania Breweries Limited. (TBL)
Generally, the objective of the study is to assess the effectiveness of advertising towards enhancing sales in Tanzanian Breweries Limited (TBL).

Specifically the study intends to:
Understand how advertising contributes to the company’s sales projection.

Understand how the customers perceive the advertisements and promotion of the company’s products and establish approaches to advertising that marketers can employ to improve the efficiency of their advertising strategies.

Measure the effectiveness of TBL advertising and promotion models from its competitors.

Understand the relationship between advertising and consumer purchasing behavior and assessing the existing methods of advertising and confirm their effectiveness in influencing the consumer purchasing behavior.
1.3RESEARCH QUESTIONS
This study is dedicated to find answers of the following questions;
Are the adverts relevant to the targeted customers?
What are the effects of advertising towards the company’s sales projections?
How is the company intending to fulfill its goal through advertising?
What are the company’s specific objectives to guide the advertising efforts?
1.4SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The researcher will deal with Tanzania Breweries Limited (TBL) specifically the Arusha Branch, during the Field study. The researcher will be required to approach the head of department responsible, also the researcher will face the targeted staff as he may deem it necessary and fit during particular time intervals while in the process of collecting data.

Where need be, the researcher will spend considerable time in the department responsible, and utilize substantial time interrogating objectively all related and concerned Organization or department to the research topic under study.

1.5LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
When conducting this research, there are various anticipated problems that may cause some difficulties thus narrowing down some parts of the research to some extent. These problems could be’
Financial difficulties.

This will be another limitation to be experienced during the conduction of the research.More budgetsare still needed from the beginning of the research till its accomplishment. The researcher will use the resources accordingly.

Transparency.

In most organizations, where a case study has to be conducted stakeholders are reluctant to give complete and detailed information about their network system. To overcome this constraint the researcher will reveal out to the organization that such information is needed for research purpose as academic requirements of an institute.

Response.

In most cases, the questionnaires distributed so as to collect different data are not filled properly and at times not returned either.

Privacy of information
Most of the business units in Tanzania do not have the confidence that the material supplied by, them to researchers will not be misused and as such they are often reluctant in supplying the needed information to researchers. The concept of Secrecy seems to be sacrosanct to business organizations in the country so much so that it proves an impermeable barrier to researchers. Thus, there is the need for generating the confidence that the information/data obtained from a business unit will not be misused.

Therefore, effective advertising should affect sales. But the whole marketing mix affects the sales volume and the results of advertising can’t be measured by sales changes alone. Advertising is only a part of promotion, and total promotion is only a part of the total marketing mix that the marketing manager must develop to satisfy targeted customers.

CHAPTER TWO
2.0LITERATURE REVIEW
This is an account of what has been published by accredited scholars and researchers. It is a critical look on the existing research that is significant to the work that the researcher will carry out; this involves examining documents as magazine, journals that have bearing on the study. (Dr. WakuruMagigi 2013)
A literature review is a text written by someone to consider the critical points of current knowledge including substantive findings, as well as theoretical and methodological contributions to a particular topic. Literature reviews are secondary sources, and as such, do not report any new or original experimental work. Also, a literature review can be interpreted as a review of an abstract accomplishment.

Most often associated with academic-oriented literature, such as a thesis or peer-reviewed article, a literature review usually precedes a research proposal and results section. Its main goals are to situate the current study within the body of literature and to provide context for the particular reader. Literature reviews are a staple for research in nearly every academic field.

2.1THEORETICAL REVIEW
A theoretical (or conceptual) gives the meaning of a word in terms of the theories of a specific discipline. This definition assumes both knowledge and acceptance of the theories that it depends on. To theoretically define is to create a hypothetical construct.
2.1.1Advertising: is the process of attracting attention towards a specific product or service. It is done through announcements in newspapers, radios, televisions, magazines, leaflets, billboards and the internet. It is also possible to advertise a product by word of mouth or through provision of satisfactory services to the consumers.
Advertising in business is a form of marketing communication used to encourage, persuade, or manipulate an audience (viewers, readers or listeners; sometimes a specific group) to take or continue to take some action. Most commonly, the desired result is to drive consumer behavior with respect to a commercial offering, although political and ideological advertising is also common.
It involves the Techniques and practices used to bring products, services, opinions, or causes to public notice for the purpose of persuading the public to respond in a certain way. The first advertising agencies were established in the 19th century to broker for space in newspapers, and by the early 20th century agencies were producing the advertising message itself, including copy and artwork. Most advertising promotes goods for sale, but similar methods are used in public service messages to promote causes, charities, or political candidates. In many countries, advertising is the most important source of income for the media through which it is conducted. In addition to newspapers, magazines, and broadcast media, advertising media include direct mail, billboards and posters, transit advertising, the Internet, and promotional items such as matchbooks or calendars. Advertisers attempt to choose media that are favored by the advertisers’ target audience.

