My Ssec Capstone Project By Tandiwe P

By Tandiwe P

By Tandiwe P. Mutede A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy (Geography and Environmental Studies) in the Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Department of Geography, History and Environmental Studies University of Namibia Main Supervisor Prof. Dr F.O. Becker, Department of Geography, History and Environmental Studies, University of Namibia Co- Supervisor Prof. D.S Tevera, Department of Geography and Planning, University of Western Cape, South Africa January 2018 ABSTRACT Demand for raw materials for production of goods has risen particularly among industrialized and emerging economies. The rise in demand for raw materials has led to shortages and high priced materials. In striving to meet the high demand, among other options, countries worldwide have turned to recycling as an alternative source in order to reduce dependency solely on virgin or primary raw materials. In developing countries, recycling is an emerging industry. This study aimed to investigate the recycling industry as an emerging source of raw material in Namibia. It was a case study on an emerging economic sector involved in waste recovery, raw materials processing, manufacturing and subsequent purchasing of produced goods and sought to develop a conceptual model to guide waste recycling and management in Namibia. This study was a case study qualitative in nature employing interviews, document search and observation to collect data to achieve various objectives namely to investigate the motives and extent of involvement of companies in solid waste recycling in Namibia, examine legislation and policies, guiding waste recovery and recycling in Namibia, investigate emerging waste recycling trends, recycling value addition processes and associated benefit chains, establish local and regional operational network linkages in the industry and to come up with a model to guide waste management in Namibia. A qualitative approach was the most suitable in the exploration of this new industry which has not seen much research, particularly in the field of economic Geography in Namibia. The units of analysis comprised recycling companies in Namibia. Both purposive and accidental samplings were used to select the companies. The data was analyzed manually using content analysis and presented in descriptive narrative with some illustrative tables and figures. The study showed that recycling industry in Namibia is still in its infancy with most of the activities still concentrated in the recovery, collection and semi processing stage of the recycling chain. Materials recycled include plastic, paper, glass, cans, scrap metal and electronic waste. Little manufacturing of these raw materials and products is done locally. Most of the final processing and subsequent production of new goods is done outside the country a situation which may disadvantage the country in terms of industrial and economic growth. A host of some challenges still hinder the potential success of the industry. Despite these challenges, the industry is a welcome development in the country as it has become a source of employment as well as a waste reduction measure. Networking within the industry both local and regional facilitates its survival. The study recommends for an Integrated Recycling Model for Namibia which could assist solid waste management. Such a programme could promote a culture of recycling, review of legal and regulatory framework, building technical capacity through the establishment of Recycling Fund and development of program of action including an establishment of a national database of recyclable waste. DECLARATIONS I, Tandiwe P. Mutede, hereby declare that this is a true reflection of my own research and that this work or part thereof has not been submitted for a degree in any other institution of higher learning. No part of this dissertation may be reproduced, stored in any retrieval system, or transmitted in any form, or by any means without the prior permission of the author, or the University of Namibia. I, Tandiwe P. Mutede, grant the University of Namibia the right to reproduce this dissertation in whole or in part, in any manner or format, which the University of Namibia may deem fit, for any person or institution requiring it for study and research providing that the University of Namibia shall waive this right if the whole dissertation has been or is being published in a manner satisfactory to the University. .. Date Tandiwe P. Mutede DEDICATION To my beloved family, my parents Mr and Mrs Nyabvure, brothers and sisters who encouraged me when I was about to give up. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This study would not have been possible without the support and guidance of a number of people and institutions My supervisors Prof F. Becker and Prof. D.S. Tevera, for your advice, guidance and tireless encouragement Prof C.T. Nengomasha in the Department of Information and Communication Studies, for your advice, guidance and tireless encouragement. The many institutions and companies, involved in recycling, for granting me permission to carry out the research including the individual respondents. I give special thanks to my family, especially my dear husband Hillary who against all odds supported me all the way through in many forms and my two loving sons for the moral support and help with house chores during the busy times. Above all, I give thanks to my Lord God Almighty, for the strength. TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT ………………………………………………………………………………….i DECLARATIONS………………………………………………………………..iii DEDICATION ……………………………………………………………………………….iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ………………………………………………………………v TABLE OF CONTENTS ……………………………………………………………….vi TABLES ……………………………………………………………………………………..xiii LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS …………………………………………………………..xv CHAPTER 11 INTRODUCTION……………………………………………………………………………1 1.1 Orientation of the Study………………………………………………………………..1 1.2 Statement of the problem……………………………………………………………….4 1.3 Objectives of the study………………………………………………………………….. 