In the present situation, every client needs to stay associated with the goal that the exchange of data and information should be possible rapidly. We can share our thoughts, data and other information from one nation to another within seconds. It became very easy to share our data with others by means of connection to internet. We don’t have to move physically anyplace to exchange our information, yet for this (for utilizing web) all gadgets should be associated by some medium and with servers also.

With the help of internet we are connected worldwide but while establishing internet some medium like central servers, communication media or wireless medium are used. In remote territories, where there is no server or medium is accessible to give availability we can’t rely on the internet to exchange the information on the grounds that the internet couldn’t be worked.

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The internet has entrenched medium for correspondence. It has pre-set up switches, wired or remote correspondence framework. There are servers which deal with the entire system. In internet, there are numerous servers situated at di?erent places as per the network zone and range. However, here an inquiry stayed unanswered i.e. the most effective method to exchange information or set up correspondence in remote region or emergency condition where there is no system set up. The appropriate response of this inquiry could be the Delay Tolerant Networks (DTN) 1. There might be a few circumstances where the imparting gadget is in home area and getting presented with the customary remote systems yet at times when you need to move out of your home system to the area where no conclusion to end way is accessible then here likewise the delay tolerant systems can be utilized.

Introduction to DTN
The Delay Tolerant Network is absolutely di?erent approach than consistently associated wired or remote systems. In DTN, there is no conclusion to end way accessible anytime of time for exchanging information between a couple of sender and receiver.. The communication in DTN is done by exploiting the characteristic of nodes i.e. mobility, available connections, and provided bu?er space etc.

The Delay Tolerant Networks play the main role in the scenario where connectivity between any pair of nodes are not continuous. In sparse network scenario where there are no end to end routes available, DTN provides the means to communicate. It does not require knowledge about path to forward the bundles from one node to another. It is based upon the store-carry-forward approach. In internet routing choose the best optimal path but in DTN routing ensure the delivery of bundles to destination with minimum delay incurred. The idea of Delay Tolerant Network (DTN) 2 was taken from Interplanetary Networks (IPN) 3, this was started in 1970s. The IPN was invented to communicate between earth and mars. The DTN is a type of wireless ad-hoc network which tolerate the intermittent connectivity. The intermittent connectivity can be defined as the sudden change of state of any communication link between the nodes. The DTN can also be defined as intermittently connected wireless ad-hoc network 4 that can tolerate longer delays, intermittent connectivity and prevent data from being lost by using store-carry-forward approach.
Salient Features
The DTN has some salient features 5 6 which make it di?erent than available wireless networks.

Tolerates high latency: DTN supports intermittent connectivity. It use store carry and forward mechanism to store the message. Every nodes have its own buffer.

Tolerates asymmetric data rates: DTN allows the transferring of data even when the rate of incoming and outgoing transfer of messages are di?erent.
Prevent data loss: In DTN, every node has its own buffer in which node stores the message and the node removes the message only when the custody of message has been transferred to other node.
Tolerates intermittent connectivity: Intermittent connectivity means the sudden change of state of any communication link. DTN tolerates the intermittent connectivity because it supports the bu?er and store carry forward concept.
Store-Carry-Forward approach: The main concept of DTN is the Store-Carry-Forward approach, which make use of the Bundle Protocol. Store-Carry-Forward approach enables the DTN nodes to receive the message, store it, carry it to the relay/destination node and forward it, if the relay node is currently not available, then save it in bu?er.
Supports heterogeneous environment : DTN allows communication between di?erent
Types of networks .Tolerates long queuing delays: The nodes communicate with each other one at a time, so a list of connections is generated at each node. Nodes check the list and start communicating from the very first node of the list to the last node, if the link available.

Need for DTN
When the things come upon the natural hazard a?ected application areas or the areas where connectivity could not be achieved, and then here comes the need to use the DTN because the MANET 7 cannot work properly in these type of application scenario where end to end path cannot achieved. Some times DTN is confused with MANET 8. Here are some points by which it is easier to get a clear di?erence between DTN and MANET.

In MANET, the forwarding of message is done when the path between end points are already created. It means in MANET, the paths are created to and from the end nodes then after the forwarding is done from source to destination. Whereas in DTN,no paths are previously created for forwarding. The messages are routed by relaying the messages to available appropriate nodes.
MANET does not use any store and forward approach which means if the next relay node is not available in MANET at any time then the message will be dropped and lost. In DTN, when any node receives a message to forward then it stores that message in its bu?er and wait for other good relay node to come.