According to Goldsmith and Lafferty (2002), marketers aim at reaching all the potential customers, influencing their awareness of goods and services, altering their attitudes towards the products being advertised, and thus influencing their purchasing behaviors. As such, marketers invest heavily in advertising to ensure that the customers in the market are constantly in demand of their products. In this vein, Abideen and Saleem (2001) point out that there is a great need for marketers to clearly understand why consumers in the market behave in a particular manner. In this process, the marketers are required to gather relevant data from the market to aid them in developing accurate consumer and market profiles to guide the advertising process. Understanding consumer profiles leads to knowledge of the consumer behavior in terms of emotional and mental processes that take place when the consumers are making their purchasing decisions.

2.1.2The Role of Advertising in Organizational Performance
The term “advertising” is defined as “a paid non-personal communication from an identified sponsor using mass media to persuade or influence an audience” (Wells, Burnett & Moriarty, 2003, p.10). Among the other functions of advertising highlighted in this definition, the most important is the persuasion factor which is the consequence of the rest of the functions. An advertisement should have the potential to differentiate one product or service from others so as to produce a desired persuasive effect (Jeong, 2004). If an advertisement does not produce the required impact, it can be assumed as ineffective and as such the substantial amount of money that companies spend on advertising their products goes waste. On the other hand, advertisements producingfavorable impact can multiply the effectiveness of advertising expenditures. Hence, it implies that advertising plays a very crucial role in the effective functioning of an organization.
2.1.3 Streams of Research on Advertising Effectiveness
To assess the effectiveness of advertisements, there have been two streams of research (Jeong, 2004). One stream of research focuses on the psychological aspects of advertising impact and the other focuses on the sales and market response aspects of advertising effects. These two different areas of advertising effectiveness research are discussed in the next sections.
2.1.3.1 Market Response Approach of Advertising Effectiveness
The market response method of advertising effectiveness research assesses the impact of advertising in terms of the relationship between advertising expenditures and sales for the respective advertising brand during a particular period. However, advertising studies in market response analysis have resulted in conflicting findings. For instance, Telser (1962 cited in Kocabiyiko?lu, 2004) utilized the time series data for three different cigarette brands. Simultaneous equation models were used to explore the relationship between advertising and sales. The study found that different cigarette brands earn different return on advertising spending. Furthermore, Telser (1962) states that other marketing variables such as economic conditions and the level of competition in the market also influence the advertising-sales relationship (Kocabiyiko?lu, 2004). While studying the relationship between advertising and sales, Quandt (1964) also argued that other variables like disposable income, education etc. should be considered as these factors affect the advertising-sales relationship. Murphy and Cunningham (1993) state that linking advertising with sales impact is not appropriate as other marketing variables such as economic factors, market factors, etc., affect the company sale. In fact, previous research investigating the real effectiveness of advertising has not found a clear link between advertising and its effect on company sale (Vakratsas and Ambler 1999).

