CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION Background Education is the whole of life practice that people attain and which empowers them to deal with and drive fulfilment from living in the world
Education is the whole of life practice that people attain and which empowers them to deal with and drive fulfilment from living in the world. This is because it permits them to realize social capacity and individual growth. It is on this foundation that it is said that worth of a nation’s Education is comparative to the level of its success (Aduwa ;Uwameiye, 2006). Education is also as a corner stone of economic and social development of the nation and the investment in education enhances productivity towards achieving developmental goals (Milanowski, 2014). National policy on Education (FRN, 2013) pointed out that education is compulsory and a right of every Nigerian irrespective of gender, social status, religion, ethnic background and any peculiar individual challenges, and education maximizes the creative potential and skills of the individual for self-fulfilment and general developmental of the society. It further stated that philosophy of Nigerian education is based on the development of the individual into sound responsible citizen, and the provision of equal opportunities for all citizens of the nation at basic, secondary and tertiary levels in and outside the school system.
Education, according to Akpan (2014), is a process by which the values of society are transmitted across generation through a well defined method such as knowledge, skill, attitudes, believes.
The availability of instructional resources refers to components that are operational for a desirable period of time for profitable use. Availability of instructional resources in Upper Basic school such as model, charts, pictures are all meant to make teaching and learning permanent among children. Aramidek;Bolarinwa (2010).
Oladosu (2015) stated the guidelines for utilization of instructional resources as; preview materials which is the step to be taken to ensure the accuracy and appropriateness of the materials. This is done to erase technical difficulties that could arise, prepare materials which is to gather-up all the media and support materials, practice using the media and determine the sequencing of the instruction, prepare the environment which is the movement of material and people to aid utilization. This includes the setting-up of facilities where the instruction will take place, rearranging classroom seating and lighting and present the Instruction. The availability and utilization of instructional resources are vital of the sustenance of improved participation of students in learning. Iyunade (2014).
One of the factors affecting students’ performance in Basic Technology according to Adejumo (2008) was non-availability of standard workshop, tools and equipment for teaching various concepts in Basic Technology. He stated that students need equipment and tools for a particular activity or purpose. Absence of these tools and equipment may hinder Basic Technology teachers to teach effectively and students not being sound in practical activities which is one of the major objectives of including this subject into the curriculum.
Curzon (2007) points out that utilization of instructional resources Basic Technology classrooms widens the channel of communication between teachers and their students. The instructional Resources allows the growth of specific learning abilities and enhances intellectual and motor skills. To facilitate effective interaction between teachers, learners and subject matter, there should be utilization of instructional resources (Chandra, 2005).
Bolick, Benson, Coutts and Heinecke (2003) observed that while some educators are fascinated by the potential of instructional resources in enhancing teaching and learning, other teachers lacked behind in using instructional materials to teach. However, achieving these laudable goals of conscientious utilization of instructional resources in Basic Technology teaching and learning has been very challenging in some schools.
A key feature of effective teaching is the selection of instructional materials that meet the needs of students and fit the constraints of the teaching and learning environment. Reigeluth (2012).
However, various researches have been carried out in the past, on utilization of instructional resources by teachers, in teaching Basic Technology. The major objectives of Basic Technology education in Nigeria is for the youths to be able to explore the fundamentals vocational competencies and also to be well in tune with Scientific and technological world, so as to contribute maximally to the economic growth and development of the nation (FRN, 2014).
Nwafor and Eze (2014), in a study to determined the availability and utilization of instructional resources in teaching Basic Science In selected secondary schools in Abakaliki education zone of Ebonyi state, Nigeria. The research discovered that apart from two-dimensional instructional materials, most schools lack other valuable very important instructional materials for teaching. Fisch, Shalom, & Rosemarie (2005), In order to ensure an effective and teaching learning process, it is important for the teacher to be thoroughly acquainted with the teaching resources and services available to him. The components of instructional resources available to teachers are in large numbers and also vary according to the functions of each component.
