Charles Robert Darwin
Charles Robert Darwin, the biologist, the psychologists, philosophist, pioneer of evolutionism who put forward the doctrine of biological evolution, which destroys all kinds of idealistic theology and species invariance.
Long before Darwin, many scientists expressed themselves on the a gradual and continuous change in all species of plants and animals, but it was Darwin who put forward a completely new hypothesis regarding living nature, generalizing individual evolutionary ideas into one, the so-called theory of evolution, which was the most widely spread in the world.
Darwin suggested that in competition among animal populations, only those will survive that have properties of benefits under given specific conditions, allowing producing offspring as well. His theory is based on three principles: a) heredity and variability; b) the struggle for existence; c) natural selection.
Variability is an inalienable attribute of all living things. Despite the similarity of living organisms of the same species, two completely identical individuals cannot be found within the population. This variation of features and properties creates the advantage of some organisms over others.
A certain variability, or adaptive modification, is the ability of individuals of one species to react in an identical way to changes in the environment. Such group changes are not inherited, so they can not supply material for evolution..
The core principle of natural selection has the following implications: Organisms have a tendency to overproduce while living space and food are limited, so that creatures must “fight for survival.” Variants exist in individuals within the same population, and individuals with favorable variations that adapt to the environment will survive and multiply offspring, while individuals without favorable variability will be eliminated. His natural selection principle is based on the prevailing “amalgamation genetic” hypothesis at that time
A species is a population of organisms that interbreeds and has fertile offspring.
• Living organisms have descended with modifications from species that lived before them.
• Natural selection explains how this evolution has happened:
— More organisms are produced than can survive because of limited resources.
— Organisms struggle for the necessities of life; there is competition for resources.
— Individuals within a population vary in their traits; some of these traits are heritable — passed on to offspring.
— Some variants are better adapted to survive and reproduce under local conditions than others.
— Better-adapted individuals (the “fit enough”) are more likely to survive and reproduce, thereby passing on copies of their genes to the next generation.
— Species whose individuals are best adapted survive; others become extinct.