Cinema was a medium that conceived in the late nineteenth century
Cinema was a medium that conceived in the late nineteenth century, so it is inevitable not to get it connected with modernity. Paris was one of the cities that was considered as the centre of modernity. So, what brought Paris into modernity? In 1848, revolutions erupted in whole Europe and their causes were varied. First of all, the social and economic causes related to the steady weakening of the working classes in many parts of Europe, since the 1820s, resulting in the development of a generalized social dissatisfaction. Then, the national causes were associated with the emergence of national ideas in Europe and the pursuit of many European nations to create independent countries. As for the political causes, they were coming from the ever increasing demands of European countries by their nationals (tax increase, introduction of compulsory military service, etc.), but also they were strengthen those political forces who were seeking the overthrow of the Vienna Congress decisions. The revolution in France was sparked by radical democrats who demanded reforms in politics and forced the king to resign. A democratic government, involving both moderates and radicals, was giving political rights to all men and took measures of economic relief of the popular classes. However, the elections were held in April 1848 gave a majority to moderate liberals, who arrested the main representatives of the radical and abolished the social measures of the previous government. The result was to break out in the summer of 1848, a true social conflict that ended with the defeat of radical forces. The dominance of the moderate liberal confirmed the election as President of France Prince Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte, the removal of political rights of the workers and limit press freedom. There was poverty, unemployment and misery in the city of lights. In 1853, the Emperor Napoleon III, assigned to Georges – Eugéne Haussmann the design of the city, since the city’s population had
grown rapidly from 786.000 in 1831, to more than 1.000.000 in 1846. The plan 1known as “Haussmanization”, a plan of reconstruction the street system of the city, that led Paris into modernity. This is what named Paris a metropolis and emphasized the economic, technological and social character of urban development, the “modern” city was the “industrial” city. In the related sense deriving the modern from the Enlightenment tradition of rational scientific and human progress, nineteenth century Paris was the most appropriate example. Haussmann, 2understood that Paris had a crisis in urban economy, but the characteristic that pointed him out was his meticulous attention to details. He was obsessed with the streets furnishings and the whole new design of the city, gave occupation to a lot of citizens, naming Paris a modern metropolis. It is very important to understand the space relations that had social consequences, the finance capital which by taxes, led into conflicts between people and the government. Then, the production needs to be examined, there were shifts in technique, organization and the participation of women in the labor force was very crucial and changed their role in Parisian society. At the same time, in 1927, the “Arcades Project “, by Walter Benjamin was published, which was an effort to present the commercial culture of nascent capitalism, by examining the modern day indoor shopping malls. The modern industrial world was coming and the topics covered were hundreds and included such items as advertising, boredom, the idea of progress, prostitution, fashion, and photography. David Harvey, Paris, Capital of Modernity, p. 89, New York Routledge, 2003.1 Peter Brooker , Modernity and Metropolis, Writing, Film and Urban Formations, p.4, 2Palgrave, 2002.