2.1.3.2Behavioral Perspective of Advertising Effectiveness
The behavioral perspective of advertising effectiveness concerns how people perceive, process, respond to, and use advertising information in making purchase decision about certain product or service (Jeong, 2004). As human psychology is complex, researchers have used various measures of advertising effectiveness. These include association among recall, recognition and attractiveness of advertisement (e.g.,Wells, Burnett & Moriarty, 2003), effects of attention on memory (e.g., Rajaram, Srinivast& Travers, 2001), likeability as a measure of advertising effectiveness (Leather, McKechnie&Amirkhanian, 1994), recall, attitude towards the advertisement and brand (Ang& Low, 2000; Kover et al.,1995; Higie&Sewal, 1991). However, the behavioral perspective of advertising effectiveness in general focuses on recall or and persuasion (Till &Baack, 2005).
There are many reasons why these two types of measures are consistently used as a useful criterion for evaluating advertising effectiveness: First, viewers’ recall of the advertising information shows that the advertisement has been well attended to and the advertising information has got a place in consumers’ minds which increases the likelihood of the advertised brand to become member of consumers’ evoked set (Stewart, 1989). Evoked set represents the number of brands in the priority list of a consumer while considering purchase of goods and services (Loudon ; Della Bitta, 2002). Recall is also of particular interest because an advertisement must first command attention before it can persuade. Hence, researchers have consistently used recall as a measure of advertising effectiveness (Till ;Baack, 2005; Finn, 1992; Wells et al., 2003).
Similarly, attitude as another measure of advertising effectiveness is important because it is related to how consumers evaluate the advertised products. A strong positive attitude towards a product means that the person may buy the brand in future (Wells et al., 2003). As Mitchell and Olson (1981) state that as attitudes are relatively stable and enduring predispositions to behave, they should be useful predictors of consumers’ behavior towards a product or service. Gresham and Shimp (1985) consider attitude as an attempt to influence consumers’ choice. Hence, it implies that attitude has got a central place in consumer’s brand choice. Attitudes are also important because they reflect the likes and dislikes of consumers (Wells et al., 2003). The importance of attitude can also be mainly understood from the empirical findings of studies stating that consumers’ attitude towards advertisements affects their subsequent evaluation of the advertised brands and hence their choice of the respective brands (Mitchell ; Olson, 1981).
The above discussion reveals that both recall and attitude are the important measures of advertising effectiveness. Literature on the effectiveness of creative advertising also indicates that previous studies have used these measures as the common dimensions of advertising effectiveness. Since this study also covers the effects of creative advertising on consumers’ advertisement and brand-related attitude as well as their recall and purchase intention for the advertised brands, each of these measures is discussed in the next section in detail.
2.2EMPIRICAL CASE STUDIES
2.2.1 Role of advertising on sales volume and market share on Heineken in Netherland conducted by Adbrands (2013)
In virtually every market except its home country of the Netherlands, Heineken is priced as a premium lager. Total volumes were around 32m hectoliters in 2012, including 29m hectoliters as a premium brand. Until comparatively recently the only other non-premium market was the UK, where a lower strength mid-price version of Heineken had been produced since the 1960s under license by Whitbread. Following Whitbread’s exit from brewing in 2002, there was some question of who would take on the UK license. Eventually the group took the decision to abandon UK production and switch to imported supply from the Netherlands (previously known in the UK as Heineken Export). At the same time, Heineken was repositioned as a premium product. As a result of the higher sale price, though, sales fell significantly, making the UK one of Heineken’s poorest-performing European markets. That weakness was eventually fixed by the takeover of Scottish & Newcastle’s domestic operations, a deal which boosted Heineken into the leadership position in the UK.

2.2.2Qureshi (2007) investigated the relationship between advertising and the market value of the firms in the united kingdom using data from 1998 to 2003.He concluded in his study that advertising expenditure are significantly connected with the increase in market value, suggested that investment in advertising should be capitalized and then amortized rather than treated as expenses. These findings have significant implication in the United Kingdom and other countries where investment such as RD and advertising for the future standard setting are generally expensed as incurred, leading to downward bias in the value of assets, current earning and shareholder equity.

2.2.3Gupta’s (2008) findings had reflected the effect of advertising on the firm performance in four industry ofdifferent nature automobile industry, textile industry, beverage industry and food industry in India, using 10years data from 1997-98 to 2006-07, but for some companies it is less than 10 years and replaced by using unbalanced panel data due to the limitation of data collection. In the study,Gupta (2008) noted that the results of advertisement certainly affect the firms depending on their nature. He claimed it is evident that advertisement has positive and significant effect on sales of the firms while it has significant adverse effect on profitability. He convinced that advertisement affects the sales and profitability in the industries through modeling industry wise.

2.2.4Conhar,Crask and Zinkhan (2005) initiated a study on the effects of advertising expenditure on firm performance by its firm market value in united states from 1985 to 2005.they examined the relationship between advertising expenditure on firm market value. Their results indicated that there is positive relationship between advertising and firm market value which is marketing activities are generally expected to generate future cash flows and boots the shareholder wealth.

2.3RESEARCH GAP
Ideally, advertisers should preset advertising before its run rather than relying solely on their own guesses about how good an advertisement will be. The judgment of creative people or advertising experts may not help much as they only judge the base of originality or cleverness of the copy or illustration. The gap existing is basically through a competitive and innovative advantage existing between TBL and its competitors’ in the field of advertising towards increasing sales to cover a greater market share compared to the competitors.