Instructional resources refered to resources that are used to facilitate teaching and learning. It enables the teacher communicate ideas or concepts with ease as they appeal to many senses at a time (Munchi 2008). The learner can see, touch, smell or taste thereby making learning more meaningful. Basic Technology is designed to enable the learners develop interest in science and technology, acquire basic knowledge and skills in science and technology, and also apply their scientific, technological knowledge and skills to meet societal needs. (Abioye 2006). He stated further that If these objectives will be achieved, then efforts should be made to provide adequate instructional resources to Nigeria Upper Basic Schools in teaching of Basic Technology and to encourage its effective use. He also pinned that despite the emphasis placed on the usefulness of instructional resources in teaching and learning process, most students still find it difficult to cope with the study of Basic Technology in schools. This may have resulted from lack of or underutilization of instructional resources by teachers.
Instructional resources are teaching aids in learning activities. They are used to help transfer information and skills by the teacher to the learner. They are available and utilized in teaching and learning environments such as schools, seminars and workshops. Instructional resources includes; textbook, educational media, (library media print, non-print, and electronic resources), computer software, videotapes, films, DVDs, and instructional television programs. All these represent fundamental resources for school in enhancing instruction ,further the pursuit of knowledge and providing experiences of educational significance to learners (Gene, 2013). Ijaodola (2010) refers to instructional resources as objects or devices which help the teacher to make learning meaningful to the learners. Similarly, Legget (2005) classified instructional resources into two types: as visual materials, made up of reading and non-reading materials and audiovisual materials comprising electrically operated and non-electrically operated materials.
Instructional resources as the name suggests are materials of visual, audio and audio-visual category that helps to make concepts abstracts and idea concrete in the teaching and learning process. They are also materials which the teacher uses to facilitate learning for better results. Likewise, it is the use of the chalkboard, charts, models, overhead projectors, films, television and computers in teaching process. Akinpelu (2011). He also stated that it is not just the use of tools of technology alone but a systematic integrated organization of machines hard wares and soft wares to the solution of problems in education.
The influence of instructional resources in promoting students’ academic performance in teaching and learning educational development was indispensable. Instructional resources are used by teachers to teach, facilitate teaching and learning, which make a successful transfer of knowledge from the teacher to the learner, make lessons explicit to learners. Jekayinfa;ALloyd, (2011).
Moreover, If instructional resources is well utilized, it will give the students real experiences of what the teacher is teaching, so it is the duty of the teacher to ensure that the materials to be used as instructional resources are not only available but also accessible to him and affordable. Abioye (2006).
Basic Technology is a subject that depends on the use of numbers of resources. Ijaodola (2010) summarized those resources as textual like books, audio-visual and human resources. They stated that these resources are either used individually or collectively in any meaningful Basic Technology teaching and learning situation. Jekayinfa (2011) opined that instructional resources are used for teaching and learning. Instructional resources help learners to gain facts and develop cognitive process. Instructional resources in classrooms need to reflect the most recent information, research and academic contents standards. This instructional resources must provide a vivid demonstration of subject been taught. (Jimoh, 2010).
Ajelabi (2005), explained that technology was derived from the Greek word “Techne” meaning art of skill and “Logia” meaning science or study. He therefore define Technology as knowledge and creative processes that may assist people to utilize tools, resources and systems to solve problems and enhance control over the natural and man-made environment in an endeavor to improve the human condition. Technology in this statement involves the Purposeful application of knowledge, experience and resources to create processes and products that meet human needs.
Basic Technology is a phase of general education designed to introduce the leaner to acquaint him/her with the basic process, material and product of industries.(Federal Republic of Nigeria, 2014).
The Basic Science and Basic Technology Curriculum provides that the teaching and learning of both subjects should be both practical and theoretical in nature (FRN, 2014), as subjects that deals with skills, creativity and critical thinking, whose major purpose is to expose the learner to scientific knowledge and technological rudiments.
Basic Technology is a subject offered by students at the Upper Basic Schools level (J.S.S. 1 – J.S.S. 3). This subject was design to: develop the interest of students in science and technology, apply scientific and technological knowledge and skills to meet contemporary societal needs, take advantage of numerous career opportunities provided by science and technology, among others. (Basic Science and Technology Curriculum 2012).
Statement of problem
Onasanya;Adegbija carried out a study on the type of instructional media technology used by the then Junior Secondary School teachers in Kwarastate, they concluded that learning was more effective when it occurs in interactive setting that was mostly promoted through the use of instructional media technology. (Onasanya;Adegbija, 2007)
Abioye (2006) stated that Some teachers find it difficult to effectively teach Basic Technology as a subject due to the performance of the students because of inadequate resources for teaching. This study wishes to address to what extent is availability and utilization of instructional resources in teaching Basic Technology in Upper Basic Schools students could be achieved.
