Chapter 1

Chapter 1: Introduction
Background
Concept of Internet
History of Internet
Title of the study
Objectives of the study
Significance of the study
Research question
Delimitation of the study

1.0Introduction:
The Internet swiftly entered the life of the humankind in the 20th century. It took us less than ten years to face the fact of its spreading all over the world, including the developing countries. It has become not only the hugest information resource in the world, but – what is even more important – the most rapid means of communication. People from different countries have got an opportunity to communicate with each other in quite a short time. In comparison with a snail-mail or even airmail, e-mail gets over distance and time, frontiers of the states with a lightning speed.

Thus, people get closer to each other. They have got a chance to know each other better, to become aware of what is common among nations and can unite them and what is different, what peculiarities of culture and religion should be taken into account to achieve mutual understanding. They gradually come to realize the fact that we all are inhabitants of one planet – the Earth – and have to live together depending on each other, helping each other. But, the Internet is only one of the means to understand this and does not guarantee the comprehension of the people only by the technological and information opportunities that it provides. Everything depends on the people themselves, their mentality, their will and intellect.
On the other hand, people in different countries, not only in the cultural and scientific center are able to get education in famous universities. Disabled children, invalids can learn at schools, colleges and universities by distance.
Those who study at schools, universities, colleges can enhance their knowledge using the educational literature, encyclopedia, references, dictionaries, databases, which are freely accessed, participating in distance educational courses, in collaborative projects with students from other schools, universities, countries, discussing different problems with them.
So, the opportunities, which the Internet can offer in the sphere of education, are really unique. But we should keep in mind one simple idea that the Internet was invented especially for education. Very few technical aids were designed and produced particularly for the educational purposes. Educators have always had to investigate the didactic opportunities of this or that invention, to define how it can be successfully used in the sphere of education that is to define its didactic functions. It is very important neither to overestimate the role of the Internet in education nor to underestimate it, to define this role and place in the educational process. For this purpose, it is necessary to orientate oneself on the concept and the goals of education adopted in different education systems. Many of us live in the so-called information society where the information is of great value; some are only on the threshold of such society.

So, the contemporary concept of education claims that the main goals of education nowadays should be intellectual and moral development of students, their critical and creative thinking, their ability to work with information. The educational theory of constructivism, psychological theories of critical thinking and activity are recognized by the progressive educators of the world to be meeting the demands of the time. Times have passed when the reproduction of acquired knowledge was the main goal of education. Now people face the life-long learning to be up-to-date in any professional sphere. Thus, the significance of the Internet in education is great, indeed. But the fact of Internet existence in the life of people, the opportunity to get an access to its resources does not guarantee its efficiency. Its efficiency in higher or secondary education depends on many factors. Some of them relate to Internet resources and facilities implemented in different forms of education, traditional education including; others deal with the distance form of education
1.1Concept of Internet:
The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP) to link devices worldwide. It is a network that consists of private, public, academic, business, and government networks of local to global scope, linked by a broad array of electronic, wireless, and optical networking technologies. The internet carries a vast range of information resources and services such as the interlinked hypertexted documents and applications of the World Wide Web (WWW), electronic mail, telephony, and file sharing.

Most traditional communications media, including telephony, radio, television, paper mail and newspapers are being reshaped, redefined, or even bypassed by the Internet, giving birth to new services such as mail, Internet telephony, Internet television, online music, digital newspaper, and video streaming websites. Newspaper, book, and other print publishing are adapting to website technology, or are reshaped into blogging, web feeds and online news aggregators. The internet has enabled and accelerated new forms of personal interactions through instant messaging, Internet forums, and social networking.