The term competitive advantage is the ability gained through attributes and resources to
Perform at a higher level than others in the same industry or market (Lynch 1999). The
Study of such advantage has attracted profound research interest due to contemporary
Issues regarding superior performance levels of firms in the present competitive market
Conditions. A firm is said to have a competitive advantage when it is implementing a
Value creating strategy not simultaneously being implemented by any current or potential
Player (Clulowet al, 2003).

According to Gaynor (2002), innovative advantage and subsequent requirements for
sustained exploitation, provides incentives for change in the strategic configuration.

Innovative advantage might enable a firm to broaden its market appeal by introducing
cost savings as well as unique features. Successful adaptability requires both knowing
when to change and knowing when change is not appropriated.

2.4CONCEPTUAL FRAME WORK
Conceptual frameworks, according to educational researcher Smyth (2004), are structured from a set of broad ideas and theories that help a researcher to properly identify the problem they are looking at, frame their questions and find suitable literature. Most academic research uses a conceptual framework at the outset because it helps the researcher to clarify his research questions and aims.

Independent variablesDependent variables
76200135890Advertising activities
sales promotions
Publicity and publicrelations
personal selling
direct marketing
Advertising activities
sales promotions
Publicity and publicrelations
personal selling
direct marketing
3867150135890Brand loyalty
commitment
perceived value
brand trust
satisfaction
Brand loyalty
commitment
perceived value
brand trust
satisfaction

3867150787407620078740
282892452070176212533020
2047875175895Extraneous variables
price
peer influence
Extraneous variables
price
peer influence

2047875236854
Source: Adopted from Philip Kotler (2003) ?Marketing Management ?, 7thedition.

2.4.1Advertising:
Is a form of communication intended to persuade an audience (viewers, readers of listeners) to purchase or take some action upon products, ideas or services. It includes the name of the
product or service and how that product or service could benefit the consumer, to persuade a
target market to purchase or consume that particular brand. These messages are usually paid for by sponsors and viewed via various Media.
2.4.2Sales promotions:
Sales promotions is a set of paid marketing activity (other than advertising, and personal selling) undertaken to stimulate buyer action. It includes such inducements as point of sale, displays, and coupons. It assumes a much greater role with low priced mass products than specialty products such as sports, watches.
Sales promotions therefore consist of short term incentives to encourage purchase or sale of a
product or service. Whereas advertising and personal selling offers reasons to buy a product or service, sales promotions offers reasons to buy now.
2.4.3Publicity and public relations:
From the Wikipedia, a free encyclopedia, publicity is a deliberate attempt to manage the public’s perceptions of a subject. According to Philip Kotler 2003, a public is any group that has an actual of potential interest in or impact on a company’s ability to achieve its objective. Public relations involve a variety of programs designed to promote or protect company image or its individual’s products.
2.4.4Personal selling:
Personal selling is the most effective tool at the later stages of the buying process particularly in building up buyer preference, conviction and action. It’s believed to be effective because: it involves an immediate and interactive relationship between two or more persons. Here each
party is able to observe the others reactions, it also permits all kinds of relationships to spring up ranging from a matter –of-fact selling relationship to a deep personal friendship and it makes the buyer feel under some obligation for having listened to the sales person talk.
2.4.5Direct marketing:
Direct marketing is a form of advertising that reaches its audience without using traditional
formal channels of advertising, such as TV, newspapers or radio. Businesses communicate
straight to the consumer with advertising techniques such as fliers, catalogue distribution,
promotional letters, and street advertising. A well-executed direct advertising campaign can offer a positive return on investment as the message is not hidden with over complicated branding. Instead, direct advertising is straight to the point; offers a product, service, or event; and explains how to get the offered product, service, or event.
2.4.6Commitment:
According to the psychological theories, commitment is the set of acts and cognitions that link a person to his behavior. The organizational literature considers it as an affective attachment to an organization values and purposes, or a relative intensity of the identification and the involvement in a particular organization. The latter is characterized at least by three factors: a strong conviction and acceptance of the organization goals and values, a will to produce great efforts for the benefit of the organization and lastly, a strong desire to remain member in it.
2.4.7Brand trust:
Brand trust is defined as the willingness of the average consumer to rely on the ability of the
brand to perform its stated function, as the confident expectations of the brand?s reliability and intentions and as the confidence a consumer develops in the brand’s reliability and integrity (Chatterjee and Chaudhuri, 2005).
2.4.8Perceived value:
Perceived value is regarded as a strategic weapon in attracting and retaining customers and has become one of the most significant factors in the success of both manufacturing businesses and service providers. The construct of perceived value has been identified as one of the most important ingredients for gaining competitive edge and repurchase intentions.
2.4.9Price:
It is postulated that buyers, generally, have a range of acceptable prices for considering purchases. Thus, buyers may not purchase a product when price is perceived to be too high, nor when price is perceived to be too low.
2.4.10Peer influence:
Peer pressure is ?a social instance of social influence, which typically produces conformity to a specific way of acting or thinking.’ Under peer pressure, adolescents may emerge desires for conformity, which has been associated with the needs for acceptance, approval and harmonious relationships with others. Adolescents usually seek the feelings of ?fitting in? and sense of belonging in peer groups, as well as avoid negative emotions, such as feelings of isolation and inadequacy by participating in behaviors with peers. Hence, it is logical that many brand name marketers attempt to directly attract adolescent consumers or indirectly affect adolescent consumption behaviors through peer pressure
2.4.11Satisfaction:
It is viewed as an emotion or a consequence of both cognitive and affective process. Total or
cumulative satisfaction is an overall evaluation that is based on the purchase and the consumption experience with a product or service through the time. Customer satisfaction that is inherent to a specific transaction represents an immediate post-purchase evaluation. It can either indicate the affective reaction toward the recent experience with the product or service.
2.4.12Relationship:
Promotions are being used with increasing frequency by manufacturers facing highly
competitive markets, which are causing concern among some marketers who feel that frequent promotions can hurt a brand. Allan Baldinger and Joel Rubiuson (2009) noted that if all brands in a product market have high brand loyalty then, Price promotion will not be useful to any of the brands. Nevertheless, there is little evidence to either confirm or dispel these fears.