Lack of standard Basic Technology workshops and other necessary tools and materials are parts of the factors contributing to poor performance of students in Basic Technology in Nigeria according to Ivowi, (2000) in accordance with School Advisor(2018) that Government (public) schools have fewer facilities and technology compared to private schools. This study examined the availability of Instructional Resources and difference between private and public schools utilization of Instructional Resources for teaching Basic Technology in Upper Basic Schools.
Purpose of study
The main purpose of this study was to examined the availability and utilization of instructional resources in teaching Basic Technology in Upper Basic Schools in Ilorin Metropolis, kwara State. Specifically, the study would:
1. find out the instructional resources which are available in upper basic schools in Ilorin metropolis.
2. examine how Upper Basic Technology teachers react to the utilization of instructional resources for teaching Basic Technology.
3. examine the reaction of male and female teachers towards the use of instructional resources in teaching Basic Technology.
4. examine the difference between private and public schools utilization of instructional resources for teaching Basic Technology in Upper Basic Schools
The following research questions would guide this study:
1. what instructional resources are available for teaching Basic Technology?
2. how do Upper Basic Technology teachers react to the utilization of instructional resources for teaching Basic Technology?
3. what is the reactions of male and female teachers towards the use of instructional resources in teaching Basic Technology?
4. What is the difference between private and public schools utilization of instructional resources for teaching basic technology in Upper Basic school?
H01: Is there any availability of Instructional Resources for teaching Basic Technology?
H02: Is there any reaction of Upper Basic Technology towards the utilization of Instructional Resources?
Ho3: Is there any significant difference in the level of utilization of instructional resources by male and female teachers?
Ho4: Is there any significant difference in the level of utilization of instructional resources between private and public upper basic schools?
Significance of the study
The result of this study could be used to improve the teaching of Basic Technology in Upper Basic Schools and as well enhance students’ performance when exposed to facilities that could be used for teaching the subject. The findings of this study might be of benefits to the students, teachers, curriculum designers, government, school administrators, professional organizations, (NGOs) and future researchers.
The teaching learning process would be more enjoyable on the part of the students because of the opportunities to interact with new and existing instructional resources leading to acquisition of new skills that would enable them fit into present world. Instructional resources helps the students to identify a problem and suggest a possible solution to improve teaching.
It would also helps the teachers to have effective teaching during teaching because it is an approach that would enable better performance which are easily achieved than when conventional approach is used.
This findings would be beneficial to curriculum designers to include the use of instructional resources in teaching Basic Technology. Also it would help the government to know the types of instructional resources to be provided for upper basic schools.
This study would also help the school administrators in the day to day activities of running the school as there are need to improve the quality of teaching and learning of Basic Technology.
The result of this study might encourage stakeholders to organize seminars and workshops that would inform individuals on the need to incorporate instructional resources in teaching and learning. The finding of this study would also encourage Non-government organization (NGOs) to provide necessary support to schools in Nigeria by donating facilities that would enhance students’ performance.
The result of this study would serve as a reference point to fellow researchers who are willing to carry out a similar study.
Scope of study
The study focused on upper Basic School’s Basic Technology teachers on availability and utilization of instructional resources in Ilorin Metropolis. This study covered forty nine(49) upper basic schools in Ilorin metropolis, both private and public schools covering three(3) local governments which are Ilorin south, Ilorin west and Ilorin east. The study discovered how Basic Technology teachers utilizes instructional resources for teaching Basic Technology and the types of instructional resources that are available in their schools. The study also found out the importance of instructional resources for teaching and learning Basic Technology.
Operational definition of terms
Availability : The quality of being able to used or obtained instructional resources. The fact that instructional resources can be bought, used or reached.
Utilization : The action of making practical and effective use of instructional resources.
Instruction: This is the Imparted knowledge by instructional resources.
Instructional Resources :These are the materials or tools used in educational lessons, which includes active learning and assessment. Basically, any resources a teacher uses to help him teach his/her students is an instructional material.
Basic Technology: This a subject offered by students at the upper Basic School level.