5 1.4 Significance of the study…………………………………………………………………6 1.5 Limitations of the Study………………………………………………………………….7 1.6 Motivation of study ..8 1.7 Study area.9 1.8 Structure of the report………………………………………………………………………10 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW12 2.1 Introduction..12 2.2 Conceptual framework.12 2.2.1 Recycling industry An Overview12 2.2.2 Recycling and Sustainability13 2.2.3Recycling and Waste Management..14 2.2.4Motives for Recycling 15 Economic Imperatives ..15 Altruistic Reasons..16 Legal Considerations..17 Social Imperatives19 2.2.5 Product Life Cycle Models19 Avoided Burden Method of Recycling.20 Avoided Burden End of Life Recycling Model.21 The Cut- off Method20 Economic Allocation Model.20 2.2.6 Nature of Solid Waste Recycling.21 2.2.7 Recycling Chain Process21 Solid Waste Recycling Value Addition Chain. 23 Recycling Collection Facilities24 Recovery Facilities26 Facilities.26 Manufacturing and Selling Facilities.27 2.2.8 Benefit Chains Associated With Value Addition Processes.27 2.2.9 Recycling Network Linkages28 2.3 Literature Review.29 2.3.1 Actors and trends in the industry30 2.3.2 Motives for recycling34 2.3.3 Policies and Legislation37 2.3.4 Benefits of Recycling39 2.3.5 Recycling Value Addition Processes.42 2.3.6 Challenges of Recycling44 2.4 Review of Studies in Namibia46 2.5 Concluding Remarks..49 CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY51 3.1 Introduction51 3.2 Research Paradigms51 3.3 Ontological Orientation of the research.53 3.4 Epistemological Orientation of the research.54 3.5 Methodological Assumptions55 3.6 Research Design.56 3.6.1 Case Study56 3.6.2 Qualitative Research..56 3.7 Research Population.58 3.8 Sampling58 3.9 Data Collection Techniques 59 3.9.1 Interviews59 3.9.2 Interview Guides 62 3.9.3 Direct Observation..62 3.9.4 Observation Checklist..63 3.9.5 Document Search .63 3.9.6 Piloting and Pre-testing..64 3.10 Data Collection Procedure65 3.10.1 Seeking Permission..65 3.10.2 Interview Process66 3.10.3 Research Ethics…66 3.11 Data Analysis Procedures and Presentation.67 3.11.1 Validity and Reliability68 3.11.2 Data Analysis Procedures68 3.11.3 Data Presentation.70 3.11.4 Chapter Summary.70 CHAPTER 4 PRESENTATION AND INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS .71 4.1 Introduction..71 4.2 Industry Players and their roles, challenges, motives, and extent of involvement in recycling solid waste in Namibia.72 4.2.1 Industry Players and their roles72 Role of Players in the Industry.73 Demography of Companies73 Distribution of Companies and Contributory factors..75 4.2.2 Challenges in the industry76 4.2.3 Motives for Recycling77 4.2.4 Extent of Involvement in Recycling Industry.79 Extent of Involvement with regards to processes79 Extent of Involvement with regards type of product material..81 Extend of involvement with regards to modes of collection84 4.3 Policies and Legislation guiding waste recovery and recycling.86 4.3.1 Policies and guidelines guiding waste recovery and recycling..86 Government Waste Management Policy.86 Public Private Partnership Policy87 City of Windhoek Waste Management Policy87 Formal Informal Partnership.88 4.3.2 Legislation regulating Recycling.88 Regulatory Environment..88 Legislation controlling company operation..89 4.3.3 Summary.91 4.4 Emerging waste recycling trends, value addition processes and associated benefit chains .91 4.4.1 Waste recycling trends .91 Emerging waste recycling trends .91 Areal Expansion .93 Growth in number of players in the industry94 Trends in prices of products94 Growth in volume of recycled waste .95 Employment trends..98 Growth of total recycling in Namibia99 4.4.2 Value Addition Processes in Namibia..100 Total recycling in Namibia -Value addition for Plastics 100 Value addition for Paper..102 Value addition for Glass103 Value addition for Cans .104 Value addition for Scrap Metals..104 Value addition for E-Waste105 4.4.3 Benefit chains associated with recycling processes.106 4.5 Local network linkages in the industry .110 4.5.1 Forms of linkages..110 4.5.2 Local Company Linkages..110 4.5.3 External Linkages..112 4.6 Chapter Summary.115 CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION OF RESEARCH FINDINGS116 5.1 Introduction..116 5.2 Industry Players and their roles, challenges, motives, and extent of involvement in recycling solid waste in Namibia 116 5.2.1 Industry Players and their roles116 5.2.2 Challenges in the industry119 5.2.3 Motives for Recycling 122 Environmental Reasons123 Economic Reasons 128 Social Reasons .130 Other Reasons130 5.2.4 Extent of Involvement in Recycling Industry131 Extent of Involvement with regards to processes 132 Extent of Involvement with regards type of products.139 Extent of involvement with regards to modes of collection..141 Summary.145 5.3 Policies and Legislation guiding waste recovery and recycling in Namibia .146 5.3.1 Policies and guidelines guiding waste recovery and recycling .146 Government Waste Management Policy..146 Public Private Partnership 147 City of Windhoek Waste Management Policy.147 Formal Informal Partnership.. Intergration Policy148 Industrialization Policy149 Summary149 5.3.2 Legislation governing Recycling Industry in Namibia..150 Public and Environmental Health Act No.1. 