By the age of 18
By the age of 18, teenagers are much stronger and develop gross motor skills through many different sport activities. The resulting changes due to puberty can have various effects on teenagers’ bodies. In fact, some teenagers can grow taller than their parents. For both girls and boys, are very common differences in height and weight, emotional ups and downs, moodiness and skin problems. Girls typically finish growing by the age of 16 and boys by the age of 18. A lot of teenagers who are going through these changes could be worried about their personal image and weight issues, together with the way they look, could become important reasons of concern.
By the time an adolescent has reached 19 years, he/she could be sexually active and even have children.
During this stage, young adults continue to develop their executive functioning skills, they also begin to question and analyse carefully situations and circumstances, reasoning about long-term consequences.
In fact, between 16 and 19 years of age, young adolescents begin to think about their future. Some decide to go to college, others may choose not to pursue further education and go straight to work. Adolescents develop the ability to speak rather than rebel and misbehave; consequently, the relationships with parents and friends improve consistently and become more honest and open. Being part of a group is not essential anymore and group friendships begin to be replaced by individual friendships. By 16-year-old, many teenagers would be experiencing intimate relationships with their first loves. Many of them develop the ability to self-reflect, understanding the consequences of their own actions in a moral context and as part of the world where they live in: this brings to the development of ethics.
Teenagers essentially communicate like adults: they comprehend abstract language, metaphors, idioms, figurative language, etc. They are confident following directions and instructions and they talk using long sentences with an average length of 9-13 words.
They are more skillful in discussions and can use a range of arguments to persuade the people around them. In fact, they are able to understand punctuation and write with complex syntactic structures. However, communication is not only about the understanding of words; it also includes how they think of themselves, their friends, their families and other people.
Young adults of this age seek independence from family in order to establish their own identity. Although they still need the support from family and adults, they seek separation from parents (psychologically, if not physically). In fact, during this stage, relationships with parents can become more distant, as the main focus of teenagers is primarily on the stable relationships they create based upon real qualities. At 18-19 years of age, young adults refine and clarify important core values based upon moral principles conscience, now more developed. Most of them will go through adolescence with little problems, but some experience high levels of stress and will need extra support. The presence of good role models is crucial as teenagers begin to self-assess and explore their future opportunities and realistic goals.
Later adolescents experience great highs and great depressions. At this stage, teenagers become more accepting of their body changes, but appearance is still crucial. They need to accept the self-image that has emerged. Introspectiveness is very common. Young adults who have been successful in establishing a sense of individuation are able to accept responsibility for their choices. In fact, being independent from parents means that they are cable to make their own decisions. In fact, genuine behavioural independence emerges when conformity to parents and friends declines.