Protocol Architecture of DTN
The operation of DTN makes use of Bundle Protocol (BP) 9, positioned above the application protocol in the protocol architecture stack of DTN. The main functions a Bundle Protocol can provide are given below:
Retransmission can be done any time as because the transfer of data is done by transferring the custody of the message to other node.

Tolerate the intermittent connection by providing bu?er at each node.
Make use of any type of connectivity like scheduled, predicted, and opportunistic. Most of the time the opportunistic connectivity is exploited in DTN for data transfer.
Bundle Protocol provides support to late binding so that it can support the heterogeneous environments. Di?erent Networks may use di?erent addressing scheme 10 so while communicating with one type of network to another type of network, addressing scheme do not stop communication.
Fig 1. Position of Bundle Protocol in protocol architecture of DTN 10
Introduction to Routing in DTN
In traditional networks 11, the routing of packets between a pair of nodes aims to select the optimal path with minimum cost incurred. In these networks an optimal route needs to be established before the actual transmission of message. As in DTN the end to end route can never be achieved so the routing of packets in DTN is done hop by hop, in which the selection of next hop is done dynamically as per the application scenario as well as the algorithm used. In general, when a node receives any bundle (or message) then as per the algorithm, that node will search the good relay node to which it can forward the bundle. The transmission of
message in DTN can either be done by replicating the message or forwarding it, that depends on the type of algorithm used.

Routing algorithms classification
In the literature of DTN, the routing protocols are categorized into two broad categories:
Flooding based routing approaches
Forwarding based routing approaches
Flooding based routing approach
This type of routing strategy can be opted even when the nodes have no knowledge about the nodes in the network. In such case, epidemic routing algorithm is chosen in which the sender node replicates the message to each node it met so far. Replication based routing can comparatively give better results but it consumes more network resources because for a single message to be delivered the whole network could be holding so many copies of that message. The Flooding based routing is further classified into two types:
Replication Based: Replication based routing allows the network nodes to create the replicas of the received message. The maximum number of replicas generated within a network for a particular message could be n-1, where n denotes the number of nodes in the network.
Quota Based: In Quota based routing each message is assigned with fixed quota i.e. the number of replicas for a particular message is limited.
Direct Contact
In Direct Contact 12 routing algorithm, the source node will directly forward the bundle to the destination node. The source node first creates the bundle and then waits for the destination node. As the algorithm does not require any information about the network so it falls in the category of flooding based routing. The amount of delay incurred in delivery of bundle is very high and the cost involved in routing the bundle is very low.

Epidemic Routing
In Epidemic routing 12 each node replicates the message to every other node it met if the other node is not having the message copy. The message replication is done after checking the summary vector. The summary vector is maintained at each node that stores the information about all the messages that are passed by that node or currently stored in its bu?er.

Two-Hop Relay
In this approach 12, the source node replicates the message to a large number of relay nodes. In this approach a message will be delivered to the destination within two hops only i.e. either the source node directly delivers the message to destination or the relay node. Relay nodes will not further replicate it to any other node except the destination node i.e. after one hop transmission of message, the direct contact delivery approach is used and the relay node wait for the destination to come in contact.

Tree Based Flooding
T. Small et al 12 have given the concept of binary tree based algorithm. The algorithm
Works upon the concept that the source node must be limit with the number of replicas to control the width and depth of the tree i.e. when the nodes are limit with number of copies then they can go in depth up to a certain level. Each node can have max of two child nodes so the replicas are equally distributed in between them. After this receiving phase, the nodes start o?oading the message to collection stations so to reach the destination.

Spray and Wait
The Spray and Wait 12 algorithm is the advanced version of the epidemic routing. In this algorithm the nodes are not distributing the replicas to each and every node but an optimal number of nodes are selected to which the source node will relay the message. There are two phases in this approach: Spray and Wait. In Spray phase, the source node replicates the message to the m nodes and these m nodes will further relay the message to m relay nodes. If the destination is not found in spray phase then the relay nodes will store the message and performs direct transmission to the destination.

Forwarding based routing approach
This type of routing takes place when nodes have some relevant knowledge about the other nodes in the network. In this type of routing no node will generate replicates of the messages. Each node will search for the best suitable relay nodes and forwards the message to them. This approach reduces the extra resource consumption as replication of messages is not permitted. This type of routing is used when the network resources are limited such as bu?er size at each node, battery life, etc.

