DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A DRUG INVENTORY MANAGEMENT
SYSTEM: A CASE STUDY AL-HUSNA PHARMACEUTICAL LIMITED
B.Sc. COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY
NATIONAL OPEN UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA
KADUNA STUDY CENTRE
CERTIFICATIONThis is to certify that this research work was carried out by ALABI EMMANUEL with registration number NOU144432029 of the Department of COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY under the supervision of DR. ADAMU ABDULLAHI.
DR. ADAMU ABDULLAHI. DATE
(HEAD OF DEPARTMENT)
EXTERNAL SUPERVISOR DATE
This project is dedicated to my parents Mr. and Mrs. bode and my siblings for their support and prayers, and also to all those who contributed to my education. May God bless you all.ACKNOWLEDGMENT
My profound gratitude to Almighty God for the knowledge, wisdom and understanding that he bestowed on me to carry out this project.I appreciate my supervisor Dr. Adamu Abdullahi for the supervision and support that she gave, which helped the progression and smoothness of the project. The co-operation is much indeed appreciated.
My grateful thanks also go to the Entire Communication Technology department of NOUN, the H.O.D ________and all tutors who prepared me from the base of computer science.
I will also like to appreciate my friends; I love you all.
Special thanks also to my parents; Mr D.A. Bode and Mrs F.M. Bode who encouraged supported and helped me financially, prayerfully and morally throughout this project.
May the Almighty God bless you all and keep you all to enjoy the fruit of your labour; Amen.
ABSTRACTThis project is insight into the design and implementation of a Drug Inventory Management System. The primary aim of is to improve accuracy and enhance safety and efficiency in the pharmaceutical store. Today management is one of the most essential features of all form. Management provides sophistication to perform any kind of task in a particular form. This is pharmacy management system; it is used to manage most pharmacy related activities in the pharmacy.
TABLE OF CONTENTCOVER PAGE
TOC o “1-3” h z u CERTIFICATION PAGEREF _Toc354972603 h IIDEDICATIONI PAGEREF _Toc354972603 h IIACKNOWLEDGMENTI PAGEREF _Toc354972604 h IIIABSTRACT PAGEREF _Toc354972605 h VTABLE OF CONTENT PAGEREF _Toc354972606 h VILIST OF TABLES PAGEREF _Toc354972608 h IXLIST OF FIGURES PAGEREF _Toc354972607 h VIIII
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION PAGEREF _Toc354972609 h 11.0INTRODUCTION PAGEREF _Toc354972610 h 11.1BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY31.2STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM41.3MOTIVATION OF THE STUDY51.4AIMS AND OBJECTIVES61.5PURPOSE OF THE STUDY61.6SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY6CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW PAGEREF _Toc354972618 h 82.0INTRODUCTION PAGEREF _Toc354972619 h 82.1PHARMACY PRACTICE IN THE PAST PAGEREF _Toc354972620 h 82.2THE PRESENT DAY PHARMACY PAGEREF _Toc354972621 h 162.3 THE FUTURE OF PHARMACY PAGEREF _Toc354972622 h 192.4BENEFITS OF THE PROPOSED SYSTEM PAGEREF _Toc354972624 h 22CHAPTER THREE SYSTEM ANALYSIS AND DESIGN PAGEREF _Toc354972625 h 233.0INTRODUCTION PAGEREF _Toc354972627 h 233.1SYSTEM ANALYSIS PAGEREF _Toc354972628 h 233.1.1ANALYSIS OF EXISTING SYSTEM PAGEREF _Toc354972629 h 243.2REQUIREMENTS DEFINITION PAGEREF _Toc354972630 h 253.2.1 METHOD OF INFORMATION GATHERING PAGEREF _Toc354972631 h 253.3SYSTEM DESIGN PAGEREF _Toc354972632 h 263.4SYSTEM MODELLING PAGEREF _Toc354972633 h 273.5 SYSTEM FLOWCHART PAGEREF _Toc354972634 h 273.6 DATABASE DESIGN PAGEREF _Toc354972635 h 30CHAPTER FOUR SYSTEM IMPLEMENTATION PAGEREF _Toc354972638 h 324.0INTRODUCTION PAGEREF _Toc354972640 h 324.1CHOICE OF PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE PAGEREF _Toc354972641 h 324.3SYSTEM DOCUMENTATION PAGEREF _Toc354972642 h 334.4HARDWARE REQUIREMENT PAGEREF _Toc354972643 h 344.6DATABASE SPECIFICATION PAGEREF _Toc354972644 h 344.7MODULE DESCRIPTION PAGEREF _Toc354972645 h 354.8SYSTEM MAINTENANCE PAGEREF _Toc354972646 h 41CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION PAGEREF _Toc354972647 h 425.0SUMMARY PAGEREF _Toc354972649 h 425.1CONCLUSION PAGEREF _Toc354972650 h 425.2RECCOMMENDATION PAGEREF _Toc354972651 h 43REFERENCES PAGEREF _Toc354972652 h 44
LIST OF FIGURESFigure. 3.3.1Waterfall Model Of System Development Life Cycle……………….26
Figure 3.5.1Structure Chart……………………………………………………….28
Figure 3.5.2Admin Login flowchart……………………………………………..28
Figure 4.2Admin Login Menu…………………………………………………..36
Figure 4.3Admin Menu Module…………………………………………….….37
Figure 4.6Drug Registration Form………………………………………………38
Figure 4.8Store Manager………………………………………………………..39
Figure 4.9Sales window…………………………………………………………41
LIST OF TABLESTable 3.1Administrator Login Table………………………………………………….. 30
Table 3.2Supplier information Table………………………………………………….30
Table 3.3 Drug information Table………………………………………………………31
CHAPTER ONEINTRODUCTIONThe practice of pharmacy involves the general implementation of medical orders which entails the evaluation and the interpretation of the medical orders, the administration of drugs, dispensation of prescribed drugs from qualified medical practitioners, the review of prescribed drug regimen, and the correct storage of drugs (CPP, 2009). The American Pharmacists Association has described pharmacy as having a mission which is the responsibility of ensuring the use of medication in the right way and manner, and enjoying the services of drugs to ensure the achievement of optimized results in therapeutic applications (CPP, 2009). In addition, the birth of modern pharmacy has brought with it some positive effects in the society; like the increase in life expectancy globally from 45 years to 50 years, which some argue is as a result of the number of breakthroughs recorded in pharmacy over the last century. These breakthroughs such as: the discovery of new compounds in battling existing ailments and the invention of methods and devices to accurately dispense drugs have been welcomed with open arms by the society. (Federation Internationale Pharmaceutique, 2012).