2015151 Environmental Management Protection Act No. 7.2007152 The Local Authority Act No.23.1992153 Solid Waste Management Regulations No.16. 2011153 Labor Act No.11.2007. . 154 Water Resources Management Act No.11.2013154 The Standard Act No.18.2005155 The Affirmative Action Act No.29.1998..156 Summary.156 5.3.3 Conclusion.158 5.4 Emerging waste recycling trends, value addition processes and associated benefit chains 159 5.4.1 Waste recycling trends 159 Private Sector Participation..159 Recovery of Recyclables 161 Growth of Industry165 Promotion of Industry167 Summary.168 5.4.2 Value Addition Chain Processes in Namibia169 Value addition processes for Plastics (Total recycling in Namibia).171 Value addition processes for other materials175 5.4.3 Benefit chains associated with recycling in Namibia.179 Economic Benefits.180 Environmental Benefits183 Social Benefits186 Summary.. 187 5.5 Operational Network linkages in recycling 188 5.5.1 Local recyclable material linkages.188 Total plastic recycling linkages. 189 Non-metal material linkages.. 190 Metallic material linkages…191 E-waste material linkages191 5.6 Local non-material linkages..192 5.6.1Regional and International linkages.193 5.6.2 Summary on Linkages.193 5.7 Chapter Summary194 CHAPTER 6 PROPOSED RECYCLING MODEL.196 6. 1 Introduction196 6.2 Integrated Recycling Model for Namibia198 6.2.1 Strengthening legal and regulatory framework…199 Recycling Legislation.201 Recycling Policies.201 6.2.2 Promote Culture of Recycling201 6.2.3 Resource Requirements..203 Labor..203 Land..203 Infrastructure204 Transport..204 6.2.4 Promote Program of Action205 6.2.5 Recycling Fund..205 Environmental Investment Fund Namibia…205 Development Bank of Namibia..206 Partnership for Local Democracy Development and Social Innovation ..206 GIZ.206 Konington Capital207 Safland Property Group Namibia207 6.2.6 Records management207 6.3 Chapter Summary.209 CHAPTER 7 SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ..210 7.1 Introduction..210 7.2 Summary ..210 Motives of companies in solid waste recycling in Namibia..210 7.2.2 Extent of involvement of companies in solid waste recycling in Namibia..210 7.2.3 Policies guiding and waste recovery and recycling .. 212 Legislation guiding waste recovery and recycling212 7.2.5 Emerging waste recycling trends. 213 7.2.6 Recycling value addition processes and products . 213 7.2.7 Benefit chains of recycling industry in Namibia 214 7.2.8 Establishment of Operational Network linkages in the industry214 7.3 Conclusion215 7.3 1 Motives of Companies in solid waste recycling in Namibia.215 7.3.2 Extent of involvement of companies in solid waste recycling in Namibia .215 7.4. Regulatory Framework.. 216 7.4.1 Policies guiding waste recovery and recycling ..216 7.4.2 Legislation guiding waste recovery and recycling..217 7.5 Emerging waste recycling trends, value addition and benefit chains217 7.5.1 Emerging waste recycling trends..217 7.5.2 Value addition processes and products218 7.5.3 Benefits of recycling industry in Namibia..218 7.5 Establishment of Operational network linkages in the industry218 7.7 Recommendations..219 7.8 Contributions of the Study..220 7.9 Areas of Further Research221 7.10 Conclusion..222 REFERENCES……………………………………………………………………………..224 Appendices..242 APPENDIX A Ethical Clearance Certificate………………………………………..242 APPENDIX B Letter to carry out the research……………………………………….243 APPENDIX C Request Letter to carry out recycling research in the Ministry of Environment and Tourism.246. APPENDIX D Request Letter to carry out research at your company247 APPENDIX E Informed letter for Participants249 APPENDIX F Structure of interview guide for companies.251 APPENDIX G Observation schedule checklist254 TABLES Table 2.1 Policy instruments under the EPR umbrella.18 Table 4.1 The role of different players in recycling industry..73 Table 4.2 Demography of participating companies..74 Table 4.3 Challenges in recycling industry in Namibia77 Table 4.4 Motives for Recycling by Companies.78 Table 4.5 Extent of company involvement with regards to the recycling Processes.80 Table 4.6 Product material handling per company.81 Table 4.7 Spectrum of recyclables materials in further categories82 Table 4.8 Plastic recycling codes and symbols83 Table 4.9 Sources of raw materials by companies..84 Table 4.10 Collection modes..85 Table 4.11 Legislation guiding recycling90 Table 4.12 Recovery and collection trends in recycling.92 Table 4.13 Scrap metal prices over the years93 Table 4.14 Percentage of waste recycled in Windhoek95 Table 4.15 Company E production figures..97 Table 4.16 Company K production figures.97 Table 4.17 Companies contributing to total recycling in Namibia.98 Table 4.18 Value addition by company for plastics in Namibia..101 Table 4.19 Value addition by company for paper in Namibia.103 Table 4.20 Value addition by company for bottles in Namibia103 Table 4.21 Value addition by company for cans in Namibia..104 Table 4.22 Value addition by company for scrap metals in Namibia.105 Table 4.23 Value addition by company for e-waste in Namibia106 Table 4.24 Benefits of recycling..107 Table 4.25 Participants view of recycling108 Table4.26 Forms of linkages110 Table 4.27 Local backward and forward linkages companies……………111 Table 2.28 Forward regional and international linkages113 LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1.1 Locality map of Namibia showing major towns and neighbouring countries.10 Figure 21 Solid Waste Management Hierarchy14 Figure 2.2 Recycling network players22 Figure 2.3 Recycling loop22 Figure 2.4 A standardized model for the sustainable value chain.23 Figure 41 Communication lines of the players in the industry72 Figure 4.2 Trends in domestic general