CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2
CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 SELECTED PLANTS
2.1.1 PANDANUS AMARYLLIFOLIUS
Pandanus amaryllifolius is the one and only Pandanus species with fragrant leaves (Setyowati & Siemonsma, 1999 and Wakte et al., 2009). This aroma characteristic of P. amaryllifolius leaves has stimulated research into its biochemistry (Teng et al., 1979 and Routray & Rayaguru, 2010) in hope to extract an essential oil. Research outcome showed very low yield, therefore P. amaryllifolius has not been widely cultivated as crop. Pandanaceae is a paleotropical monocot family that includes four genera namely Pandanus, Sararanga, Freycinetia and Martellidendron. Pandanus is the largest genus consisting of 8 subgenera and 700 species, where as Freycinetia consists of 200 species, Martellidendron consists of 6 species and Sararanga consists of 2 species.
right191770Figure 220.127.116.11 shows the taxonomic hierarchy of Pandanus amaryllifolius (Buerki et al., 2012)
00Figure 18.104.22.168 shows the taxonomic hierarchy of Pandanus amaryllifolius (Buerki et al., 2012)
According to Stone (1978) and Setyowati & Siemonsma (1999), P. amaryllifolius has two distinct growth forms- small or young and big or mature growth forms.
Small growth form: Perpetuated sucker shoots (Fig C). Stem slender, 1-1.6 m tall, 2-5 cm in diameter, decumbent and ascending, emitting aerial roots throughout its length. Leaves oblong, 25-75 cm x 2-5 cm, rather pale green, somewhat thin and flaccid, more or less glaucous and keeled beneath, the apex with rather distinct twin lateral pleats, the margins entire (Fig B), unarmed except a few minute prickles less than 1 mm long near the apex. Flowers and fruits unknown (Setyowati & Siemonsma,1999).
Large growth form: Eventually producing an erect stem (Fig H), 2-4.5 m tall, 15 cm in diameter, unbranched or sparsely branched, bearing large aerial prop roots. Leaves oblong, 150-220 cm x 7-9 cm, apex acute, rather dark green above, glaucous and keeled beneath, the twin lateral pleats above somewhat prominent, margins entire, unarmed except near leaf apex with small antrorse prickles about 1 mm long and very rarely with 1-3 small stout prickles near the base (Fig E). Female inflorescence unknown. Male inflorescence if produced is probably pendent, up to 60 cm long, the spathes 90 cm long, white, or the lower ones with green foliaceous tips, bearing several oblong spikes to 35 cm long or more, several cm wide; upper ones much shorter, about 9-10 cm long, 2 cm wide, composed of many crowded staminal phalanges; staminal phalange with column 4-9 mm x 1.5-2.5 mm, compressed to flat, containing 3-6 stamens with very short filaments, 0.5-1.5 mm x 0.4-0.6 mm and oblong anthers, 2.5 mm long (Setyowati & Siemonsma,1999).