A pharmacist who is a professional such patients, according to a medical doctor or other clinician rules ordered drugs. Medicine is an in-depth knowledge of how the human response to various drugs and chemicals, as well as how drugs interact with each other (Charles E. Rosenberg, 1980). Pharmacists are required to accurately measure and package the drug, the dose and ensure the safety of a patient to be seen by the right medical personnel.
pharmacists prescribe drugs or do not choose, especially, pharmacist how to take themedicine and patient education about what the reaction will be prevented or problem.As medication experts, pharmacists and disease state management of drug-related cases are related to the distribution and use of public health protection. Pharmacists play an important role in improving the care of patients through providing them with medicine.
These days, computers have become an essential partof many people’s lives due to the versatility of the devices, and how muchthey can do with so little effort. Performing tasks which would have takenhours and maybe days in the past have become possible in seconds. Theinvention of the Internet and other utilities such as search engines (Googlebeing a prime example), have made searching for the most remote thingspossible in very little time. Also, the portability of the computer systemshas helped the cause in making information more portable than it was in thepast.
In the same vein, the management of inventory and taking stock ofgoods and services in different organizations have become so much easierwith the growth of the computer system (Goldberg et al, 1991). These days,even phones and tablets have faster processing power than the earlygeneration computers, which has made it easier to perform tasks. Our economy has been referred to as the “learning economy”, because of the rate at which new innovations come to light (Abbas, Alhasan, ; Hamza, 2015).In China, a text message system was developed to help in general patientpharmaceutical care, and promote mobile systems (Mao, Zhang, ; Zhai,2008).
Pharmacy management system is a management system that is designed to improve accuracy and to enhance safety and efficiency in the pharmaceutical store. It is a computer based system which helps the Pharmacist to improve inventory management, cost, medical safety etc.
The system allows the user to enter a manufacturing and expiry date for a particular product or drug during opening stock and sales transaction. The system will also give report showing the list of products expiry after a specified date before the product eventually expires. It also involves manual entry upon arrival of new batches of drugs and upon drug movement out of the pharmacy for a certain period, e.g. every month, the pharmacist may want to generate report for the movement of drugs in and out of the pharmacy, getting information about the drugs e.g. expiry date, date purchased, number of drug type left, location of a drug in the pharmacy.
At present, manual system is being utilized in the pharmacy. It requires the pharmacist to manually monitor each drug that is available in the pharmacy. This usually leads to mistakes as the workload of the pharmacist increases.
1.1BACKGROUND OF THE STUDYAl-Husna pharmacy and stores is established in the year 1998, and after series of development and expansion, the pharmacy has grown to a very reasonably size. Due to the size and quality service of the pharmacy, the AZ pharmacy has a very large customer base. These customers tend to visit the pharmacy for services mostly when they close from work. At this period, the number of customers that patronise the pharmacy is on the increase, thereby making the workload of the pharmacists much more tedious. This case makes it difficult for the pharmacist to attend to customers in a short period.
Meanwhile the pharmacist has to ensure satisfaction in services to keep their customers. The factors mentioned above, results in delay of the services being rendered to the customers, thereby slowing down sales and risk losing valuable customers in the long run.
1.2STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMDrug inventory management has for long kept paper record in filing cabinets.
Inventory management system is an important part of a business because inventories are usually the largest expense incurred from business operations. Most companies will use an information system that will track and maintain the inventory to meet customers demand; most system used by companies is linked to the management or accountings are information system, increasing the effectiveness of their operation.
At Al-Husna pharmacy, managing their large records on papers pose to be tedious and difficult to keep track of; with regards to inventory activities such as the quantity of drugs in the store, expiry date, quantity of drugs available based on the categories and their functions.
As the case with Al-Husna pharmacy, the pharmacist has to order drugs to replenish the already diminishing stock, and this is being carried out manually.
Significant amount of time is allocated for writing the order as the pharmacist needs to go through the stock balance and make rough estimate of the amount to order based on Figures. Drugs are not supposed to be used after they have expired. After the requested goods have been gotten from the shelves, Confirmation of expiry date at Al-Husna pharmacy is also done manually; and this process leads to waste of time especially when the expiry date of a product is not conspicuous enough. This project work will inform the pharmacist about drugs that are close to expiry or that have expired, making it easy to prevent those drugs from being sold and also providing solution to the earlier stated problems.
1.3MOTIVATION OF THE STUDY
Due to the manual system of operation, the following problems are inherent:
Lack of immediate retrieval: -The information is very difficult to retrieve and to find particular information e.g. To find out about the patient’s/customer’s history, the user has to go through various registers. This results in inconvenience and waste of time.
Lack of immediate information storage: – The information generated by various transactions takes time and efforts to store them.
Error prone manual calculation: – Manual calculations are error prone and takes a lot of time, this may result in incorrect information. For example, calculation of patient’s bill based on various treatments.Preparation of accurate and prompt reports: – This becomes a difficult task as business intelligence is difficult, this is due to lack of information collation (ability to put information together and analyse them).With all that brought the need to create a database system that will help in the following:-
1.4AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
The aim of this project is to develop software for the effective drug inventory management system of AZ Pharmacy and store, which will be able to achieve the following objectives:
Ensuring effective policing of inventory management system by providing statistics of the drugs in stock.