The NECTAR 13 algorithm has given the concept of neighborhood index table that is maintained at each of the node. This table stores the information about the meeting frequency of the node with every other node in the network. The node with higher meeting frequency will be assigned a higher index value. When a node needs to forward the message to a particular destination, then it will select one of the relay nodes that transfer the message.

Source Routing
The Source routing 13 consist of two phases i.e. route discovery phase and route
maintenance phase. Initially a route is discovered by sending control packets towards a destination node. Each of the intermediate nodes will append its address in the packet. Each
node also maintains a cache for the routes that the node has learnt over time. When the packet reaches at the destination the entire route is appended in the packet only. In route maintenance phase if a link failure is detected then a route error message is broadcasted by the source node.

Per-Hop Routing
In Per-Hop routing 13, each intermediate node will decide the next node to which the packet is to be forwarded for a particular destination. This approach has better performance than Source routing because the more updated information is used than Source Routing. The source node sends the message to all the connected nodes, then these nodes search for the closeness of the destination node and the node have the destination node as closest will further broadcast it. This process goes on and thus the refinement of routes keep going.

Per-Contact Routing
The most updated information is being used in Per-Contact Routing 13 because when any intermediate node receives any message for a particular destination then it will update its routing table and will check the current up contacts and select the appropriate
Below Section describes some of the papers that cover the basics of Techniques used for malicious and selfish node detection and also describe the literature review on delay tolerant network.

45003561370728001244740139166900130503013514740028223311060073001857375275590Literature Review
Literature Review

528955200660Misbehaving node detection technique
00Misbehaving node detection technique
DTN routing algorithm

2.1 Paper referred for Delay tolerant network
2.1.1 Paper 1
Paper Title: The Social Relationship based Adaptive Multi-Spray-and-Wait Routing Algorithm for Disruption Tolerant Network.

Author Detail: Jianfeng Guan, Qi Chu, Ilsun You
Publication: Hindawi (2017)
Description: Different from traditional routing which is based on end to end path from source to destination, DTN use store carry forward mechanism. In this paper proposed a social relationship based spray and wait routing to improve performance by considering buffer management and social parameters. In proposed schema timeout detection mechanism is used to solve blind spot problem and buffer management for reduce the overhead. As per its functionality social parameters is used for predict path. By comparison with traditional algorithms, it shows that proposed algorithm improve message delivery ratio, reduce the overhead and decrease the buffer time.

2.1.2 Paper 2
Paper Title: Bubble Rap: Social based forwarding in Delay Tolerant Networks
Author Detail: Pan Hui, Jon Crocroft, Eiko YonekiPublication: IEEE (Nov-2011)
Description: In this paper introduced bubble rape: Social based forwarding in delay tolerant network, for designing this hybrid algorithm, centrality and community detection method called K-CLIQUE community detection is used. As per simulation result bubble is designed to work better with a hierarchical community structure. It improves the parameter no of message copies, no of hops, time to live, delivery ratio, delivery cost.

2.1.3 Paper 3
Paper Title: Give2Get: Forwarding in Social Mobile Wireless Network of Selfish Individuals.

Author Detail: Alessandro Mei, Julinda StefaPublication: International Conference on Distributed Computing System. (2010)
Description: In this paper present message forwarding schema in social mobile wireless network in assuming that all nodes in the network is selfish. Give to get forwarding consists three phases: Message generation, message relays and testing. Message generation executes when one node have message to send pass to some other node in the network. After message generated source node transfer the message to the nodes its meet. When the receiver node receive message and pass to the proof of sending to the sender.Affter the receiving proof every time node have to show the proof and node fails ,the proof of misbehaving is broadcast. Only when two proofs are collected by node, message can be discarded by node’s memory. Proposed algorithm good in terms of message delay, success rate and cost.

2.1.4 Paper 4
Paper Title: Distributed Community Detection in Delay Tolerant Networks
Author Detail: Pan Hui, Eiko Yoneki, Shu-Yan Chan, Jon Crow croft
Description: In this paper, proposed three distributed community detection algorithm with different level of computational complexity and resources requirements. The impact of the detected communities on the PSN forwarding efficiency band found it to be several times more cost effective than flooding or using randomly generated groups with same size and also discovered that the communities detected by the distributed algorithm can satisfactorily approximate the centralized algorithm which required the whole network topology.