Upper Basic School :This is the class of J.S.S 1 – J.S.S 3.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
This research was designed to assess the availability and utilization of instructional resources in teaching basic technology in upper basic schools in Ilorin metropolis, Kwara state. This chapter presents some relevant studies in relation to instructional resources for Basic Technology . The review of related literature was presented in this chapter under the following sub-titles:
a. Nature, Scope and Objectives of Basic Technology Curriculum in Nigeria .
b. Concept of Instructional Resources in Education.
c. The Importance of Instructional Resources in Teaching and Learning Process.
d. Concept of Teaching and Learning Process.
e. Factors that Determine Quality Teaching and Learning Process.
f. Relevance of Instructional Materials in teaching Basic Technology.
g. Impact of Effective Utilization of Instructional Resources.
h. Guideline for Selection of Instructional Resources.
i. Appraisal of Related Literature Review.
Nature, Scope and Objectives of Basic Technology Curriculum in Nigeria :
According to Olaniyan (2007) Basic Technology was introduced to Nigeria education system, 6-3-3-4 as Introductory Technology in 1982 as a result of the newly defined National Policy on Education that came into being after the National Curriculum conference of September, 1969. The conference held in Lagos to previewed old and identify new national goals for Nigerian Education at all levels with respect to; the needs of individual youths and adults in task of nation building and the social and economic needs, aspiration and well-being of our society.
Basic Technology as a subject in the then Junior Secondary School Curriculum provides significant supports for the implementation of the aim to reduce ignorance about technology and help to lay a solid foundation for the true national development (FRN 2004). Through television, human beings seek to influence each other’s behaviour at every level, in the homes, work places, on the streets, in schools and everywhere (Onasanyan;Adebija, 2007). The Basic Technology curriculum designed to fulfil three specific objectives namely; to provide pre-vocational orientation for further training in technology, to provide basic technology literacy for everyday living and to stimulate creativity (FRN, 2004).
It was hoped that if these laudable objectives are achieved, there would be a great revolution in the science and technology education and consequently and acceleration of technological development of the country. In other to realize these objectives however, there is need to play a lot of attention to the actual implementation process i.e. the teaching and learning situation (Ogungbe, 2002).
However, due to restructuring of curriculum, Basic Technology as a subject was brought out from Introductory Technology in 2012 to impart the knowledge of science and the understanding of the world around, and also imparting practical training of various types of vocational skills. (FRN 2012). Basic Science and Technology are compulsory subject in the nine(9) years basic education program. It purpose is to contribute to the achievement of the national education goals by; developing students interest in science and technology, acquiring basic knowledge and skills in science and technology. applying scientific and technological knowledge and skills to meet contemporary societal needs taking advantage of the numerous career opportunities provided by science and technology, becoming prepared for further studies in science and technology, avoiding drug abuse and related vices and been safety and security conscious (National Curriculum for upper Basic Education, 2012).
The 2012 revised curriculum cover the following five(5) themes for Basic Technology; understanding basic technology, safety, materials and processing, drawing practice and tools, machines and process. (National curriculum for Basic Education, 2012).
Concept of Instructional resources in Education
Instructional materials refer to a great variety of resources, which the teacher can use to instate the points he wishes to emphasize in his teaching to make his lesson vivid and more interesting (Eze, 2000). According to Kunle and Akanbi (2000), instructional materials are information carriers designed specially to fulfil objectives in a teaching-learning situation. SimilarIy, Njoku (2000) defined instructional materials as any human and material resources used by the teacher to promote greater understanding of learning experience. These resources serve as information carriers designed specifically to fulfil objectives in teaching-learning situation. They are used to complement the teacher’s effort in the classroom. They vary from very simple and inexpensive ones, such as the chalkboard, flat pictures, diagram, illustration and maps to more complicated ones like the television, movie projectors, slides and films strip projectors.
Stressing on the importance of instructional materials in the study of Basic Technology ,Onochie (2000) noted that Basic Technology requires plenty of teaching aids without which the subject cannot be taught effectively. This shows that teaching aids actually stimulate interest and motivate learning. They help to develop keen observation, which is needed in arts and quite indispensable in science and technology.
According to Moneme (2000), teachers’ main problem then, becomes how to impart knowledge to the students so that they would understand and comprehend it. Therefore, the duty of the teachers is to resort to ways of imparting the knowledge to the students through mediated instruction. From the above statement, we know that the success of a teacher depends on his ability to use instructional materials.
Researches so far made on teaching-learning communication, understanding and retention of what was taught point at the vary fact that usage of instructional materials is the bedrock of education success. This was the view of Sanders (1974) when he observed that “you remember 10% of what you hear (what I hear I forget): you remember 50% of what you hear and do (what I see I remember): you remember 90% of what you hear, see and do (what I do I know)”.
