There are various studies conducted in past to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practice of tobacco use and smoking among health care professional as well as adolescents in past (4-9). The findings in our study show tobacco use among health professional students at govt dental college campus are (34.7) % (Table 1) and similar results were obtained by Sinha.et.al (5) who reported 28.2% students who smoked ciggerattes, another study conducted by Iqbal.et.al 10 reported tobacco use among health professional students at Jaipur campus was 25.11 %. Prevelence of 12.1% was reported by Shah M (4) which when compared with our study was significantly less. Which probably could be because of the fact the study done by Shah M (4) was pilot survey. A total of 22.4 percent students had ever used a tobacco product in a study from Jammu & Kashmir (9). Where as, 46.83%) adolescent were tobacco users in a study doen in rural setup (8). In a meta analysis (6) the prevalence of smoking among medical students was suggested to varies widely between students of different countries and also between male and female students within the same countries. In their investigation, 22% of students (male and female) were smoking in the first year of study, a rate which rises to 27% by the sixth year. Roughly one-third (32.3%) original nonsmokers in the first year had also become smokers by the end of the sixth year at medical school. In our study the prevelance of chewing habits were 17.06 % which was similar to study done by iqbal et al who reported 13.70% prevelance of chewing habits, but when compared with Sinha.et.al (5) was less who reported 22%. This may be described to preference of cigerretes over chewing tobacco in the present study.
In our study 92.3 % students favoured banning of tobacco products in restaurants (Table 6), which was similar to Shah et.al.(4) who reported 83.9%students favouring bann in restaurants. Which was comparatively more than than the results shown by study done by iqbal et al dipicting 79.44% students favoured banning of tobacco products in restaurants.
In our study 22.3% students favoured bann smoking in dicos,bars & pubs (Table 16) which was similar to previously study conducted by iqbal etal10 showing prevalance of 15.07%, but was very less when compared with Shah et.al.(4) who reported 75% dental students in India favouring ban and Sinha.et.al (5) who reported 59% medical students in favour of bann. Students felt discos, bars and pubs are the only place where they can use these products as it is banned in all public places.
More than 92.35 (Table 9) in our present study favoured that health professionals should routinely advise their patients to quit smoking, which when compared with Shah et.al.(4) who reported 95.1% and Sinha.et.al (5) who reported 96.9% were almost similar. More than 64.7% (Table14) had received formal training in smoking cessation approaches to use with patients which was in agrement in previos study done by iqbal etal 10 showing 72% had received formal training in smoking cessation approaches which was almost similar to Shah et.al.(4) who reported 78.9% and Sinha.et.al (5) who reported 69.1%in medical students of India.
In our study 65.29 (Table 16) had heard of using nicotine replacement therapies in tobacco cessation programs which were almost similar to results 63.47% of iqbal etal 10 study, Sinha.et.al 5also reported similar results of 61.9% and Shah et.al. 4 who had reported 75.8%.
Health professional schools,Public health organisations and education officials should discourage tobacco use among health professionals and work togather to design and implement programmes that train all health professionals in effective cessation counselling techniques.GHPSS has shown significant unmet need for cessation assistance among students as well as gaps in professional training to provide similar effective assistance to their future patients.GHPSS is helpful in evaluating the behaviour and attitudes regarding tobacco among health professional students,but additional research is necessary to improve the evidence base for effective tobacco-related curricula,especially materials that are appropriate for a range of cultural and economic settings.If the goal of the tobacco control community is to reduce substantially the use of tobacco products,then resources should be invested in improving the quality of education of health professionals with respect to tobacco control.
Recommendations From The Study
1. Develop and promote effective cessation program to reduce tobacco use among healthcare students.
2. Strengthen and enforce the legislation aimed at smokefree healthcare campus premises and buildings. Strengthen knowledge of healthcare students on harmful effects of smoking and second hand smoke on body in general and mouth in particular.
4. Improve curriculum and introduce healthcare campus based training programmes on tobacco use cessation approaches.
5. Promote involvement of upcoming healthcare professionals in public health advocacy for tobacco control.
6. Monitor the effectiveness of tobacco control agenda regular surveillance and periodic updates.
The study reflect alarming situation and demands urgent anti tobacco & tobacco cessation measures to be adopted by health professionals, who happens to be health promoters & health role models for society.Both tobacco control and tobacco cessation activities continue to remain important public & personal health issues