2.1.5 Paper 5
Paper Title: Mobility based routing algorithm in delay tolerant network.

Author Detail: Marcin Kawecki, Radoslaw Olgierd SchoeneichPublication: Springer (2016)
Description: This paper presents a routing algorithm based on the use of mobility of nodes in delay tolerant network.DTN are characterized by temporary or permanent lack of continuous path between the source and destination node. The communication is done by transferring the message by intermediate nodes based on store carry forward paradigm. Routing protocol is based on the ability to use information about node mobility and their contacts. Author assume that greater mobility of the nodes results in higher number of contacts with other nodes and higher probability in the message delivery to the destination. Proposed algorithm was simulated using one simulator.

2.1.6 Paper 6
Paper Title : Trust aware watchdog mechanism to detect selfish node in manet.

Author Detail: Resmi C, Sindhu S.

Publication: International journal of Advanced Research in Computer and Communication Engineering (2016).

Description: In this paper, propose a new framework which uses a trust based schema and watchdog to detect selfish node. Also alert model is implemented in which node which are not ready to cooperate can send warning message to adjust nodes. Trust relationship must be set up between every pairs of nodes.

2.1.7 Paper 7
Paper Title : Detecting Selfish Nodes using a Collaborative Contact based watchdog.

Author Detail: Husna Taj, Kampe ShilpaPublication: International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Technology Research (2016).

Description: In this paper, detection selfish node using a collaborative contact based watchdog. Data transmission in the network is based on the behavior of node. If node can cooperative in nature than they send the packet but uncooperative nature of nodes degrades the performance of the network. For detecting selfish node COCOWA model is introduced which use markov chain model to evaluate detection time. This technique will reduce the time of detecting selfish node as well as reduce the effect of malicious node.

2.1.8 Paper 8
Paper Title: Skeleton Construction in Mobile Social Network: Algorithms and Applications.

Author Detail: Zongqing Lu, Xiao Sun, Yonggang Wen, Guohong Cao.

Publication: IEEE (2012)
Description: Proposed skeleton in mobile social network. Skeleton is mainly formed for predicting node contacts and managing the node. Skeleton is based on the social property of nodes like best friends, rank etc. Skeleton is tree structure which makes the communication more reliable. As per simulation result skeleton gives more efficient results than existing community based algorithm.

2.1.9 Paper 9
Paper Title: Improved collaborative watchdog system for detection of selfish node in Manet.

Author Detail: Momin Kashif M, Prof.V.S.Kadam.

Publication: International Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology Research (2015)
Description: In this proposed improved collaborative watchdog system for detecting selfish node in manet.Selfish node degrades the performance of the network by not taking part in the communication system for consume their resources. So it is very important to detect selfish node in the network and remove it from the system. In this paper proposed a method to detect the selfish node based on trust and reputation of every node. For reputation using Bayesian estimation .Baye’s theorem is as follows:
P(?i/y)=p(y/?i)p(?i) i=1npy?ip?iAs per result, this schema is highly robust, efficient and improve performance of the mechanism.

2.1.10 Paper 10
Paper Title : Count on me:reliable broadcast and efficient routing in DTN through ss.

Author Detail: Alessandro Mei,Natascia Piroso,Julinda StefaPublication: ELSEVIER,2016Description: In this paper, present COM, a reliable broadcasting mechanism for networks where nodes cannot use long-range communication to complete missing links. COM is based on the Social Skeleton, which is strongly connected graph based on social property of the network. Computed in an efficient and distributed way.COM exploits the Social Skeleton to guarantee reachability of 100% of nodes with the lowest number of long communications.
No Paper Title Author Name Publication year Description
1 The Social Relationship based Adaptive Multi-Spray-and-Wait Routing Algorithm for Disruption Tolerant Network14. Jianfeng Guan, Qi Chu, Ilsun You
Hindawi (2017)
In paper proposed algorithm which retransmit the message copies based on their residence time in the node via buffer management.

2 Bubble Rap: Social based forwarding in Delay Tolerant Networks15.

Pan Hui, Jon Crocroft, Eiko YonekiIEEE(Nov.2011)
In this paper author shown that it is possible to uncover important characteristic properties of social network from a diverse set of real world human contact trace. As per result, it has similar delivery ration to but much lower resources utilization.

