My Ssec Capstone Project Cholera is an acute intestinal infection caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae

Cholera is an acute intestinal infection caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae

Cholera is an acute intestinal infection caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. It is a gramnegative, rod-shaped waterborne bacterium that carries a single polar flagellum. It grows
rapidly in optimum temperature at 37?C, with a range of 10 to 43?C. The organism can be inactivated at pH values less than 4.5 at room temperature and it grows in optimum pH of 7.6,
with a range of 5.0 to 9.6. The pathogenesis of V. cholerae involves both the colonisation of the
intestine and the production of cholera toxin (CT) which acts locally to stimulate excessive
electrolyte and fluid secretion, primarily from the crypt cells of the small intestine.Cholera
is transmitted by the faecal-oral route, usually after ingestion of food or water that has been
contaminated with infected faeces. Other common vehicles of infection include contaminated
fish and shellfish, produce, or leftover cooked grains that have not been reheated properly.
Direct person-to-person transmission of cholera is rare, as a high infectious dose of 108 bacteria is necessary to cause the disease in healthy individuals, but a much lower dose of 105
is sufficient in individuals with low levels of gastric acid (Mukhopadhyay and Ramamurthy,
2011). Since untreated stools from cholera patients are the primary source of environmental contamination, proper treatment and safe disposal of liquid waste, including patient’s
excreta and vomit, should be undertaken to prevent contamination and secondary spread of
infection. Hand hygiene should be observed at all times, especially after any contact with

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