waste generated in Windhoek. .94 Figure 4.3 Domestic waste generation and recycling in Windhoek95 Figure 44 Trends of recyclables collected at the Material Recovery Facility96 Figure 4.5 Processes observed in Namibia plastic recycling.99 Figure 4.6 Simplifies schematic diagram for plastic recycling.102 Figure 4.7 Benefit chains of recycling solid waste..109 Figure 4.8 Recycling linkages-local, regional and international.114 Figure 4.9 Recycling model key stakeholders.199 Figure 4.10 Proposed Integrated Recycling Model for Namibia.200 LIST OFABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS BIR – Bureau Recycling Institute CBS – Clear Bag System EPR – Extended Producer Responsibility ELV – End-of-life Vehicles EPAT – Environmental Protection Administration Taiwan EPA – Environmental Protection Agency EASAC – European Academies Science Advisory Council E U – European Union EASAC – European Academies Science Advisory Council IMF – International Monetary Fund GDP – Gross Domestic Product GIZ – Organisation (Deutsche GesellschaftfrInternationaleZusammenarbeit) CoW – City of Windhoek SWMP- Solid Waste Management Policy LCA- Life Cycle Analysis EOL- End of Life EMA- Environmental Management Act HDPE- High Density Polyethylene PET- Polyethylene Terephthalate LDPE- Low Density Polyethylene Plastics PVC – Poly Vinyl chloride Plastics PP – Polypropylene Plastics PPP – Public Private Partnership MRF- Materials Recovery Facility BBCs Buy-Back Centres MIT – Ministry of Industry and Trade MET- Ministry of Environment and Tourism MRLGHRD- Ministry of Regional and Local Government, Housing and Rural development MOHSS – Ministry of Health and Social Services MAFWR – Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Water Resources NWR – Namibia Wildlife Resorts WEEE- Waste from Electrical and Electronic Equipment TGRC- The Glass Recycling Company SMEs – Small and Medium Enterprises SAPPI – South Africa Plastic Packaging Institute RRW – Regulated Recyclable Waste EIF – Environmental Investment Fund Namibia DBN – Development Bank of Namibia – PLDDSI – Partnership for Local Democracy, Development and Social Innovation WMH – Waste Management Hierarchy NBL – Namibia Breweries Limited NWR- Namibia Wildlife Resorts RRW – Regulated Recyclable Waste WEEE- Waste from Electrical and Electronic Equipment CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION Orientation of the Study Historically recycling solid waste has always existed in the form of waste re-use by salvaging materials like leather, feathers and textiles and was regarded as a fringe industry (Choi, 2012). Little attention was given to it. Many people partly survived by selling recovered discarded materials. In addition, recovery of waste in the recycling chain had been associated mainly with the poor and disadvantaged people in society (Luitel Khanal, 2010) a practice still dominant in most developing countries (Ndum, 2013 Swanpan, 2009). Factors that push people into waste picking are fundamentally socio-economic with the poor people being forced to make choices between starving or picking waste for a living (Medina, 2008). Over the years recycling patterns have changed due to growing demand for raw materials, increasing waste and the Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) policies which task manufacturers to take responsibility for managing their end-of-life (EOL), (Choi,2012). The natural environment has always been the main source for raw materials in the production of goods through mineral extraction, timber logging and oil drilling. However, studies report that rising demand for raw materials has lead to shortages and high prices due to competition for the available limited resources (Hilpert Milder, 2013 European Technology Platform on Sustainable Mineral Resources, 2011). This development has contributed to growth of recycling as a sound approach that promotes sustainability in the 21st century. For example, the major importers of scrap are Turkey, USA and the Asian countries India, China, Korea, Malaysia, Taiwan and Thailand (BIR, 2013 and 2016). In order to reduce the deficit of metallic raw materials, Japan recycles through recovering compounds and materials from products which have reached their end of life like vehicles. The practise of urban mining as it is known according to (Gutberlet,2015) cited in (Belgiorno Cesaro , 2017) is considered as a very useful strategy to regain important raw materials such as metals with benefits of resource conservation, environmental protection and economic advantages as well. In 2008 the EU, launched the Raw Materials Initiative (RMI) with recycling as one of its Strategy on raw materials. According to (BIR, 2013 and 2016) Chinas demand for steel rose from 512.3 million tons in 2008 to 798.8 million tons in 2015 of which 72 and 90.1 million tons came from scrap. Turkey and USAs steel manufacturing industries used more than 76 and 71.7 of scrap in 2015 respectively. Recycling solid waste involving processing of waste material into new products has become an integral part of society today (BIR, 2005). Recycling is multi-functional system with dual functions of secondary material production and waste management (Nakatani, 2014). The recycling industry growth has also been propelled by increased waste generation. According to (Hoornweg Bhada-Tata, 2015 David et al., 2015 Smith 2012 UN-Habitat, 2010) growing volumes of waste linked to high consumption patterns, increases in populations, better living standards and economic development has also brought the problematics of waste recovery and recycling to be part of society because of the negative impact of waste on the environment and human health. The need for