1.2History of Internet:
The Internet was the result of some visionary thinking by people in the early 1960s who saw great potential value in allowing computers to share information on research and development in scientific and military fields. J.C.R. Licklider of MIT first proposed a global network of computers in 1962 and moved over to the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) in late 1962 to head the work to develop it. Leonard Kleinrock of MIT and later UCLA developed the theory of packet switching, which was to form the basis of Internet connections. Lawrence Roberts of MIT connected a Massachusetts computer with a California computer in 1965 over dial-up telephone lines. It showed the feasibility of wide area networking, but also showed that the telephone line’s circuit switching was inadequate. Kleinrock’s packet switching theory was confirmed. Roberts moved over to DARPA in 1966 and developed his plan for ARPANET. These visionaries and many more left unnamed here are the real founders of the Internet.

The Internet, then known as ARPANET, was brought online in 1969 under a contract let by the renamed Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) which initially connected four major computers at universities in the southwestern US namely UCLA, Stanford Research Institute, UCSB, and the University of Utah. The contract was carried out by BBN of Cambridge, MA under Bob Kahn and went online in December 1969. By June 1970, MIT, Harvard, BBN, and Systems Development Corp (SDC) in Santa Monica, Cal were added. By January 1971, Stanford, MIT’s Lincoln Labs, Carnegie-Mellon, and Case-Western Reserve U were added. In months to come, NASA/Ames, Mitre, Burroughs, RAND, and the U of Illinois plugged in. After that, there were far too many to keep listing here.

The Internet was designed to provide a communications network that would work even if some of the major sites were down. If the most direct route was not available, routers would direct traffic around the network via alternate routes. The early Internet was used by computer experts, engineers, scientists, and librarians. There was nothing friendly about it. There were no home or office personal computers in those days, and anyone who used it, whether a computer professional or an engineer or scientist or librarian, had to learn to use a very complex system.

The internet matured in the 70s under Bob Kahn and was further developed by Kahn and Vint Cerf. It was adopted by the Defense Department in 1980 replacing the earlier Network Control Protocol (NCP) and universally adopted by 1983.6 With the advancement of modern technology, internet connectivity also has undergone a great change. A current trend with major implications for the future is the growth of high speed connection 56K modems and the providers who supported them spread widely for a while, but this is the low end now. 56K is not fast enough to carry multimedia, such as sound and video except in low quality. But new technologies many times faster, such as cable modems and Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) are predominant now.

Since the Internet was initially funded by the government, it was originally limited to research, education, and government uses. Commercial uses were prohibited unless they directly served the goals of research and education. This policy continued until the early 90’s, when independent commercial networks began to grow. It then became possible to route traffic across the country from one commercial site to another without passing through the government funded NSF Net Internet backbone
Delphi was the first national commercial online service to offer Internet access to its subscribers. It opened up an email connection in July 1992 and full Internet service in November 1992. All pretenses of limitations on commercial use disappeared in May 1995 when the National Science Foundation ended its sponsorship of the Internet backbone, and all traffic relied on commercial networks. AOL, Prodigy, and CompuServe came online. Since commercial usage was so widespread by this time and educational institutions had been paying their own way for some time, the loss of NSF funding had no appreciable effect on costs.

Today, NSF funding has moved beyond supporting the backbone and higher educational institutions to building the K-12 and local public library accesses on the one hand, and the research on the massive high volumes connections on the other. Microsoft’s fully scale entry into the browser, server, and Internet Service Provider market completed the major shift over to a commercially based Internet. The release of Windows 98 in June 1998 with the Microsoft browser well integrated into the desktop shows Bill Gates’ determination to capitalize on the enormous growth of the Internet.

A current trend with major implications for the future is the growth of high speed connections. 56K modems and the providers who supported them spread widely for a while, but that is the low end now. 56K is not fast enough to carry multimedia, such as sound and video except in lowest quality. But new technologies many times faster, such as cable modems and digital subscriber lines are predominant now.

Wireless has grown rapidly in the past few years, and traveler search for the wi-fi “hot spots” where they can connect while they are away from the home or office. Many airports, coffee bars, hotels and motels now routinely provide these services, some for a fee and some for free.

A current big growth area is the surge towards universal wireless access, where almost everywhere is a “hot spot”. Municipal wi-fi or city-wide access, Wi-MAX offering broader ranges than wi-fi, EV-DO, 4g, 5g, LTE, and other formats will joust for dominance in the USA in the years ahead. The battle is both economic and political.

