# Deepesh Bhati

Deepesh Bhati, Md. Firoz IES-IPS Academy, Indore Abstract It is a device that is used to convert direct current to alternating current. Power Inverters are great tools to run household appliances from a storage battery or any other DC source in areas where there is no electricity. The pulse-width modulation (PWM) schemes are compared with the harmonic distortion produced by different schemes when operating with the same effective switching frequency. However, the one-cycle control technique has shown excellent improvement compared with conventional sinusoidal pulse width modulation (SPWM).This project focuses on inverter design, simulation, and implementation, resulting in stable output and good performance, to provide in depth knowledge of single phase inverter. Keywords- OrCAD , Inverter, PWM, OCC. Introduction The output voltage waveforms of an ideal case inverter should be sinusoidal. The voltage waveforms of practical inverters are, however, non-sinusoidal and contain certain harmonics. Square wave or quasi-square wave voltage may be acceptable for low and medium power applications, and for high power application low-distorted, sinusoidal waveforms are required. The output frequency of an inverter is finding out by the rate at which the semiconductor devices are on and off by an inverter control circuit and vise wars an adjustable frequency a.c. output is readily provided. The harmonic contents of output voltage can be minimized significantly by switching technique of available high speed power semiconductor devices. The filtering of harmonics is not feasible when the output frequency varies over a wide range, and the generation of a. c. waveforms with low harmonics content is important.15,16,17 Pulse width modulation technique is proposed here to keep the output voltage of the inverter at the rated voltage irrespective of the output load. The most efficient method of controlling the output voltage is to incorporate pulse width modulation control (PWM control) within the inverter. In this method, a fixed d.c. input voltage is supplied to the inverter and a controlled a.c. output voltage is obtained by adjusting the on-and-off periods of the inverter devices.17 A new nonlinear control technique one-cycle control is proposed to control the duty-cycle of the switch such that in each cycle the average value of the switched variable of the switching converter is exactly equal to or proportional to the control reference in the steady-state. The pulse-width modulation (PWM) schemes are compared with the harmonic distortion produced by different schemes when operating with the same effective switching frequency. However, the one-cycle control technique has shown excellent improvement compared with conventional sinusoidal pulse width modulation (SPWM).This project focuses on inverter design, simulation, and implementation, resulting in stable output and good performance, to provide in depth knowledge of single phase inverter. II. Pulse width modulation control The most efficient method of controlling the output voltage is to incorporate pulse width modulation control (PWM control) within the inverter. In this method, a fixed d.c. input voltage is supplied the inverter and a controlled a.c. output voltage is obtained by adjusting the on-and-off periods of the inverter devices.17 The commonly used PWM control inverter techniques are Single-pulse width modulation (SPWM) Multiple-pulse width modulation (MPWM) Sinusoidal pulse width modulation (sin PWM) Bipolar Open-Loop PWM Controlled H-bridge Switching Frequency Input Voltage Output Voltage Output Frequency Output Power fs 20kHz (Ts 50s) VG 425VDC V 220VRMS (Vpeak 311V) 50Hz POUT 5kW Fig. 1 Bipolar Open-Loop PWM Controlled H-bridge Simulation of the circuit in steady-state Fig. 2 Output Voltage Waveform across R3 H-Bridge Specifications EMBED Equation.3 For an H-bridge V VGd during () and V -VGd during (-). One Cycle Control Method This control technique is one of the most important inverter technique, the pulse-width modulation techniques are the major part of the power inverter techniques, which have been the major subject of intensive research during the last few decades. A large variety of methods, different in concept and performance, have been recently developed and described. Their implementation in the design of the voltage source inverters depends on the load types, the power levels, and the semiconductor devices used in the power converter. The performance and cost criteria determines the choice of a PWM method in a specified application. 