sustainability in waste management has led to recycling being viewed as a necessity than an option in dealing with the increase in waste. The old concept of throwing away trash no longer works, as emphasized by Smith (2012). In developing countries, recycling solid waste is an emerging industry with benefits emanating from new raw material industries, production processes, products and markets, based on reuse of pre-used and discarded raw materials (Mathur, 2013 Swapan, 2009). In the regional context of southern Africa, dimensions of waste recovery and recycling as an emerging industry have been rarely researched in economic geography. Forbes Kirsch (2011) cited in Tunner (2012) noted a blind spot in the field of economic geography, regarding asking questions about the emergence of new industries. Further, Choi (2012) reported a lack of adequate research in the recycling industry e.g. in areas of growth of the industry and its spatial patterns with Namibia not being an exception. The structure of the industry in Namibia is a combination of both the formal and informal sectors (Kayaking Matongela, 2012) with the majority of the formal companies in food and drink processing, wood and furniture, engineering and repair activities. Small scale industries are mainly concentrated in retailing. In Namibia formal recycling is an industry yet to be understood and researched. Recycling has been highlighted in studies conducted by Mutumba (2005 Keyter 2009 Hasheela 2009 Magen 2010 Lindell 2012) emphasizing the need to do in-depth studies on recycling. This research is the first of its kind that seeks to investigate the issues of formal recycling in Namibia from a geographic point of view. 1.2 Statement of the Problem The unfolding revolution of sustainability in resource conservation and environmental protection has created an awareness of the importance of recycling world-wide including Namibia (Sukholthaman, 2012). Resource scarcity has led to the exploration of alternative resources and recycling is an area rapidly gaining popularity in this drive. As reported by studies conducted (Hasheela, 2009 Magen, 2010 Lindell, 2012 Croset, 2014), Namibia is recycling solid waste. Ashipala (2012) reported that recycling solid waste in Namibia is still a fledgling business which is associated with the production of new materials. In the Namibian context, emerging industries are a newly classified sector of the economy. Bird (2010), Abernathy and Utterback (1978 Forbes and Kirsch, 2011) as cited in Tanner (2012) observed that such industries are often difficult to be identified during their early development phases until their products appear on the market. Data about the industry in Namibia is still limited as not much records are kept (RNF, 2013) resulting in little information known about the industry by the generality of the population. While previous studies revealed that recycling activities are on-going in the country, no single comprehensive study had been carried out regarding the industry. This research is a direct response to that knowledge gap. Urban areas and local authorities struggling with solid waste management could benefit from a broadened understanding of the industry. In light of such insights, this study investigated the recycling industry in Namibia. 1.3 Objectives of the Study The main objective of the study was to investigate the recycling industry in Namibia, an emerging economic sector involved in the recovery, processing of raw materials, manufacturing and subsequent purchasing of produced goods. Against this background, specific objectives of the study were to Identify players and investigate the motives and extent of involvement in solid waste recycling in Namibia Examine legislation and policies, guiding waste recovery and recycling in Namibia Investigate emerging waste recycling trends, recycling value addition processes and associated benefit chains Establish local and regional operational network linkages in the industry and Come up with a model to guide waste management and recycling in Namibia. 1.4 Significance of the Study It is without doubt that Namibia is recycling. The industry is still in its infancy, becoming one among growing like economic activities such as mining, fishing, agriculture, tourism. It was evident that not much research in solid waste recycling economy has conducted to date, except in connection with the logistics of solid waste management (Croset, 2014 Schioldborg, 2014 Jacobsen et al., 2014 Lindell, 2012 Magen, 2010 Hasheela, 2009). Economic activities are important in development and are to shape public policy. Therefore the findings will serve to close data and knowledge gaps emphasizing economic aspects. Results may provide fundamental inputs into the understanding of the recycling industry, and perhaps formulation of policies for awareness building, operational practices and governance in the recycling industry. Academically, findings are expected to change known perceptions about waste and add knowledge in the discipline of applied economic geography as well as to pave way for further research. 