Maintaining correct database by providing an option to update the drugs in stock.
To ensure a strong security system to restricted access based on functionality and role.
To ensure that the system has a user friendly interface.
1.5PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of the study is to design and implement a drug inventory management system for Al-Husna pharmacy and stores. A system that is capable of supporting the staff of the pharmacy in order for them to be able to retrieve and update information about inventories and transactions that will help in securing information and also quicken the work flow in the pharmacy.
1.6SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The importance of this study are as follows:-
It is expected to create awareness of the application of modern technology in the administration Al-Husna pharmacy and stores and other health institution concerning their automation needs of patient’s registration and diagnosis
It will help to give the pharmacy workers the elementary knowledge as how computer can be used to store and retrieve inventory information.
The application developed will help to create and store database about drugs and transactions. The database can be retrieved at any time by the users.
Adequate security is offered to the database stored to avoid corruption by wrong users. This is done through the use of password to protect the database.
It is easy to obtain data or locate a particular transaction or drug information in that pharmacy by accessing the database using the subject’s key.
CHAPTER TWOLITERATURE REVIEW
INTRODUCTIONA pharmacist is a medical professional who dispenses drugs to patients according to a prescription ordered by a physician or other clinician. Pharmacists have an in-depth knowledge of the chemistry of various drugs and how they react in humans, and also how drugs interact with each other (Charles E. Rosenberg, 1980). Pharmacists must accurately measure and package medicine, ensuring its dosage and safety to be administered properly to a patient. While the pharmacist does not typically select or prescribe the medication, the pharmacist educates the patient on how to take the medication and what reactions or problems to be avoided.
As medication experts, pharmacists are concerned with safeguarding the public’s health in matters relating to medication distribution and use and disease state management. Pharmacists play a vital role in improving patient care through the medicine and information they provide.
2.1PHARMACY PRACTICE IN THE PASTThis gives an overview of events that have occurred in pharmacy practice through several ages both in the past and present, and also indicates possible events of the future.
2.1.1The History of Pharmacy
As long as there have been societies, there have been specialists and physicians whose sole purpose was to prepare and administer medicinal treatments. The earliest healers engaged in what is now called Pharmacognosy, which is the study and application of plants and herbs for healing. Evidence that early man used pharmacognosy to treat illness is indisputable, with archaeological discoveries attesting to the fact pre-dating even the development of farming or animal husbandry.
The beginnings of pharmacy are ancient. When the first person expressed juice from a succulent leaf to apply to a wound, this art was being practiced. In the Greek legend, Asclepius, the god of the healing art, delegated to Hygeia the duty of compounding his remedies. She was his apothecary or pharmacist. The physician-priests of Egypt were divided into two classes: those who visited the sick and those who remained in the temple and prepared remedies for the patients (Homan, 2008).
The pharmacy profession can be traced back at least as far as the Sumerian population, living in modern day Iraq from around 4000 BC, they used medicinal plants such as liquorice, mustard, myrrh, and opium. There were separate people who worked to prepare medicines, as a separate role from diagnosis and treatment which was carried out by medics. These precursors to pharmacists also combined their role with that of a priest. The Sumerians wrote the earliest surviving prescriptions from at least 2700 B.C. – so nearly 5000 years ago (Griggs, 1999).
The Ancient Egyptians had specific preparers of medicine, known as Pastophor. Pharmacy was viewed as a high status branch of medicine, and again, like the Sumerians, these pharmacists were also priests who worked and practised in the temples (Anderson, 2005).
From surviving papyrus scrolls, notably the Ebers Papyrus which dates from 1500 BC, we know that the Egyptians made and used infusions, ointments, lozenges, suppositories, lotions, enemas, and pills. The Ebers Papyrus includes 875 prescriptions and 700 drugs. Meanwhile, in China in about the same era (2000 BC), a man called Shen Nung wrote the first native herbal, which contained descriptions of 365 plant-based drugs (Anderson, 2005).
Stalls and shops selling medicinal goods existed around 1900 B.C. in the town of Sippara on the Euphrates River. However, the earliest recorded shop dealing with sales of medicines in London was opened in 1345.
In ancient Greece and Rome and during the middle Ages in Europe, the art of healing recognized a separation between the duties of the physician and those of the herbalist, who supplied the physician with the raw materials from which to make medicines. The Arabian influence in Europe during the 8th century had however brought about the practice of separate duties for the pharmacist and physician. The trend toward specialization was later reinforced by a law enacted by the city council of Bruges in 1683, forbidding physicians to prepare medications for their patients. In America, Benjamin Franklin took a pivotal step in keeping the two professions separate when he appointed an apothecary to the Pennsylvania Hospital.
The development of the pharmaceutical industry since World War II led to the discovery and use of new and effective drug substances. It also changed the role of the pharmacist. The scope for extemporaneous compounding of medicines was much diminished and with it the need for the manipulative skills that were previously applied by the pharmacist to the preparation of pills, plasters, and potions (Rosenberg, 2008).
The pharmacist continues, however, to fulfil the prescriber’s intentions by providing advice and information; by formulating, storing, and providing correct dosage forms; and by assuring the efficacy and quality of the dispensed or supplied medicinal product.
2.1.2Origin and Development of Pharmacy
Before the dawn of history, ancient man learned from instinct, from observation of birds and beasts. Cool water, a leaf, dirt, or mud was his first soothing application. By trial, he learned which served him best. Eventually, he applied his knowledge for the benefit of others (Mathews, 1962).
Pharmacy in ancient Babylonia: Babylon, jewel of ancient Mesopotamia, often called the cradle of civilization. It provides the earliest known practice of the art of the apothecary. Practitioners of healing of this era (about 2600 B.C.) were priest, pharmacist and physician, all in one.