Onochi (2000) discovered that some teachers find it hard to use instructional materials. May be because of Lack of interest, resourcefulness or inadequate training on how to use materials, these teachers teach without materials. Some factors that must be considered in the selection of instructional materials according to Onyejernezi (2000) are as follows; relevance of instructional materials to objectives, the target population for whom the materials are to be used, the degree of satisfaction derived by children in using the materials and the flexibility in and easiness of using the materials and the cost of the materials in relation to the effectiveness. She also noted the following as the educational values accruing from the usage of instructional materials; they supply a concrete basis for conceptual thinking and reduce meaningless word responses of pupils, they make learning more permanent, they have a high degree of interest for pupils, they offer a reality of experience, which stimulates self-activity on the part of pupils, they develop a continuity of thought; this is especially true of motion pictures, they contribute to growth of meaning and hence to vocabulary development and they provide experience not easily obtained through other materials, and contribute to the efficiency, depth and variety of learning.
On the importance and advantage of improvisation and on using locally made instructional materials in teaching learning process, STAN (2000) noted that homemade materials are very important and have several advantages. They are cheap and effective. They help to make Basic Technology real and concrete. Concerning benefits got from improvisation of instructional materials, Nnolim (2000) stated that there are numerous benefits derived when teachers involve themselves and the learner in the Improvisation of their own instructional and learning materials, The use of five senses thus sight, touch, taste, smell and hearing have much role to play in human leaning..
Onwuegbunam (2000) stated that instructional materials could be referred to as “teaching aids” since it directs the attention of the learner faster to the said or intended knowledge and concepts. To Farrant (1964), instructional materials are aids to learning rather than aids to teaching.
According to Taylor (1991), neither the teacher’s pastoral nor his tutorial functions can be replaced. The most austere approach is to employ a chalkboard and book. A teacher in action is not just function of words. For this sense of activity to be possible, the things that the child is learning from must be there when he needs them. They must have some measure of performance whether contrived or natural, they must provide a collection of physically existing, stable objects from which the child can learn.
Material resources are categorized into projected and non-projected materials. Projected materials are apparatus for projecting photographic images, films, and slides etc. on the screen, Non-projected materials cannot be projected. Such examples are chalkboard, textbook, radio, tape recorders, pictures, postern, cartoon, charts, wall charts, flash cards, periodicals, reference books, fiction and non-fiction. In some textbooks, teaching resources are broadly categorized into three main groups namely: Visual Aids: These are resources that relate to the sense of sight which make a lasting impression on the learner. They include charts, maps boards, pictures, among other. Audio Aids are relate more to the sense of hearing. Examples are radio, tape recorders, and human voice. Audio-visual Aids are combination of the external senses especially seeing, and hearing. They include television, and cinema. All these aids help to sustain attention, retention of information or concept and serve as reference materials. Abioye, (2006).
The Importance of Instructional Resources in Teaching and Learning Process.
The immense importance of instructional resources in the process of teaching and learning cannot be look down upon. Many educationists agree that instructional resources bring about improvement in the teaching and learning process as well as permit teachers and students to interact as human being in a climate where generally and equally agree that the creative use of variety of instructional resources will increase the probability that students would learn more, retain better and bring about the skills they expected to perform. According to Onasanya&Adegbija (2007), all through the ages the fact has been again that instructional resources help to learn better. Apart from ability to process meaningful sources of information, instructional resources helps the teachers with the means of extending his horizon of experience as well as providing the teacher with rich sources of procuring communicative materials which could be produced jointly by the teacher and students.
Oguntanti (2000) is of the opinion that, no matter how professional a teacher is, his/her interaction with students might not yield an effective outcome as compared to teacher that make use of such versatile materials in his/her teaching. Therefore, a teacher needs to support his/her teaching with appropriate materials in order to advert the lesson. In the same vein Ozorehe (2000) said that instructional resources aids teachers’ competence and effectiveness of instruction in class control. It makes the learning environment not attractive, appreciable, conductive, bearable and realistic, the learners’ attention is better controlled and sustain. Fakomogbon (2000) also reported that instructional materials posses the quality of influencing the psychological, motivational and structural position of learners. It aids the achievement of any one of the following in the teacher learning process : attention and motivation, orderliness in classroom, lesson presentation, recall and remembering, guidance, active participation and response, feedback, assessment of performance and evaluation.