3 Give2Get: Forwarding in Social Mobile Wireless Network of Selfish Individuals16.

Alessandro Mei,,Julinda StefaInternational Conference on Distributed Computing System.(2010)
In this paper, present two forwarding protocols for mobile wireless networks of selfish individuals. The first protocols for message forwarding that work under the assumption that all the nodes in the network are selfish..4 Distributed Community Detection in Delay Tolerant Networks17 Pan Hui, Eiko Yoneki, Shu-Yan Chan, Jon CrowcroftSpringer(2014) In this paper, proposed three distributed community detection algorithm with different level of computational complexity and resources requirements
5 Mobility based routing algorithm in delay tolerant network18.

Marcin Kawecki,Radoslaw Olgierd SchoeneichSpringer (2016)
Proposed routing algo is based on ability to use information about node mobility and their contact
6 Trust aware watchdog mechanism to detect selfish node in manet19.

Resmi C, Sindhu S.

International journal of Advanced Research in Computer and Communication Engineering (2016).

Trust relationship must be set up between every node. Packet forwarding and energy is used to maintain trust between nodes.

7 Detecting Selfish Nodes using a Collaborative Contact based watchdog20 Husna Taj,Kampe ShilpaInternational Journal of Scientific Engineering and Technology Research (2016).

In this paper propose a collaborative contact based watchdog approach, which is based on the fast diffusion of selfish nodes awareness. Whenever a contact occur. An analytical model to evaluate the time detection and the overhead of collaborative watchdog approach for detecting selfish node is introduced.

8 Skeleton Construction in Mobile Social Network: Algorithms and Applications21. Zongqing Lu, Xiao Sun, Yonggang Wen, Guohong Cao.

IEEE (2012)
Propose skeleton,a tree structure for organizing network nodes.Skeleton construction based on best friendship.

9 Improved collaborative watchdog system for detection of selfish node in Manet22. Momin Kashif M, Prof.V.S.Kadam. International Journal of Science, Engineering ,Technology Research (2015) In this paper a distributed global trust is presented to improvise the detection of selfish node in the network in MANET
10 Count on me:reliable broadcast and efficient routing in DTN through social skeleton23
Alessandro Mei,Natascia Piroso,Julinda StefaELSEVIER
Proposed COM a reliable broadcasting mechanism for hybrid network where nodes can rarely used long range and costly communication to complete missing opportunistic links.

Table 2.1 Literature Review on Delay Tolerant Network and IDS
3.1 Overview
Reliable broadcasting and efficient routing primitives are not possible when DTNs are involved. In existing work propose, COM, a broadcasting mechanism for networks where nodes cannot use long-range, costly communication to complete missing links. COM is based on the Social Skeleton, a compact and connected sub graph, computed in an efficient and distributed way that best represents the strongest social links among nodes. The Social Skeleton is made up of strong social links, thus underlining couples of nodes that are most likely to have opportunistic contacts. Links also define a mutual commitment between nodes that take on the responsibility of transmitting messages to their counterpart. COM exploits the Social Skeleton to guarantee reachability of 100% of nodes with the lowest number of long communications. Empirically prove that the Social Skeleton can be used to build routing mechanisms upon it. SR (Skeleton Routing), which involves at most 3 copies per message, and yields delivery rates up to 5.5 times higher than state-of-the-art forwarding protocols23.

3.2 Social Skeleton Construction
In this23, describe how to build a Social Skeleton through the definition of a series of correlated responsibility graphs. Users collect data regarding contacts with other users during a training period of appropriate length. Then, they evaluate the strength of the relations in terms of encounter probability.

3.2.1. Best friends selection
Given two users u and v, let I = I0 ? I1 ? · · · ? Iq be the collection of intervals corresponding to the continuous maximal timespans in which they physically see each other, as shown in fig Suppose that at time t0 a message M is received by user u and let tM be the residual TTL associated to the message. When the TTL elapses, user u storing M sends a remote message containing M to user v only if:
u ?? v and
u did not see v during the interval t0, t0 + tM .

Fig.3.1 Blocks on the time axis t represent continuous contact periods between two nodes10.

3.2.2 Links consolidation
Make the responsibility graph undirected without having to pay any overhead in terms of induced remote messages.