CHAPTER THREE
3.0RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 INTRODUCTION
This chapter contains a discussion on various methodological techniques which will be used by the researcher in collecting data from various sources. It includes the research design employed, area of study, population of the study, methods of collecting data, sample and sampling procedures and data analysis techniques.

3.2 RESEARCH DESIGN
In conducting this research, a descriptive case study design will be used in order to gain deep understanding of the context of the research, developing skills of evaluating data and synthesizing ideas. This will help the researcher to produce accurate representation of the target population. This research design will represents a sequence of pragmatic aspect of the way the research must be conducted. Research design for this study will be a case study to be done at TBL Arusha depot;
In this study a case study design will be used. The researcher selects this design because:
The study will focus on TBL Arusha Depot.

It will be flexible that is, various methods of data collection will be used.

The case study will also be easy to have an access to more information on the topic investigated.

It will enable researcher to carry out a thorough investigation on the company.

It will allow the use of participants observation and
It will allow in depth analysis of study unit.

3.3RESEARCH TECHNIQUE
The researcher will use both Qualitative and Quantitative techniques during the study. This approach will be used because it is flexible in research and data collection and also it will allow the researcher to gather larger descriptive data, which will give the context of the experience.

3.3.1Qualitative techniques:
This technique based on the meanings expressed through words. The researcher will apply for those non-numerical data or data that cannot be quantified.
3.3.2Quantitative techniques:
This technique used numerical data. The researcher will apply this technique to describe and analyzed numerically the trends of the application of the financial statements for decision making
3.4POPULATION OF THE STUDY.

The targeted population of this study will basically have a great focus on TBL Arusha Depot department of marketing, the targeted customers and the public who will be willing to participate.

3.5SAMPLING TECHNIQUES
The researcher will use a simple random technique to select the sample. This technique will be applied because each and every item in the population has an equal chance of inclusion as the sample to represent the targeted population.

3.6SAMPLE SIZE
This refers to the number of items to be selected from the population to constitute a sample. The researcher will use the sample size of some representatives. The sample size will be affordable with regard to time, money and efforts. The size will be considered to be representative of the company.

The sample will constitute of 25 respondents divided in to the following groups;
Five (10) from TBL, Arusha Branch
Ten (15) from Targeted Customers and General public.

3.7 DATA COLLECTION METHODS
The researcher will use interview, observation, questionnaire and documentary review as methods for collecting data.
 