Instructional materials are used to provide required environment to improve student knowledge, abilities and skill, monitor assimilation of information and to contribute to their overall development and upbringing. Instructional materials play important roles in making the instructional process interesting, captivity, aid understanding, retention and retrieval. Instructional resources can be defined as those items such as book and other printed materials, video and audio recordings, computer software and digital content which are used as part of the instructional process, Timothy, Donald, James and James (2006) sited by Oladosu (2015).
According to Sulaiman (2013) instructional Resources used to facilitate learning for better results, like wise it is use of the chalkboard, chart models overhead projectors, films, television and computer in teaching process. Similarly, Orugbemi (2008) opined that electrical operated instructional resources are handling and processing of information using electronic devices. It simply means the creation, collection, storage, processing, transmission, display and use of information by the people and machine. They can also be referred to as the technologies used for assessing, processing, gathering, manipulating and presenting or communicating information. Facilities according to the American Association for Vocational Instruction Materials (2002), are the classroom, laboratories, workshop and equipment.
Concept of Teaching and Learning Process
Quality education in schools has been strongly associated with effective teaching and learning process. This was dependent on high learning, frequent homework given to pupils by the dedicated teachers, use of a variety of teaching strategies and student assessment to identify areas of progress and areas that need further attention (Williams, 2011). In view of these, teaching and learning processes tend to be one of the key factors in determining achievement of quality education in sense that it looks at what happens in the actual exercise of teaching and learning and it is dependent on the teacher’s attitude and aptitude. Since the teaching determines the depth and breadth of pupils’ learning effect, teachers who articulate it have to be skilled adequately to serve the schools well (Courtney, 2010). The success of schools’ hinges on removing capability deprivation that is widening people’s choices and extending people’s right to education (Rahim, 2011).
In another perspective, it was argued that, teachers who assess students’ work and give them feedback regularly facilitate effective learning in pupils (Williams, 2011). Hence pupils’ work tends to be of good quality. Teaching and learning process which was based on the teacher’s aptitude and attitude is central to the issue of quality teaching and learning outcome. The connectivity between education, human potential and human development suggests education is far much more than socialization and not time bound activity. It stretches beyond classroom and initial training (Rahim, 2011).
However, Courtney (2010) progresses that if process was considered a major determinant of quality learning and teaching and measured by the outcomes, there is the risking of limiting individual learning towards those areas that testable at the end of the learning programmed.
Factors that Determine Quality Teaching and Learning
The process of teaching and learning was a result of the system that produces it. In concurrency (Eisner, 2010) affirmed that quality education cannot exceed the quality of the teacher and his work. The assertion does not mean to over emphasize the need for competent of teachers; all factors are significant in the process of quality search. Courtney (2010) suggested that establishing quality learning and teaching is made simpler by focusing on supporting inputs, processes, outputs and outcomes.
Therefore, the availability of adequate quality resources alone yields no quality teaching and learning. Quality outcome was a result of a combination of input and processes. Availability of supporting inputs hinges on the relationship between the school and stake holders who include the school parental, community and education system. The teaching and learning society has been characterized by conditions permissible to quality outcomes of education process Cole & Knowles, (2010).
Nwosu (2001) found that students’ acquisition of science process skills are not gender specific. Also, the studies by Ogunleye;Babajide (2011); Agommuoh;Nzewi, (2003) lend credence to non-significant gender effect in science achievement.
Relevance of Instructional Materials in teaching Basic Technology
Instructional materials are the educational resources used to improve students? knowledge, abilities, and skills, to monitor their assimilation of information, and to contribute to their overall development and upbringing. According to Ajayi, et al (2000), the followings were some of the reasons for using instructional materials; a good instructional material can supplement spoken or written words, it can bring teaching to life in a way that word cannot express, words can describe people, places and objects but a picture immediately brings reality, a teaching aid can simplify and clarify what is complex and difficult to express in words, instructional materials have motivational value for them to develop the interest of the students, instructional materials can also promote retention as we can understand from the Chinese proverb that says “what I hear I forget, what I see I remember, what I do I understand”, and they save time, and energy what you will explain in ten minutes, will be possible in less time with the use of instructional materials.