1.5 Limitations of the Study The research was a case study, qualitative in nature. Qualitative research by design and data acquisition depends greatly on the willingness of respondents to participate which came out to be a big challenge as some of them were not willing to do so. Efforts by the researcher to get them on board proved difficult as the researcher was continuously given empty promises by those who tried to be diplomatic compared to some whom out rightly said no. Phone calls to enquire and book for appointments were not answered in some instances resulting in the researcher working with a lesser number of participants than the initial intended number of twenty companies which were identified. In addition, of those who were willing to participate, not all were patient enough to accommodate the 30 – 45 minute interview by the research as this was deemed to be a waste of the company time. The researcher had to adjust accordingly thus compromising the level of detail needed. Moreover, company officials were very careful in their responses and thus the researcher only managed to get general information leaving without additional information which was considered confidential. Data acquisition through document search yielded very little as the researcher failed to have access to company documents. Information was once again considered confidential. The researcher had to work with information given only during interviews , observations and online company information. Financial constraints was another challenge for the researcher, thus was only able to gather information from places that were reachable and also in proximity to the researcher. Namibia is vast territory, so it was not easy for the researcher to visit the whole breadth of the country to collect data. The researcher only managed to get most of the information from companies in Windhoek, Walvis Bay, Swakopmund, Okahandja and Keetmanshoop. Another limitation of this study was the focus on Namibias formal recycling industry only leaving out the informal that was also contributing to the recycling chain where, as far as this researcher is concerned, no studies on recycling of solid waste have been conducted. Future research could look into this area to establish the role and contribution to the industry. The researcher left out this component due to language barrier and safety concerns. In summary, the major limitation of the study was the unwillingness of the respondents to divulge data on volumes and prices for their merchandise on suspicions and fear of competitors. The researcher therefore had to make do with information she managed to gather. 1.6 Motivation of Study Earlier studies on municipal solid waste management motivated the researcher to conduct this study. The studies focused on disposal of waste and how landfill sites locations shifted over time in Harare. The observations were that landfills were shifting further and further away from sources of waste generation, a situation regarded unsustainable. This situation created a difficult operational environment for traditional council operations and prompted the need for private sector involvement. Further on, the recycling program rolled out in Windhoek in 2010 by the CoW Solid Waste Management Department created further interest in this field. A lot was going on at the time which was quite visible to the public eye. Small trucks ferrying recyclables around the City was a common scenario. Recyclables being collected from some households, street waste pickers picking plastics, bottles, cans, recycling monuments and council advertisements about recycling on waste removal trucks, public awareness campaigns were some of the activities. The impetus to do a research was increased as the researcher had a lot of questions about the whole program. Some of these questions were How is recycling assisting in solid waste management How is the private sector involved in the recycling program What are the issues involved in successful recycling What is happens to the recovered materials These deeper thoughts furthered interest into the issues of recycling solid waste as a source of raw materials. As a result of these thoughts, the study was undertaken. 1.7 Study Area The modern history of the southern African country of Namibia starts with its colonization by the German empire from 1884-1915.Until independence on the 21 of March, 1990, it was under the protectorate of South Africa. Namibia borders the Atlantic Ocean on the west and shares land borders with Zambia and Angola to the north, Botswana to the east, and South Africa to the south and east. The country has a total land area of 824 292 km2km2, with a population density of 2.6 people per square kilometer. An estimate of 49.7 of the population lives in urban areas (Geo-Hive, 2013) with 325 858 in the Capital City of Windhoek according to Namibia 2011 Population and Housing Census Main Report. The majority of the population thrives on agriculture in the rural areas. Linked to South Africa, the economy is mainly based on mining, tourism, farming, fishing manufacturing, whole sale retail trade. The countrys Gross Domestic Product(GDP) is estimated at USD 28 billion (IMF Report, 2013) and GDP per capita (PPP) of about 11, 500. With a small internal market Namibia is strongly dependant on exports to other countries .United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (2015) states that Namibia has experienced multiple years of robust economic growth and has made great strides in human development since independence in 1990. It remains one of the most unequal countries in the world (Namibia Statistics Agency, 2012a) as high inequalities remain within the society. The country has a Gini coefficient of 59.7. The Gini coefficient is a measure of income distribution in a country (CIA, 2014 Economic Policy and Poverty Unit Report, 2013). High unemployment remains a cause of concern with 27.4 percent of the population according to the NSA (Namibian Statistics Agency, 2013). Figure 1.1 Locality map of Namibia showing major towns and neighbouring countries Source Schioldborg (2014) 1.8 Structure of the report The dissertation is organized into seven chapters. Chapter one provides the introduction and background of the study, problem statement, aim and objectives, significance