Pharmacy in ancient China: Chinese Pharmacy stems from Shen Nung (about 2000 B.C.), an emperor who sought out and investigated the medicinal value of several hundred herbs. Medicinal plants include podophyllum, rhubarb, ginseng, stramonium, cinnamon bark, ephedra etc.
Days of the Papyrus Ebers: “Papyrus Ebers” (1500 B.C.) is the best known and most important pharmaceutical record. It is a collection of 800 prescriptions mentioning 700 drugs.
Theophrastus – Father of Botany: Theophrastus (about 300 B.C.), was the greatest early Greek philosophers and natural scientists, is called the “father of botany.” His observations and writings dealing with the medical qualities and peculiarities of herbs are unusually accurate, even in the light of present knowledge.
Terra Sigillata – An Early “Trademarked” Drug: Man learned early of the prestigious advantage of trademarks as a means of identification of source and of gaining customers’ confidence. One of the first therapeutic agents to bear such a mark was Terra Sigillata (Sealed Earth), a clay tablet originating on the Mediterranean island of Lemnos before 500 B.C. (George A. Bender, 1967)
Dioscorides – A Scientist Looks At Drugs: Pedanios Dioscorides (first century A.D.), contributed mightily to such a transition in Pharmacy. He observed, recorded and spread the excellent rules for collection of drugs, their storage and use. His texts were considered basic science as late as the sixteenth century.
Galen – Experimenter In Drug Compounding: He practiced and taught both Pharmacy and Medicine in Rome. His principles of preparing and compounding medicines ruled in the Western world for 1,500 years; and his name still is associated with that class of pharmaceuticals compounded by mechanical means – galenicals. He was the originator of the formula for a cold cream.
Damian And Cosmas – Pharmacy’s Patron Saints: twin ship of the health professions, Pharmacy and Medicine, is portrayed by Damian, the apothecary, and Cosmas, the physician.
Monastic Pharmacy: During the middle ages remnants of the western knowledge of pharmacy and medicine were preserved in the monasteries (fifth to twelfth centuries). Manuscripts from many islands were translated or copied for monastery libraries. The monks gathered herbs and raised them in their own herb gardens. These they prepared according to the art of the apothecary for the benefit of the sick and injured. Gardens such as these still may be found in monasteries in many countries.
The First Apothecary Shops: The Arabs separated the arts of apothecary and physician, establishing in Bagdad late in the eighth century the first privately owned drug stores. They preserved much of the Greco-Roman wisdom developing with the aid of their natural resources syrups, confections, conserves, distilled waters and alcoholic liquids.
Avicenna – The “Persian Galen”: Among the brilliant contributors to the sciences of Pharmacy and Medicine during the Arabian era was one genius who seems to stand for his time – the Persian, Ibn Sina (about 980-1037 A.D.), called Avicenna by the Western world. He was a Pharmacist, poet, physician, philosopher and diplomat. He gave contribution to the sciences of pharmacy and medicine by his pharmaceutical teachings.
Separation of Pharmacy And Medicine: In European countries, public pharmacies began to appear in the 17th century. In Sicily and southern Italy, pharmacy was separated from Medicine.
The First Official Pharmacopoeia: The idea of a pharmacopoeia with official status, to be followed by all apothecaries, originated in Florence. The Nuovo Receptario, originally written in Italian, was published and became the legal standard for the city-state in 1498.
The Society of Apothecaries of London: In 1617, Francis Bacon (philosopher-politician) formed a separate company known as the “Master, Wardens and Society of the Art and Mystery of the Apothecaries of the City of London”. This was the first organization of pharmacists in the Anglo-Saxon world (Mathews, 1962).
Scheele – Greatest of the Pharmacists-Chemists: During his few short years, Carl Wilhelm Scheele gave to the world discoveries that have brought its people incalculable advantages. He made thousands of experiments, discovered oxygen, chlorine, prussic acid, tartaric acid, tungsten, molybdenum, glycerine, nitro-glycerine, and countless other organic compounds that enter into today’s daily life, industry, health, and comfort.
The American Pharmaceutical Association: Under leadership of its first President, Daniel B. Smith, and first Secretary, William Procter, Jr., the twenty delegates launched The American Pharmaceutical Association and opened membership to “All pharmacists and druggists” of good character who subscribed to its Constitution and to its Code of Ethics. The Association continues to serve Pharmacy today (Bender, 1967).
European And American Pharmacy Meet: European and American Pharmacy groups met for the first time, at the Second International Congress of Pharmacy in Paris, France in 1867.
2.1.3Some key dates in Pharmacy history
1820The alkaloid quinine was first extracted from the bark of cinchona trees by two French chemists, Pierre Joseph Pelletier and Joseph Biename Caventou.
1874 Diamorphine or Heroin was first synthesised from morphine.
1883First edition of The Extra Pharmacopoeia published, edited by William Martindale and Dr Wynn Westcott.
1899 Aspirin, was launched by the German company.
1910Salvarsan, the first ‘magic bullet’ drug, effective against syphilis was discovered by Paul Ehrlich and Dr Sahachiro Hata.
1915 Medicine stamp duty was doubled as a wartime fundraiser.
1917The Venereal Disease Act prohibited the advertising of medicines for VD and selling mixtures containing scheduled substances. It introduced the concept of ‘prescription only’ medicines.
1922The Dangerous Drugs Act regulated the import and sale of potential drugs of addiction including the derivatives of opium, cocaine and cannabis so widely used in proprietary remedies.
1928 Penicillin discovered by Alexander Fleming.
1938The Food and Drugs Act prohibited the adulteration and mislabelling of drugs.
1939The Cancer Act restricted the advertisement of products claiming to treat cancer.
1940Under the Finance (No. 2) Act purchase tax was imposed on a range of goods including most drugs and medicines.