15,16,24 A new nonlinear control technique one-cycle control is proposed to control the duty-cycle of the switch such that in each cycle the average value of the switched variable of the switching converter is exactly equal to or proportional to the control reference in the steady-state or in a transient. The conventional one cycle control (OCC) technique needs that the integrator is reset instantaneously as shown the fig 3. The integration value is EMBED Equation.3 Where, switching frequency is fs, 1/ fsTs, and Ts, is switching cycle. In each cycle, the switch is on for a time duration Ton and is off for a time duration Toff, and Ton Toff Ts. The duty-ratio DTon/Ts is modulated by an analog control reference Vref. When Vint reaches the control reference Vref, a reset pulse is generated at the output of the comparator that resets the RS flip-flop (QO), starting another switching state, switch M1 is turned on and switch M2 is turned off as a consequence as shown the fig. 3. The falling edge of the pulse at the Q terminal triggers the narrow-pulse generator to produce a very narrow pulse to reset the integrator. The integrator restarts integration from zero voltage after the reset. During this switching state, therefore, Vint keeps decreasing until the arrival of the next clock pulse, which starts a new switching cycle. In total switching cycle, the integrator value is EMBED Equation.3 EMBED Equation.3 EMBED Equation.3 EMBED Equation.3 D is the duty-ratio of a cycle. The duty-ratio of the switch is modulated such that the integration of the switched variable at the output is exactly equal to the integration of the control reference in each cycle EMBED Equation.3 EMBED Equation.3 EMBED Equation.3 EMBED Equation.3 If the cycle is tiny enough, the output will follow the reference signal with high accuracy no matter whether the reference is constant or variable. Therefore, the dynamic response is very fast. It can improve the output waveform quality, and also can eliminate the undesired harmonic contents. Most often, the pulse-width modulation (PWM) schemes are compared with the harmonic distortion produced by different schemes when operating with the same effective switching frequency. However, the one-cycle control technique has shown excellent improvement compared with conventional sinusoidal pulse width modulation (SPWM). Fig. 3 One Cycle Controlled (OCC) H-bridge in Energy Saving Mode (Closed loop) Fig. 4 Output voltage waveform Introduction of Input Voltage Disturbance In fact, the DC voltage is not constant. Suppose that the control reference and the load are constant, whereas, the DC voltage source has small signal perturbation. Because the OCC can make the output follow the control reference in one cycle, when the power source perturbations are large AC signal. However, the output voltage can follow the reference immediately. It is predicted that this control technique completely rejects power source perturbations.15 To introduce the input disturbance, the schematic is modified in each case Results Table 6.1 Tracking Ability of Individual control scheme compared S. No.Output Voltage (Vpeak)Output Voltage with VG perturbation (Vpeak)Percent Error at Vpeak1.PWM Bipolar (Open Loop)316.03377.2919.32.OCC Energy Saving Mode (Closed Loop)312.23327.644.93 Conclusion Comparisons of one-cycle and PWM control methods have been presented through simulations and experiments. The one-cycle control scheme has demonstrated improved features compared to PWM control. Although the PWM control scheme is the most frequently used method but it has inherent drawbacks that one-cycle control can overcome. In the field of power amplifiers, Study on combining these two control methods has been initialized to improve the quality of amplifiers and reduce the cost. Comparison of one-cycle and PWM control scheme is outlined below 1. One-Cycle Control is better than PWM control in improving waveform quality. Simulations and experiments show that one-cycle control can suppress the perturbation yielded by the DC source and abate the undesired harmonic contents which exist under PWM control to make output closer to the reference signal. 