3.7.1 INTERVIEWS.

An interview is a face to face discussion or a dialogue between two or more people. It is an information collection method/technique that involves oral questioning of respondents, either individually or as a group. Answers to the questions posed during an interview can give the required information.
3.7.2 OBSERVATION.
Direct observation will be another method to adopt for collecting evidence that will be captured without necessarily asking a respondent. This made is possible by visiting each property whose owner is a participant to the survey.
3.7.3QUESTIONNAIRES
A series of questions will be prepared and distributed to different selected taxpayers and employees. The respondents will be required to fill in the questionnaires in the absence of the researcher. The researcher will use closed – ended question that made possible in the analysis.
3.7.4 DOCUMENTARY REVIEW
This is a data collection method where by various documents of the area of study concerning the subject matter will review to extract required information. The researcher will be interested with those document related to marketing strategies and the advertising models that assist the company to achieve its goal.

3.8 TYPES OF DATA TO BE COLLECTED
The researcher will be used both primary and secondary data. The researcher might collect new data and also use the past history available within the organization;
3.8.1 PRIMARY DATA.

Primary data is the data which is collected for the first time, thus happen to be original in character. Primary data will involve direct experience and observation. These data will be obtained through interview that the researcher will conduct, questionnaires formulated by the researcher and through observation
3.8.2SECONDARY DATA
This is the data collected, analyzed and have already passed through statistical process. The data will be collected through documentation methods, these data have been already collected by others. These data can be collected from internet and web-pages of different companies, reports, and other published materials.

3.9 DATA ANALYSIS
The researcher will make the analysis and interpretation of the findings by using the analytical method, which will enable the presentation to be more understood and summarized
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Nathalie., and Pelsmacker D. Patrick. “Consumer Response to Different Advertising Appeals for New Products: The Moderating Influence of Branding Strategy and Product Category Involvement.” Journal of Brand Management 18 (2010): 50-65.

On Gap Inc. Retail Stores. Available: http://artsweb.uwaterloo.ca/~ehlaw/gap.html. Accessed 04.01.2014
Pyecha, J. (1988). A case study of the application of noncategorical special education in two states. Chapel Hill, NC: Research Triangle Institute.

Stake, R. (1995).The art of case research. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.

Yin, R. (1993).Applications of case study research. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publishing
APPENDECIES
BUDGET
The table below shows the budget for the whole study activities.

BUDGET
S/N ITEM DESCRIPTION AMOUNT
THS
1 Transportation
Bus fare
30,000 30,000
2
Meals
Break [email protected],000/=
Lunch @3,000/=
Dinner @3,000/=
Total=8,000
For 30 days=240,000 240,000
3 Stationeries
1 ream [email protected],000
4 [email protected]
2 [email protected],000
1 box [email protected] 2,000
Photocopy and [email protected],000
Total=58,000 58,000
4 Communication
Internet costs=20,000
Phone calls=30,000
Total =50,000 50,000
GRAND TOTAL 378,000

SCHEODULE OF ACTIVITIES.

The research time schedule is as follows below:
S/N ACTIVITIES JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY
1 Proposal writing and submission 2 Field work
Visiting the study area; data collecting. 3 Analysis and Interpretation of data 4 Report writing 5 Submission of the report RESEARCH QUESTIONNAIRES
QUESTIONNAIRE TO TBL STAFF
ARUSHA BRANCH
Dear respondent,
I am Digna D. Mrosso a third year student at the University of Arusha, I kindly request you to fill this questionnaire with full cooperation in order to help me in this academic research proposal on the Effectiveness of Advertising towards enhancing sales in TBL Arusha.

Please tick on the appropriate answer of your choice.

Gender
Male
Female
Do you believe in Advertising towards enhancing sales of your organization?
Yes
No
What are your reason(s) in Question 2 above?
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
Do you think Advertisement and sales promotion are important to your business?
Yes
No
Does advertising and sales promotion influence the increase of your sales volume in your organization?
Yes
No
How is the sales rate in your company with the impact of advertising and sales
Promotion?
High
Low
Moderate
Do you think the company (TBL) should invest more on all forms of advertising and sales promotion?
Yes
No
What is your reason(s) for your answer in Question 7?
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
With relationship to the organization research and development, what image on your advertisements and sales promotions do you think the society (customers ; non customers) perceive about your products?
Positive
Negative
Please elaborate with your own opinions why?
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
How effective is the advertisement and sales promotion program of TBL towards enhancing sales from its competitors in East Africa?
High
Low
Moderate
Please elaborate with your own opinion why?
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

x

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