Another trend that is rapidly affecting web designers is the growth of smaller devices to connect to the Internet. Tablets, smart phones, e-books, game machines, wristwatches, GPS devices, thermostats, and even light bulbs are now capable of tapping into the web on the go, and many web pages are not designed to work on that scale. Responsive web design to adapt to all size devices is important now.

The Internet of Things is adding devices, too. Most modern televisions are now connected, and the streaming devices that feed them. Add to this refrigerator, door locks, automobiles, garage doors, personal robots, exercise machines, ovens, cameras, taxi replacements, drones, virtual reality headsets, and more items and services every day.

As the Internet has become ubiquitous, faster, and increasingly accessible to non-technical communities, social networking and collaborative services have grown rapidly, enabling people to communicate and share interests in many more ways. Sites like Facebook, You-Tube, Instagram, twitter, Wikipedia, and many more let people of all ages rapidly share their interests of the moment with others everywhere. It has provided a huge boost to the genealogy industry. Protecting privacy is quite a challenge in this environment.

1.3Title of the study:
The title of the study is stated as follows: “A study of the impact of Internet on Teaching and Learning of high school students in Manipur”1.3.1Concept and Explanation of the key term:
The present study involves the key terms viz. “Internet”, “Teaching”, and “Learning”.

Internet:
The term “Internet” refers to a collection of interlinked computer networks, which enables access to information resources and supports learning and teaching and the academic environment. It is also referred to as ‘net’.

Teaching:
It is an interaction between teacher and students which induces learning. It is a two-way communication. It is a process that comprises principles and methods used by teachers to enable students learning. It aims at all round development of the child. Teaching includes all the activities of providing education to others.

According to Scheffler (1973), teaching may be characterized as an activity aimed at the achievement of learning and practiced in such a manner as to respect student’s intellectual, integrity and capacity for independent judgement.

Learning:
Learning is a process of acquiring new or modifying existing knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, or preferences. It is the acquisition of knowledge or skill through study, experience or being taught.

According to Knowles (1973), learning is a process by which behavior is changed, shaped and controlled.

Klein explains, “Learning is a relatively permanent change in behavior, this change occurs as the result of successful or unsuccessful experiences.

1.4 Objectives of the study:
The study has been conducted with the following objectives:
1To find out the access to internet in education of high school students in Nambol.

To find out the pattern of usage of internet in education of high school students of Nambol.

To study the impact of internet on education of high school students of Nambol.

To find out the positive and negative aspect of using internet on…….

To study the problems faced by the high school students of Nambol in using the internet.

1.4Research Questions:
What are the devices used by high school students to access internet?
What are the pattern of usage of internet by high school students?
What are the impacts of internet on education on high school students?
What are the positive and negative aspects of internet on high……?
What are the problems faced by high school students in accessing internet?
1.5 Significance of the study:
Today, the Internet is the most powerful tool in the world. The Internet is a collection of various services and resources. However, like every single innovation in science and technology, Internet has its own advantages and disadvantages.

Internet has played an important part in our daily life, and in fact, it brings us lots of advantages, and the first I want to mention is communication. The foremost target of Internet has always been the communication. Now thanks to the Internet, we can communicate in a fraction of second with a person who is sitting in the other part of the world. Today for better communication, we can avail the facilities of e-mail, we can chat for hours with our friends. With the help of such services, it has become very easy to establish a kind of global friendship where you can explore other cultures of different countries.

Besides, information is the biggest advantage internet is offering. The Internet is a virtual treasure of information. Any kind of information on any topic is available on the Internet, and you can almost find any type of data on almost any kind of subject that you are looking for. There is a huge amount of information ranging from government law and services to market information, new ideas and technical support. It is very useful for students.

The fast and relatively low-cost access is one of the major benefits of Internet to people and students all over the world, as getting an Internet connection is easy. Communication and information are the two basic uses of the Internet. Information available on websites can be updated or modified at any time and for any number of times, which helps in learning and better understanding.