of the study, limitations, motivation of the study and the description of the study area. Chapter 2 Conceptual Framework and Literature review The chapter presents Conceptual Framework and Literature review. The Conceptual framework covers issues such as overview of recycling, models of recycling, motives, recycling programs as well as benefit chains associated with the industry. The literature review focuses on related studies and their findings. Chapter 3 Methodology This chapter outlines the methodology of the study in terms of the research design, study population, sample, data collection techniques, data collections instruments and the data analysis procedures, piloting of the data collection instruments and ethical considerations. Chapter 4 Presentation and Interpretation of Results Data is presented in this chapter. Data on motives and extent of involvement of companies in solid waste recycling, legislation and policies governing the industry, network linkages in the industry, value addition and benefit chains of the industry in Namibia are all presented. Chapter 5 Discussion of Research Findings The chapter was dedicated to discussing the findings to emerging from the data that was presented in chapter four. The findings were discussed in relation to the thematic herdings that emerged from the main objectives as well as making some comparisons with findings of related studies. Chapter 6 Proposed Recycling Model The chapter will highlight the proposed solid waste and recycling model which can assist with waste management in Namibia. Chapter 7 Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations The chapter concludes the research by summarizing the results, presenting recommendations and suggesting areas for further research. CHAPTER TWO CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK AND LITERATURE REVIEW 2 .1 Introduction This chapter gives a review of concepts used in the study and reviews various studies concerning solid waste recycling practices around the world. Conceptual framework and literature reviewed were derived from journal articles, workshops/conferences/seminars reports, empirical studies reports and online resources. Most of these sources were accessed through the Internet. 2.2 Conceptual Framework Conceptual framework is an analytical framework which offers a logical structure of connected concepts that assists in proving a mental picture of how ideas relate to each other in a research and in the real world. It also gives an opportunity to specify and define concepts related to the problem (Luse et al., 2012). 2.2.1 Recycling Industry An Overview Solid waste recycling industry has been in existence for a very long time worldwide. According to Binda, (2014) the industry is as old as the history of mankind with evidence of recycling dating back to 400 BC. Choi (2012), states that the industry has traditionally been recognized as a local service and fringe industry. Little attention was paid to its existence as it was simply associated with marginalized poor members of society. Choi (2012) and BIR (2009) pointed out that the industry is becoming part of societies for two reasons namely as a source of raw materials and as a solid waste management a strategy. From a historical perspective, development of the recycling economy was strongly encouraged following the World Conference on Environment and Sustainable Development held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992, known as the Rio Summit, taking heed of the 1960-1970s environmental movements criticism of the practice of disposal-based waste management. Waste produced was either thrown away, burnt or buried as it was regarded useless mass of material. Environmentalist movements were of the opinion that waste was made up of different materials that should be treated differently i.e., reused, recycled, composted than to be discarded (Schall,1992) cited in Gertsakis Lewis, 2003). The Rio Earth Summit of 1992 advocated for sustainability in solid waste management as well as resource efficient 21st Green Economy in order to protect the environment. 2.2.2 Recycling and Sustainability The need to avoid unsustainable activities, has become a leading theme worldwide according Phillips Pittman (2009). Sustainability is increasingly being addressed with greater urgency (Sharpe Agarwal, 2014) prompted by concerns such as climate change, resource depletion, pollution, loss of species and ecosystems and poverty among others. The term sustainable development entered the public debate after the World Commission on Environment and Development published their landmark report Our Common Future in 1987(Gertsakis Lewis, 2003). Despite the extraordinary influence of the sustainable development concept, Phillips Pittman (2009) claimed that no perfect definition of the term has emerged. However, the most widely used formulation is the one published in the report Our Common Future which defines sustainable development as development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.(WCED,1987 p.43) cited in (Gertsakis Lewis, 2003). The Rio Summit of 1992 and Agenda 21 emphasized the importance of sustainability in economic development as well as waste management. For example, more efficient industrial operations as well as holistic waste management practices. The argument put forward was that the increase of waste generation and its management should be given priority while economic development continues. This advocation followed the realization that poor solid waste management can create negative environmental and health impacts (David, 2015 Hoornweg Bhada-Tata, 2015 Nathanson, 2015). 