1941The Pharmacy and Medicines Act repealed the old medicine stamp duty. It forbade the general advertisement of products claiming to treat a number of specific illnesses including Bright’s disease, cataract epilepsy and TB, or to be effective in procuring an abortion. For the first time manufacturers were required to list the active ingredients of products on their packaging.
1948The National Health Service made prescription medicine available to all. Until the introduction, in the 1950s, and subsequent hefty increasing of prescription charges, proprietary medicines were no longer seen as a cheap alternative to seeing the doctor.
1961Ibuprofen was first synthesised by a team at the Boots Pure Drug Company in December.
1964Introduction of Adverse Drug Reaction ‘yellow card’ scheme in response to the thalidomide tragedy of 1961.
2.2THE PRESENT DAY PHARMACY
The modern drugstore varies significantly from its ancient counterparts. While the proprietors of pharmacies in the far distant past were often making numerous medical decisions – diagnosing and treating patients without the consultation of physicians – pharmacists in the modern drugstore are tasked instead with the responsibility of evaluating the appropriateness and managing the dispensation of pharmaceuticals prescribed to patients under a doctor’s care. Among the most important of pharmacist jobs is assuring that the patient has not been prescribed two drugs which will have an adverse interaction. An in-depth study of pharmacology is required to make such evaluations and in all states such positions are highly regulated and require testing before the issuance of a pharmacist’s license.
Far from being just a clerk behind a counter, pharmacists also play a role in disease management and evaluation of test results. In hospitals, pharmacists are often in the role of interpreting chemical signatures in complex test results and advising physicians on treatment options as well as making doctors aware of new and possibly more effective drugs.
Many people interested in a career as a pharmacist have found that in recent times it is a quite reliable profession in times of economic hardship. Earnings for professional pharmacists continue to rise while the industry for new and returning workers is quite robust.
2.2.1How to Become a Pharmacist – Education and Training
The history of pharmaceutical education has closely followed that of medical education. As the training of the physician underwent changes from the apprenticeship system to formal educational courses, so did the training of the pharmacist. The first college of pharmacy was founded in the United States in 1821 and is now known as the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy and Science. Other institutes and colleges were established soon after in the United States, Great Britain, and continental Europe. Colleges of pharmacy as independent organizations or as schools of universities now operate in most developed countries of the world.
The course of instruction leading to a bachelor of science in pharmacy extends at least five years. The first and frequently the second year of training, embracing general education subjects, are often provided by a school of arts and sciences. Many institutions also offer graduate courses in pharmacy and cognate sciences leading to the degrees of Master of Science and doctor of philosophy in pharmacy, pharmacology, or related disciplines. These advanced courses are intended especially for those who are preparing for careers in research, manufacturing, or teaching in the field of pharmacy.
Since the treatment of the sick with drugs encompasses a wide field of knowledge in the biological and physical sciences, an understanding of these sciences is necessary for adequate pharmaceutical training. The basic five-year curriculum in the colleges of pharmacy of the United States, for example, embraces physics, chemistry, biology, bacteriology, physiology, pharmacology, and many other specialized courses. As the pharmacist is engaged in a business as well as a profession, special training is provided in merchandising, accounting, computer techniques, and pharmaceutical jurisprudence.
Pharmacists graduating from college today are required to have a PharmD, or doctorate of Pharmacy degree. College students can start a four-year pharmacy program after successfully completing two years of undergraduate coursework and earning a passing score on the PCAT (Pharmacy college admission test). Coursework in pharmacy and pre-pharmacy includes chemistry, physics, biology, anatomy, and physiology.
Additionally, PharmD students must complete a series of rotations in a variety of clinical and pharmaceutical settings. The length and quantity of rotations varies, but the average PharmD program requires 7-10 rotations, each of which is 4-6 weeks in length.
If a student knows early in his or her college career that they would like to become a pharmacist, one could graduate with a PharmD in about 6 years. Many college students do not decide until later in college or after college to become a pharmacist; therefore, many pharmacists have completed eight years of college.
2.3THE FUTURE OF PHARMACYAutomation will assist with this, because anything that streamlines and automates the dispensing and distribution process will obviously free the pharmacist to fulfill more of a clinical role as well,” said James Owen, BS Pharm, PharmD, director of professional practice for the American Pharmacists Association (APhA).
Simply put, pharmacists and pharmacies of tomorrow must find ways to increase profit margins by reducing the cost of prescribing, embracing technology, and focusing more on patient counselling, immunizations, education, and other natural offshoots of their clinical expertise. Some experts predict that the future of pharmacy will embrace the clinical skills and care pharmacists have always been qualified to deliver.
Technological options available to pharmacies today are as numerous as they are convenient. As the healthcare system becomes more digital, the most exciting thing is that pharmacists will have the potential to become more connected to patients and have more time for patient-centred activities.”
2.3.1Categories of Some of the technologies in the future are:
Resources for clinical decision support.
Error prevention and quality assurance.
Advances in bar-coding and even radio-frequency identification technology will help pharmacists verify the appropriate use of medications.
Telecommunications infrastructure. For example, to be able to send a patient a text message reminder to take meds or measure blood glucose levels. This will lead to better self-care management behaviours.
Automation and robotics.
Collaborative practice connectivity, achieved through a combination of electronic prescribing (e-prescribing) and the ability to connect to and exchange data with labs and physician offices.
Delivery service support, using GPS-driven telecommunications systems for routing, tracking, order status, dispatch, locating, and oversight.
Pharmacy surveillance and security systems, which will create a greater level of security for pharmacies even when pharmacists are off-site.
Pharmacies that do not step up to this challenge will lose the ability to handle important drugs, and this will mean loss of some of their most valuable prescriptions and patients.
Several companies sell software and hardware that increase the efficiency of pharmacies by managing workflow.
The pharmacist will play a significant role in making contributions to patient care, and these contributions will be documented using technology and transmitted using technology, and that care will be recorded in the EHR (electronic health records) in the future. Pharmacists will be integral team members as far as the care of patients is concerned.”