2. I-cycle is better than PWM control in tracing transient waveforms. Through the trial in I-cycle control shows its better performance than PWM control in the dynamic response. There exists a shorter delay between reference signal and output than the PWM control. 3. I-cycle is more general than PWM control. One cycle control can approximate arbitrary waveforms which can be DC and AC waveforms without any regulation such as transient fault voltages in power systems. Pulse width modulation control depends on the modulation signal required specific consideration. The generality of I-cycle control is also tightly connected to its high-speed response. VIII. REFERENCES Z. Lai and K. M. Smedley, A new extension of one cycle control and its application to switching power amplifiers, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 11, pp. 99106, Nov. 1995. A. Capel et al., Application of the injected current model for the dynamic analysis of the switching regulators with the new concept of LC3 modulator in IEEE PESC, 1978 Rec., pp. 135147. C. W. Deisch, Simple switching control method changes power converter into a current source, in IEEE PESC 78 Conf. Rec., pp. 300306. P. Maranesi, L. Pinola, and V. Varoli, The incremental voltage control mode for PWM regulators, in IEEE PESC 88 Conf. Rec., vol. 1, pp. 549554. N. Anderskouv, K. Nielsen, and M. Andersen, High fidelity pulse width modulation amplifiers based on novel double loop feedback techniques, in 100th Audio Engineering Society Convention, Copenhagen, Denmark, May 1996. G. Stanley and K. Bradshaw, Precision dc-to-ac power conversion by optimization of the output current waveformThe half-bridge revisited, in IEEE PESC 97 Conf. Rec., pp. 993999. Z. Lai and K. M. Smedley, A general constant frequency pulse-width modulator and its applications, in HFPC 96 Conf. Rec., pp. 279290. K. M. Smedley, Integrators in pulse width modulation, in IEEE PESC96 Conf. Rec., pp. 773781. P. Horowitz and W. Hill, The Art of Electronics. New York Cambridge Univ. Press, 1994. K. M. Smith, Z. Lai, and K. M. Smedley, A new PWM controller with one cycle response, in IEEE APEC 97 Conf. Rec., vol. 2, pp. 970976. M. H. Rashid, and Samir A. Al-Biyat Power Electronics Laboratory Using PSpice, Department of Electrical Engineering King Fahd University of Petroleum Minerals Dhahran 3126. Philippe MISSIRLIU Lycee Newton Enrea Simulation in Electrical Engineering with Pspice, 1 Pl. Jules Verne 92110 Clichy France. Wenyi Zhang, Wensheng Chen Research on Voltage-Source PWM Inverter Based on State Analysis Method Saad Mekhilef and N. A. Rahim Pspice Simulation Of Three-Phase Inverter With different Type PWM. Professor K. Smedley, student Tong Lin Huang, student Ethan Matthes Open Loop H-Bridge Inverter Design using Traditional PWM Method EECS 267B Industrial Power Electronics, Spring 2005. Wang Mingyu, Hui Yaqian, Xian Chengyu One-cycle Control Based Voltage Source Inverter College of Electrical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044, China. M D Singh K B Khanchandani Power Electronics, 2nd Edition McGraw-Hill 2008. Enria Santi and Slobodan Cuk Modeling of One-Cycle Controlled Switching Converters, Power Electronics Group California Institute of Technology, EE 116-81, Pasadena, CA91125. K.M.Smedley and Slobodan Cuk, One-Cycle Control of Switching Converters, IEEE PESC, 1991 Record, pp .8 88-896. Smedley K M, Cuk S (1995). One-cycle control of switching converters. IEEE Transaction on Power Electronics, Vol.10, No. 6, pp. 625-533. Smith K M, Lai Z, Smedley K M (1997). A new PWM controller with one cycle response. Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, Twelfth Annual. Vol.2, pp. 970-976, 1997. Smedley K M, Zhou Luowei, Qiao Chongming (2001). Unified constant-frequency integration control of active power filterssteady-state and dynamics. IEEE Trans on Power Electronics, Vol. 16, No. 3, pp.428-436. Chang Qian, Zhengming Zhao, Yunfeng Liu, Xigen Zhou Comparisons of PWM and One-Cycle Control for Digital Power Amplifiers Department of Electrical Engineering Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 China. @ b ,w 2.3/[email protected] Cjyw 5w) PktZ_GtxaCPQ s26z @iHFFh7q6wwniR) sY6vcmwCn,6GajqT

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