It can be used in the following ways:
Using Multimedia:
 It is believed that visual data has a greater impact on learning and memorizing than plain text. Therefore, images, graphics, animation, pictures, slides, documentaries, etc., have a greater appeal than a plain textbook. Using multimedia and Internet provides an opportunity for children to gain knowledge about a particular subject in depth. Students can now see actual photographs of rare bird species or see animated graphics of a volcanic eruption to understand the concept in detail.

Online Learning:
Another positive effect of Internet in education is the onset of distance education or online education (internet-based training (IBT) or web-based training (WBT). With this facility, you can take up short-term courses with the course material available online, attend virtual classes, learn, and appear for exams. One of the benefits of online learning is that people from any part of the world can gain knowledge on different subjects, complete courses, etc.

Easy Contact:
Students can contact other students or their teachers via the e-mail if they have queries about any information. Sharing of information, discussions on a particular subject, etc., can be easily carried out using the Internet. At the same time, teachers can also contact parents and guardians easily using Internet.

School and College Project:
Using the Internet can be very useful for completing projects in schools and colleges. As the Internet is an ocean of information, covering nearly all subjects known to man, one can find information, research work, etc., required for one’s projects. Going through the information on the Internet is definitely faster than reading an entire book on the subject. Completing homework is also easier with the help of the Internet.

Encyclopedia:
Sometimes, an encyclopedia may not always be available to students and they may have difficulty in gaining access to the books in the library. In that case, the encyclopedia of various subjects available on the Internet can be helpful. This is more useful for students who belong to communities not having English as their mother tongue.

News:
All the latest news is constantly updated on the Internet on news websites. Students learning politics, can have an access to all the current affairs through the Internet. Historical accounts like speeches, biographies, archive videos and photographs, etc., are also easily available on the Internet in detailed and accurate versions.

Affordable Knowledge:
Investing in research material may be tedious and unaffordable for some. But, now, thanks to the Internet, we have content websites, web encyclopedias, and dictionaries whenever we want them. Today, able as well as less-able students can benefit from the sea of knowledge on the Internet. University courses and learning is now easy for people belonging to all strata of the society with the help of online courses.

Easy Education System:
Not only gaining knowledge, but, every part of the education system is simplified because of the Internet. You can now view your prospective educational institute, look up courses, enroll for online courses, take classes, research, see your results, and even look for job prospects on the Internet. Therefore, the scope of Internet in education is very wide and equal to all.

No Age Bracket for Education:
Online courses provide an opportunity for people of all age groups to take up education of their choice, according to their liking and wish. Be it a student, a housewife, or a professional, they can just start up their computers, connect to the Internet, and take virtual classes. Therefore, people can now gain knowledge according to their need and time available. You are, now, never too old or too busy to learn something new.

With these points, we find that the importance of Internet in education cannot be denied, and hence, every student should be given access to the Internet for deeper understanding and knowledge of a subject. However, lots and lots of information can be termed as both, advantages and disadvantages of the Internet as students can also have an access to unwanted or unethical information and sites. Therefore, it is only wise for parents to make students understand what is good and what not for them and keep a watch on their surfing.

Lastly, although the Internet cannot replace books or classroom education, it is one of the best substitute for those who wish to gain deeper knowledge on literally every subject under the sun.

The purpose of this research work is to examine the use of modern technology (internet) , in the acquisition and transfer of knowledge, using resources from the World Wide Web in the high school students. It will also serve to determine whether this new way of accessing knowledge is a beneficial tool in aiding students to a higher level of achievement as they get more engaged in their learning activities. The internet has the ability to erase all geographical, languages, and time barriers so that students can continue their lifelong learning.1.6 Delimitations of the study:
Delimitation of the study means narrowing the scope of the study. The following are the major delimitations of the study:
The study is restricted to Nambol area of Manipur.

The present study considers only private schools.

The study is conducted on high school students only.

Only three schools in Nambol area are purposively selected for this study.

Only questionnaire tool is used to collect data.