Improved care and reduced errors will be the cornerstones of this relationship between pharmacists and automation.
2.3.2The physical layout or appearance of tomorrow’s pharmacies
Some experts say it depends on the individual pharmacy and the type of automation being implemented.
According to Bill G. Felkey, BA, MS, professor of healthcare informatics in the department of pharmacy care system at Auburn University in Alabama predicted that many pharmacies across the country will choose to move the pharmacist to a more conspicuous forward location in their stores. With the pharmacist in front, however, you can put the technology behind closed doors or you can believe that patients will be fascinated to see how these robotics work. There will exist a mixed reception, depending upon where the pharmacy is and upon how well the patients receive the display of all these technologies.
Muller said that dispensing machines will have a definite impact on layout. It has to be easily accessible to staff, but not located in an area that causes traffic and bottlenecks. Workflow also affects the logical placement of a dispensing machine. If the machine counts but does not label and vial, it needs to be located in the technician area and positioned so all techs have easy access. If the machine labels and vials, and only requires the final pharmacist check, it needs to be located between the pharmacists and technicians, depending on who is putting the prescription in the bag. Automation needs to fit into workflow, not just be a part of it.
Christopher Thomsen, vice president, business development, Kirby Lester Incorporation agreed, noting that even in a situation where a chain may have gone to a central-fill system, where, say 20 to 30 per cent of the volume is moved off-site, it still needs to determine how to best use automation to address the remaining on-site dispensing requirements.
Which is why, said Muller, you would not just add a machine into an existing layout; some thought and care must be given to properly reflow the behind-the-counter space to get the most from your investment.
The bottom line is that everything needs to move toward a more efficient flow.
2.4BENEFITS OF THE PROPOSED SYSTEMThe proposed system would be designed to help make the rigorous activities carried out in a pharmacy much easier by providing the statistics of drugs in stock, monitoring drug movement in the pharmacy and ensuring effective policing of the activities in the pharmacy.
The new system will be designed to provide the following benefits in the interest of the pharmacy;
The system would enhance management services and improve productivity.
The system would enhance User/System interface.
The system would be cost effective.
The system would improve information quality and accessibility.
CHAPTER THREESYSTEM ANALYSIS AND DESIGN3.0INTRODUCTIONSystem is a collection of an interrelated components that works together to achieve a purpose. System analysis is referred to the systematic examination or detailed study of a system in order to identify problems of the system, and using the information gathered in the analysis stage to recommend improvements or solution to the system.
System design is an abstract representation of a system component and their relationship and which describe the aggregated functionality and performance of the system. System design is also the overall plan or blueprint for how to obtain answer to the question being asked. The design specifies which of the various type of approach.
3.1SYSTEM ANALYSISSystem analysis is the study of sets of interacting entities, including computer systems analysis. This field is closely related to requirements analysis or operations research. It is also “an explicit formal inquiry carried out to help someone identify a better course of action and make a better decision than he might otherwise have made. System Analysis is a methodology that involves the application of systematic approaches to collects facts about an existing system with the aim of improving it or replacing it with more efficient system within the context of the available resources. In other words, System analysis can also be viewed as the process of investigating a system, identifying problems and using the information to recommend improvements to the system.
3.1.1ANALYSIS OF EXISTING SYSTEMBefore we analyse the design of the proposed system, we need to carefully highlight the problems of the existing system so as to avoid recurrence. This analysis serves as a pointer on how to embark on building the proposed system that will help the Pharmacist provide optimal drug inventory management by monitoring the drug movement and state in the pharmacy. The problems of the current system should be outlined. Below are some of the problems associated with the existing system;
Significant amount of time is allocated for writing the order as the pharmacist needs to go through the stock balance and make rough estimate for the amount to order based on Figures.
The state of drugs in stock is manually checked.
Mistake of selling expired drugs to customers.
Too much workload on employees
Filing cabinet in the pharmacy with paper record.
3.1.2ANALYSIS OF PROPOSED SYSTEMFrom the problems listed in the existing system, the implementation of the proposed system shall focus on;
Pharmacists having access to the proposed system at any time.
Ensuring effective policing by providing statistics of the drugs in stock.
Improving the efficiency of the system by ensuring effective monitoring of services and activities.
Generating report within a specified period of time.
Reducing the employees’ workload.
Preliminary investigation plays an important role in developing a satisfactory requirement. Its’ as a result of thorough investigation of how the current or the existing system works using the facts gathered at the preliminary investigation that leads to focusing on the possibility of replacing the existing system or improving upon the existing system. This task involves information gathering.
3.2.1 METHOD OF INFORMATION GATHERINGCollection of fact is the act of getting and gathering information from various sources in order to be able to compose the project. Data used for designing of the system were gathered through several means. Therefore the method used in the design and collections of information from various sources are as follows:
Collecting and analysing existing materials on the project topic, written by different expert.
Studying the present system in detail and the organizational style.
Knowing and understanding the input and output processes of the existing system.
Interviews: A qualitative form of interview was conducted in the pharmacy to know the equipment needed, and the mode of operation of the old system.
Primary data: This source has to do with the text book contacted for the development of this project.
System design is the process of defining the architecture, components, modules, interfaces, and data for a system to satisfy specified requirements through system modeling. One could see it as the application of systems theory to produce development. The design of this system will be user friendly. It shall be designed in such a way that employees will be able to navigate easily through the information supplied on the system.
In other words, system design consists of design activities that produce system specifications satisfying the functional requirements that were developed in the system analysis process. System design specifies how the system will accomplish. System design is the structural implementation of the system analysis.