Aids implied to help in teaching of Basic Technology, not to be substitutes for teaching the subject, nor for teachers, rather, it should be used to supplement oral explanation and descriptions. Ibrahim (2005), said, “Instructional materials include self-supporting materials which are used by the teacher to present a complete body of instruction; they make a lesson to become more explicit and interesting. Instructional materials are of prime importance for both slow learners and fast learner (Balogun,2004).
Adeyemo (2005), considered instructional materials as an essential part of teaching methods which helps the teacher to express his/her subject concept to the learners thus promoting students? academic performance. That, such aids or materials, should be the responsibility of the teachers.
Fakomogbon (2002), stated that instructional materials are normally used during instruction to enhance proper or effective learning and to encourage retention. They reduce the workload of the economics teacher in the classroom, reinforce and add clarity to learning.
Ajayi et al., (2000), said that instructional materials aids teachers competence and effectiveness of instruction and class control. It makes the learning environment more attractive, appreciable, conducive, bearable and realistic. The learners? attention is better controlled and sustained; FRN (2004), states that objectives of learning materials are; to enhance teaching and improve the competence of teachers, to make learning more meaningful for students and to develop and promote the effective use of innovative materials in schools.
In the same line, Ogundele (2007), outlined the following reasons for the importance of using teaching aids in teaching and learning process in our educational settings. They aid learning by aiding the senses of seeing, hearing and touching among others. They direct teaching to its goals, makes lesson become interesting, arouse students? interest and motivate them to learn. Teaching aids are valuable in the following situations; when the object of instruction is either too big or too small or too spread out to be seen by students, when an object is inaccessible to students, it object is too expensive, dangerous or delicate for the students to use; and when a process being studied is very slow the economics teacher may use pictures or diagrams to illustrate the various stages involved.
When using instructional materials, it is important according to Olaitan (2002), that Basic Technology teachers should consider the following suggestions; ensure that the material is accurate and acceptable to the students, preview such materials before using them in the class, arrange the materials in such a way that the students will see from the place they are sitting, use the materials in the appropriate time in the lesson and after that remove them, do not use only one type of instructional materials to the exclusion of others and always remember that students are different in age/maturity, interest and experience. It is always an advantage to combine the aids to meet the need of various students. The class needs show determination of the types of aids to be use. Do not cause confusion by presenting too much information.
Olaitan (2002), observed that instructional materials are versatile tools that are used in different ways for effective teaching and learning. These aids convey facts and ideas in all forms of community. They offer quite an easy way of presenting information. He further outlined some of the importance of instructional materials if the materials are carefully selected and they are; help to give correct initial concept, help students to learn more, spread learning processes, Provide experiences which are not known before, clarify and give definite meaning of words and the combat verbalism, intensify expressions, arouse interest by attracting attention, build and sustain interest, motivate, develop and change attitudes, vitalize instruction and provide variety in teaching, saves time of economics teachers and students and supplement other learning and serves as reminder.
Balogun (2004), stated that instructional materials assist teachers in the achievement of stated objectives and also help the teachers to make lesson explicit to the students. Ajayi, et al (2000), also reported that instructional materials possess the quality of influencing the psychological, motivational and structural position of the learners. Likewise, instructional materials aid the achievement of any one of the following in the teaching learning process: Attention and motivation; orderliness in the classroom; lesson presentation; recall and remembering; guidance, active participation and response; feedback, assessment of performance and evaluation.
In summary, Bakare (2000), asserted that instructional materials are important tools for enriching, visualizing, simplifying, transmitting and accelerating the teaching and learning processes, thus enhance students’ academic performance. He further said that, effective instruction with instructional materials in the classroom requires careful planning by the teachers. This implies that economics teacher should take time to apply special knowledge and skill with respect to selecting, producing and using different kinds of instructional materials.