3.2.3. Sparsification process
Social networks often exhibit the triadic closure property 7. I.e., if a strong tie exists between a node u and a node v and between node u and a node w, then there is an increased likelihood that v and w are also connected. In this case, the responsibility graph S constructed through the previous stages is likely to present a large number of small cycles. Cycles are highly undesirable as they can easily generate useless remote messages. Therefore, this third stage aims at eliminating unnecessary responsibility links and is central to our procedure for its effects on costs reduction.

3.2.4. Local bones are global bones
The sparsification process described in Section 3.2.3 is run by each user locally and independently from other users, and aims at removing links of the responsibility graph that are unnecessary. In this section we prove that nodes agree on the deletion or confirmation of a shared link, so that there is no ambiguity on the definition of a new responsibility graph. Further, we prove that the sparsification process does not create disconnections among nodes connected in the responsibility graph. To this end, let S be the Social Skeleton before sparsification and S? be the Social Skeleton after sparsification.

3.2.5. Connecting up the responsibility graph
To connect up the responsibility graph, it is enough to run a distributed protocol to detect and label its connected components by a distributed version of a standard visit of a grapCHAPTER 4.PROPOSED WORK
Main problems of Social skeleton are selfish and malicious nodes detection. Selfish node create the black hole in the network and malicious node misuse the data. If the social skeleton is based on friendship then the past information of node is required which is not available every time.

4.1 Watchdog Working
Watchdog works as a observer to monitor the operation of the next hop neighbor node by collecting information from that node. Fig shows an illustration of the Watchdog. S represents the source node, and D denotes the destination node. A, B, and C denote the intermediate nodes in the route between the source and destination nodes. Before forwarding the packet received from S, node A saves the packet in the Watchdog buffer. After forwarding the packet to node B, node A monitors whether the packet has been forwarded to node C. As node A is located within the transmission range of node B, node A receives a copy of the packet forwarded to node C. Node A compares the received packet with the packet saved in the Watchdog buffer. If node A fails to receive the packet copy from node B within a certain time, node A decides that node B is a malicious node and generate an alert to change the path through node B. If node B forwards the packet within the certain time duration, node A declares that node B is a normal node.

We are going to use trust ratio for finding selfish node. Trust ratio is based on the remaining energy of the nodes.

4.3 Proposed Flow
The main idea of forming social skeleton is social tie which does not required past information of node. The first step is finding Degree of trust which provides the information about highly connected node. After choosing highly connected node make it as a center node which connect with its friend or neighbor. If the source and destination node connects with same center node then normal transmission and if both are in different then information dissemination function is used. After path finding, for detecting selfish node watchdog is used. For preventing the data encryption decryption is used.

508660219149Enter the no of source and destination
0Enter the no of source and destination

559056242141Generate the graph from data
0Generate the graph from data

583375182459Find the average degree of trust
0Find the average degree of trust

59499513335Find highly connected nodes
0Find highly connected nodes

619001238125Make the highly connected component as a center
0Make the highly connected component as a center

74963034653Source and destination is in same cluster?
00Source and destination is in same cluster?

-476250249555Message send via forwarding
0Message send via forwarding

Fig 4.3. Proposed Flow
For encrypting the data I will use the symmetric encryption like AES,DES which support any type of file encryption like image file,mp3 fileetc.
4.4 Research Methodology
Research Methodology For Thesis Work
Literature Review
To study research papers and research articles from reputed journals on the topic
Problem Definition
Detecting the selfish and provide security of data in social skeleton using watchdog and encryption decryption.

To conduct an experiment using MatlabConclusion We will be going to use watchdog and encryption decryption for providing security of social skeleton.

Step 1.Enter the no of nodes and links: Enter the no of nodes in the system and its connection link. More the links, more dense network.

Fig.5.1 No of nodes and link
Step 2.Graph formation from enter value: Based on the information about nodes and links, the network is created which is as follows.

Fig 5.2 Graph Formation

Fig 5.3 Graph Formation data.

Fig 5.4 Graph Formation data

Fig 5.5 Graph Formation Data
Step 3. Find the degree of trust: Find the 2 nodes which are max connection it means node which are highly connected.

Fig 5.6 Degree of Trust.

Fig 5.7 Graph after finding the degree
Step 4.Two highly connected node based on ratio: Table shows the friend of highly connected nodes which are directly connected with highly connected node.

Fig 5.8 Data of node

Fig 5.9 Data of Node
Step 5.Total time of simulation: Total time taken by skeleton to transfer the data between source and destination.

Fig 5.10 Time
Step 6.Total no of transmission of message: Total no of copies of one message transfer in the network.