432352228867383021302216118115902611455503268357739885268357327483349555402536825566166025370460043199051845310003613785184572430257751115060002319655111547415902614131650088433441324750190122945683MAINTENANCE AND UPGRADING
0MAINTENANCE AND UPGRADING
36937952247044IMPLEMENTATION AND SYSTEM TESTING
0IMPLEMENTATION AND SYSTEM TESTING
23710901530129PROJECT DEVELOPMENT & INTERFACE DESIGN
0PROJECT DEVELOPMENT & INTERFACE DESIGN
FIG. 3.3.1 WATERFALL MODEL OF SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT LIFE CYCLE
The diagram above is a system development life cycle that illustrates how the design of the project is broken down into five different phases, which are Project Planning, Requirement Gathering, Project Implementation and Interface Design, Implementation and System Testing, Maintenance and System Upgrading.
The proposed Pharmacy Management System for Boniks Pharmacy and Stores will start with project planning by determining the users of the system, aims and objectives of the project. After these, extensive research will be done to determine how to design an effective system, as well as to review the current system. Then, the design was with an initial prototype of the system, and then refined it based on their suggestions. Phases of analysis, design and implementation were performed iteratively until users and designers agreed on a final system specification. At this point, the project could move to the final implementation phase.
3.4SYSTEM MODELLINGDuring the system requirements and design activity, systems may be modelled as a set of components and relationships between these components. These are normally illustrated graphically in a system architecture model that gives the reader an overview of the system organisation. System modelling helps to give more detailed system specifications which are in form of graphical representations that can describe problem to be solved or the system that is to be developed. Because of the graphical representations used, models are often more understandable than detailed natural language description of the system requirements. Examples of such modelling tool is a System Flowchart.
3.5SYSTEM FLOWCHARTSystem flowchart is a type of diagram that represents an algorithm or process, showing the steps as boxes of various kinds, and their order by connecting these with arrows. This diagrammatic representation can give a step-by-step solution to a given problem. Process operations are represented in these boxes, and arrows connecting them represent flow of control. Flowcharts are used in analysing, designing, documenting or managing a process or program in various fields. Different symbols are used in the flowchart to represent input, output, decision, connectors and process.
UPDATE SALES & TRANSACTION
UPDATE SALES & TRANSACTION
3.5.2 ADMIN LOGIN FLOWCHART
34309134910455UPDATE STOCK & TRANSACTION
00UPDATE STOCK & TRANSACTION
24041101098649ENTER LOGIN DETAILS
00ENTER LOGIN DETAILS
34544041332150806450369506503454405046980080645046088300347345595884008083555520808024344422090832ADMIN MENU00ADMIN MENU
3.6 DATABASE DESIGNField Name Field Type Field Length Description
Admin_UsernameVarchar(15) Admin Username
Password Varchar(15) Admin password
This is a shared collection of data that are related or files that are to meet the immediate need of authorized users. These data may be in form of text, numeric, date or encoded images.
ADMINISTRATOR LOGIN TABLE:
Table 3.1 Administrator table
Field Name Field Type Field Length Description
Supplier_NameVarchar(30) Drug Name
Supplier_Contact1 int(20 ) Batch Number
Supplier_Contact2 int( 20) Production Date
Supplier_AddressVarchar(20 ) Quantity
Table 3.1 above serves as a repository for administrator details, that will be able to have access to the entire details on the application. It is a table that stores the administrator login details.
SUPPLIER INFORMATION TABLE
Table 3.2 Supplier information table
Table 3.1 above serves as a repository for administrator details, that will be able to have access to the entire details on the application. It is a table that stores the administrator login details.
DRUG INFORMATION TABLE
Field Name Field Type Field Length Description
Drug_NameVarchar(30) Drug Name
Drug_IDVarchar(7) Drug Number in stock
Supplier Varchar(20 ) Supplier
Batch_NoVarchar(20 ) Batch Number
Production_DateDate/Time ( 20) Production Date
Expiry_DateDate/Time (20 ) Expiry Date
Reg_DateDate/Time (20 ) Registration Date
Quantity Int(20 ) Quantity
Cost_PriceInt(20 ) Cost Price
Table 3.2 Drug information table: This table is named Drug_Details, it depicts the information of the drugs in the pharmacy.Table 3.2 shows the information about the drugs in the pharmacy and is being queried from the database on the drug registration page to show all the drugs for user to select.
CHAPTER FOURSYSTEM IMPLEMENTATION4.0INTRODUCTIONSystem implementation is a stage in system life cycle whereby a new system is developed, installed and made ready for use. It is this stage that all details and key point in the requirement specification are practicalised. System implementation therefore, is a very essential stage in which its success determines to a great extent the success of the new system. At this instance, after all is said and done the system is duly ready to be implemented (Drug inventory Management System).
System design is concerned mainly with the coordination of activities, job procedures and equipment utilization in order to achieve organizational objectives. It addresses data input and output data, processing and interface.
This stage involves the design of the new Drug inventory Management System a case study of Al-Husna pharmaceutical limited, Zaria
4.1CHOICE OF PROGRAMMING LANGUAGEChoosing a programming language depends on your language experience and the scope of the application you are building. While small applications are often created using only one language, it is not uncommon to develop large applications using multiple languages.
The propose application to be built is not a web based application that needs internet facilities to function but a standalone application.
4.2SYSTEM TESTING AND DEBUGGING
Testing is an integral part of software development processes. This is to ensure that the quality requirement of the application is not compromised by testing and debugging program modules before they are integrated, testing the system to ensure an effective inter-operability after integration.
Debugging has to do with fixing of errors encountered during program execution. System testing deals with the real life testing of the system, to ascertain how far it has gone in carrying out the expected task. This was carried out in two phases.
Number one is the source code testing which examine the logic of the program. Secondly, the specification testing which involves the examination of the system as regard to what it should do and how it should be done given specific conditions. This includes inputting data, collecting its output and comparing it with the output of the old system and assessing it to see if it can replace the old system.
4.3SYSTEM DOCUMENTATIONSystem documentation is a crucial aspect of implementation process. It describes the working of components and serves as a method of communication between application developers and users. It also helps future analysis of application either by the same or different system analysts and developers.