Impact of Effective Utilization of Instructional Resources
The essence of teaching of Basic Technology was to make a positive impact on development of the skills of the students. According to Nnaji, and Okorie (2001) instructional resources offered the teacher and the learner good opportunity to relate theoretical knowledge to practical experiences. Some of the benefits of using instructional resources include, instructional resources enrich the lesson as they help the teacher to illustrate and explain aspects of the lesson for better understanding, provide opportunity for the development of skills of observation, manipulation and construction in the Students, that will help Students to have concrete idea and learning became permanent, provide Students the opportunity of interacting with the social and physical environment. Also Students will interact with their teachers and some problems together, stimulate interest and hold attention, because Students will actively be involved in the lesson, prevent boredom and frustration which hinder learning because Students have something that will show them real lesson. Therefore Students will be free from bias, encourage thinking development of imagination, independent and individualized learning, because Students will always develop the idea of creating something related their learning experience when using instructional resources, offer a variety of concrete experiences for the acquisition and better retention or learned resources everyday and every lesson Students are acquiring different experiences more especially when instructional resources are utilized correctly and save a lot of time in making verbal explanations and breaks the monotonous voice of the teacher (Nnaji and Okorie2002)
Instructional materials according to Storm (2001), have been identified as very important variables in the teaching and learning of vocation programme through the world. Faisal and Annutte (2001), Patrick et al (2001), in their studies observed that decline in the performance of students is due to inadequate facilities.
Guideline for Selection of Instructional Resources
Selection of instructional resources is very important because there are some factors to put into consideration like age, level, availability, accessibility, cost, puberty, suitability, simplicity, among others before selections of instructional resources. According to Sulaiman (2013) Teacher who wants to use instructional resources should consider the following variables to guide him in the selection of the types to be used in the teaching and learning exercise are; Availability: The teacher should ensure that the instructional resources to be used are easily available for use before the date. It means that the resources should be in store and test it before the day of the lesson. If the teacher has to prepare it himself, he should do so at least a day before the lesson. No instructional resources that are not available or not easy to prepare should be noted by the teacher in his lesson plan; Accessibility: It is the duty of the teacher to ensure that the resources to be used as instructional resources are not only available but also accessible to him. If they are ready made resources, they should be within reach of the teacher on the date and time of use. There should be no exercise that the resourcesare readily available but locked up in the store because the storekeeper can be nowhere to be found or the keys to the store can be misplaced; Affordability:
Sulaimon (2013). The instructional resources to be used should not be expensive, the cost should be such that either the teacher or the school can afford. It is no use to say that something is available but not affordable due to high cost. There should be a budget for instructional resources and when this is done the cost should not be outrageous it should be within the budget of the school; Suitability: The teacher using instructional resources should ensure the appropriateness of the resources for his intended Students. The resources should be suitable for their age, experience and intelligence. The legal, safety and ethical aspects of the resources to be used should equally be considered. The resources should not portray any anti-social attitude. They should also be free from any bias, distortion or prejudice. If the resources would need electric power then alternative should be sought to avoid disappointment from electricity; Simplicity the instructional resources to be used should be simple to operate or manipulate.
Sulaimon (2013). The teacher should test the resources and ensure their work ability before the actual date of use. There should not be any technical problem and where electricity is to be used, provision should be made for an alternative power. No teacher should use electric failure as an excuse for non-performance in a situation where instruments demand the hands of a technician, (the technician) should be on hand and the teacher should have an insight into the operation of the instructional resources; Qualitative: the instructional resources selected for teaching by the teacher should be of good quality. Teachers should avoid the idea of “managing” with poor quality resources because he might not achieve the desired aim; and Decency: the instructional resources should be the best or nearest to the best, it should not be out of date. The instructional resources should reflect current and original thought.
Appraisal of Related Literature Review
From the works of scholars, a reviewed had to be done on the availability and utilization of instructional resources in teaching basic technology in upper basic schools. It has been observed that Instructional Resources was one of the factors affecting the effective learning of Basic Technology.
In the literature reviewed, there are many definitions of instructional resources, it can broadly define as teaching aids and typical, this means using instructional medial to deliver part or all of a course in a school. The increasing influence of globalization in the use of instructional resources set new requirements for all areas of learning including the higher education (Brown &Glasner, 2013).
From the findings of various researches, it has been deduced that for effective teaching and learning to take place, the teacher must make use of an instructional material as opined by (Onasanya&Adegbija 2007) that, all through the ages, the fact has been proved again and again that instructional resources help to learn better. Also according to Ogunranti (2000), he is of opinion that no matter how professional a teacher is, his/her interaction with the students might not yield an effective outcome as compared to teacher that make use of such versatile materials in his/her teaching. Fakomogbon (2000) also reported that instructional materials posses the quality of influencing the psychological, motivational and structural position of learners.
Finally, it could be deducted from the findings of this study from the reviewed of literature, the importance and necessity of instructional resources in teaching Basic Technology and teachings generally.