Fig 5.11 Total no of message
Step 7.Energy of node: Gives the information about the nodes energy when node enter in the system.

Fig.5.12 Energy of node
Step 8.Energy after message passing: Information about remaining energy of the node after transmission.
Fig 5.13 Remaining Energy
After black hole creating node is finded and if that node is center node, so cluster is formed again by deleting that node from the system. Enter the information which is required for generating network.

Fig 5.14 Enter the data
Network creation after entering the necessary information:
Fig 5.15 Network creation


In proposed system, the social skeleton based on social tie of nodes in the network. For solving the problem associated with security like misbehaving nodes and misuse of the data, for detecting misbehaving node watchdog mechanism is used and encrypt the data for security purpose.

1 Cerf, Vinton, et al. Delay-tolerant networking architecture. RFC 4838, April, 2007.

Online available at
2 Warthman, Forrest. “Delay-and Disruption-Tolerant Networks (DTNs).” A Tutorial. V. Interplanetary Internet Special Interest Group (2012).

3 Burleigh, Scott, et al.”Delay-tolerant networking: an approach to interplanetary
Internet.” Communications Magazine, IEEE 41.6 (2003): 128-136.

4 Mobile Ad-Hoc and DTN Networks at IPCAS Lab, online available:
5 Karimzadeh, Morteza, et al.”Information delivery in delay tolerant networks.” on
line available at http://www.cs.tut.?/ moltchan/pubs/dtn2011.pdf
6 Introduction To Delay Tolerant Networks’, presentation. Online available at: ttsai/course/inv cs/intro dtn.ppt
7 Ott, Jrg, Dirk Kutscher, and Christoph Dwertmann. “Integrating DTN and
MANET routing.” ACM, 2006.

8 Daly, Elizabeth M., and Mads Haahr. “Social network analysis for routing in dis
connected delay-tolerant manets.” ACM, 2007.

9 Erramilli, Vijay, et al. “Delegation forwarding.”ACM, 2008.

10 Clare, Loren, Scott Burleigh, and Keith Scott. “Endpoint naming for space de-
lay/disruption tolerant networking.” IEEE, 2010.

11 Anthru, Shermina V., and T. P. Jayakumar. “Opportunistic Routing Protocols InHuman Working Day Model Delay Tolerant Networks.” International Journal Of Engineering And Computer Science 3.5 (2014): 5960-5965
12 Jones, Evan PC, and Paul AS Ward. “Routing strategies for delay-tolerant networks.” ACM Computer Communication Review (2016).

13 Jones, Evan PC, et al. “Practical routing in delay-tolerant networks.”, IEEE (2016).

14 Jianfeng Guan,Qichu,Ilsun You,”The social relationship based adaptive multi spray and wait routing algorithm for DTN”,Hindawi,2017
15 Pan Hui, Jon Crocroft, Eiko Yoneki “Bubble Rap: Social based forwarding in Delay Tolerant Networks”,IEEE,201116 Alessandro Mei,,Julinda Stefa “Give2Get: Forwarding in Social Mobile Wireless Network of Selfish Individuals”, International Conference on Distributed Computing System,2010
17 Pan Hui, Eiko Yoneki, Shu-Yan Chan, Jon Crowcroft”Distributed Community Detection in Delay Tolerant Networks” Springer,201418 Marcin Kawecki,Radoslaw Olgierd Schoeneich,”Mobility based routing algorithm in delay tolerent network”,Springer,2016
19 1Resmi C.S,Sindhu S,”Trust aware watchdog mechanism to detect selfish node in MANET”,IJARCCE,2016.

20 Husna Taj,Kampe Shilpa”Detecting Selfish Nodes using a Collaborative Contact based watchdog” International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Technology Research,2016
21 Zongqing Lu,Xiao SUN,Yonggang Wen,Guohong Cao,”Skeleton construction in mobile social network”,IEEE,2012
22 2Momin Kashif M,V.S.Kadam,”Improved collaborative watchdog system for detecting of selfish node in MANET.”,IJARCCE,2016
23 Alessandro Mei,NatasciaPiroso,Julinda Stefa,”Count on me:reliable broadcast and efficient routing in DTNs througn social skeletons”,Elsevier,2016
24 Michael Mi zenmecher,Salvator Pontarelli,Pendro Reviriego”Adaptive Cuckoo Filter”Cornell University Library,2017.