To setup the system, there must be Local server (xampp, wamp, lamp)
software installed on the computer before it can work.
4.4HARDWARE REQUIREMENTA minimum hard disk space of 20 Gigabytes (GB)
RAM size of 1GB
Pentium 4 dual processor CPU
A VGA colour monitor
4.5 SOFTWARE REQUIREMENT
Windows operating system such as Windows 2000, windows XP, Windows Vista, Windows 7.
Local server (xampp, wamp, lamp)
4.6DATABASE SPECIFICATIONA database is a single file which consists of structured data and records which are stored in minimum or no duplication of data. It is therefore a constructed, consistent and controlled pool of data. A good database must be common to all users and independent of the programs which use it to generate output.
However, Microsoft Access was used as the database application tool for designing the database management system. The database management system is limited only to database administrator (Management). Whilst the system designer / developer / programmer is responsible for maintaining and upgrading of the database and the whole software.4.7MODULE DESCRIPTIONSAMPLE OUTPUT FORMS
Figure 4.1 showing HOME PAGE
Figure 4.1 shows the select login page. It is the first interface that appears on the screen when the application is being loaded. This interface displays the name of the application and some other information about the software. The page consists of all other page links in the application.
ADMIN LOGIN MENU
Figure 4.2 Showing Admin login menu
Figure 4.2 above, shows the admin login area of the application. After a successful login supplying the correct username and password, it opens into another page where the activities of the admin module are fully stipulated. The admin controls all the major activitis of this application. Activities such as Add Supplier, Add Products, Stock Entry, Update Stock, Update Stock & Transaction, View sales etc can only be controlled by the admin.
ADMIN MAIN MENU
Figure 4.5 Showing Admin Menu Module
Figure 4.5 above shows the Admin module menue. It list activities that can be performed by the administrator.the Administrator is the person responsible for the upgrade,management on the software.the administrator is given an unlimited access as to performing the operations in the pharmacy.
DRUG REGISTRATION FORMS
Figure 4.6 Showing Drug Updating Form
Figure 4.7 Showing Drug Updating Form
Figure 4.6 and 4.7 above shows the drug registration form. New drugs brought to the pharmacy are registered here. It receives the details of new batches of drug in the pharmacy.
STORE MANAGER TABLES
Figure 4.8 – 4.11 Showing the Store Manager
Figure 4.8-4.11 above shows the store manager. Here drugs can be sold. The user will be required to select a category of drug to sell.When the drug needed to be purchased is selected, the software generates important information about the drug such as dosage, available quantity, selling price, expiry date, location of the drug in the pharmacy etc. Also the user can sell drugs, print bill, check all stock, low stock or check the expired drugs in stock.
Figure 4.9 Showing Sales
Figure 4.9 shows the list of drugs sold in the pharmacy. There is an option to view the sales in the pharmacy within a specified date.
4.8SYSTEM MAINTENANCEMaintenance is a continuous process of making modifications and upgrading the application. This usually commences after the application has gone into use. There are two different ways by which this application can be maintained. They include:
Additive or Enhancement maintenance: Business processes are dynamic. As business processes change, applications that support these processes must evolve to reflect these changes. Thus, for this application to perform optimally and to meet changing user requirements, it must be modified continuously.
Corrective maintenance: This is required in the event that an error occurred when the application is in use. Corrections must be made to changes discovered that can cause malfunctioning of the system.
CHAPTER FIVECONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION5.0SUMMARYDrug inventory management system is designed to improve the accuracy, enhance safety and efficiency in the pharmaceutical store. It is a computer based system which helps the Pharmacist to improve inventory management, cost, medical safety etc.
Pharmacy management system was developed to ensure the security of information and reliability of Pharmacy records when accessing and providing services to the customers. The information gathered during the data collection was properly analysed and the results provided the basis for the new system. The system was tested and found to be functional and the outputs produced by this system were encouraging. The application will hence reduce the loss of information unlike the existing system and also information will be processed fast.
5.1CONCLUSIONEffective implementation of this software will take care of the basic requirements of the pharmacy management system because it is capable of providing easy and effective storage of information related to activities happening in the stipulated area. With these, the objectives of the system design will be achieved.
In order to allow for future expansion, the system has been designed in such a way that will allow possible modification as it may deem necessary by the pharmacy management, whenever the idea arises.
5.2RECCOMMENDATIONDesigning this Web application (Drug inventory management system) is not an easy task. It all started from the requirement gathering and passes through so many other stages before completion.
Based on the benefits of this system and tremendous value it will add to customer-user satisfaction, the below recommendation will be considered;
It is recommended that the new system should be used with the necessary specifications of the system requirements and provision for an uninterrupted power supply should be made available throughout the hours of operation of the pharmacy to avoid power outage. There should also be basic computer knowledge for the users of the software.
It is recommended that the software be improved especially in areas of accounting as it will be of great impact to the development of retail pharmacy.
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Charles E. Rosenberg, Morris J. Vogel. The Therapeutic Revolution: Essays in the social history of American Medicine, Second Edition. University of Pennsylvania press, (1979). Pg 174.Peter G Homan, Briony Hudson, Raymond C Row. Popular Medicines: An illustrated
Leslie G. Mathews. History of Pharmacy in Britain. Edinburgh, E&S. Livingstone(1962). Pg 213-223.
History, Fourth Edition. Trade paperback, Pharmaceutical press (2008). Pg. 127.Stuart Anderson. Making Medicines: A Brief History of Pharmacy and Pharmaceuticals, Sixth Edition. Jessica Kingsley publisher, (2005). Pg 214.Charles E. Rosenberg. History of Medicine and Allied Sciences, Seventh Edition. University of Pennsylvania press, (2003). Pg 197.George A. Bender. Great moments in Medicine, Cambridge university press (1967). Pg 118.