2.2.3 Recycling and Waste Management While recycling is considered a source of raw materials after processing, it is also seen as a waste management strategy. There are a number of relevant waste management principles that contribute to reduced waste volumes. Recycling is one among others such as waste avoidance, reduction and reusing as depicted. Source Nagabooshnam, 2011 Figure 2.1 Waste Management Hierarchy According to the waste management hierarchy, figure 2.1, the most preferred options for solid waste minimization are source reduction followed by re-use of products, recycling of materials, resource recovery in the form of material and energy, incineration and finally least preference for land filling. The waste hierarchy is a concept that promotes waste avoidance ahead of recycling and disposal. Its origins can be traced back to the 1970s, when the environmental movement started criticizing the practice of disposal-based waste management(Gertsakis Lewis, 2003).The waste management hierarchy concept is now extensively used in many countries as a guiding principle for waste policy and programmes as noted by (Gertsakis Lewis, 2003). 2.2.4 Motives for Recycling Drivers for recycling have been identified as environmental, economic, legal and social. Pitchayanin (2012) observed that recycling occurs for three basic reasons altruistic reasons, economic imperatives and legal considerations. In both developed and developing countries, recycling is being promoted for economic and environmental reasons (Binda, 2014). Economic imperatives Economically, one of the major driving forces for solid waste recycling is that it is a cost cutting measure. In both developed and developing countries, waste management has been observed to chew a lot of money from local authorities. For example, in developing countries, waste collection and treatment affect highly the economy of local authorities. Waste management is predicted to consume about 30 of the local authorities budgets in developing countries (Henry, et al., 2006) cited in Lindell (2012). Waste collection is the most costly activity of waste management, predicted to stand for 60-75 of the total waste management costs (Nemerow, et al., 2009) cited in Lindell (2012). On the other hand, growing demand for raw materials has also influenced the drive towards more recycling discarded products. According to Hilpert Mildner (2013) emerging economies such as Brazil, China, and India have joined the major industrial nations of North America, Europe, and Japan as the principal consumers of natural raw materials due to high demand of produced commodities. In order to meet the deficit, industrial strategies to escape this position include turning to importation of raw materials, stockpiling reserves, technological innovation, as well as recycling of end-of-life products such as cars to get much needed raw materials like steel. Koehn (2011) also highlighted that recycling was becoming one of the solutions to getting secondary raw materials. For example, he reported that around 34 of all global steel production is recycled material with Germany already producing 47 of it. Urban mining which involves the recovery of secondary raw materials from municipal waste is increasingly becoming an important concept in securing sustainable raw materials supply from domestic sources. In addition, recycled materials are considered cheaper than virgin raw materials UNEP (2013). Altruistic reasons Altruistic reasons include protecting the environment and conserving resources. In addition to the growing scarcity of natural virgin raw materials, increasing volumes of solid waste generation is one of the contributory factors for recycling worldwide, according to Smith (2012). Although, the quantity of solid waste is increasing, the composition is also becoming more and more diversified with serious implications particularly in developing countries where disposal of solid waste is poor and not managed well (UNEP, 2011 Tacoli, 2012 World Bank. 2012). Environmental pollution can occur through leaching of dumping sites and landfills, or by air pollution through burning waste. It is also a health hazard to the public and more so for workers and animals that get in direct contact with the waste (The World Bank, 2012). The need for environmental protection and resource conservation is being promoted at international level in order to ensure the respect for environmental values for the benefit of humanity now and in the future. All these highlighted issues point that sustainability in waste management is a necessity than an option in dealing with waste (Chukwunonye Clive, 2012 Modak, 2011 Williams, 2008). Chukwunonye Clive, (2012) emphasized that recycling will not only benefit the present but the future generations as well. Legal considerations If government requires recycling to be provided for, it imposes a wide variety of economic and civil penalties as incentives to encourage the practice. During the last decades, environmental concerns have been high on the legal agenda according to Ruppel (2013) due to growing pressure on the environment on which life depends on and fears that if this is left unchecked, it can result in more challenges for the future. In most cases, legal considerations have been a response to growing public demand to support the recycling initiative. Developed countries have established legal frameworks for their recycling industries.For example, Extended Producer Responsibility principle is mandatory.The concept of extended producer responsibility originated in Europe and applied to the management of packaging waste in countries such as Sweden, Taiwan and Germany in the late 1980s and early 1990s respectively (Wilson, 1996Walls, 2006). EPR can be defined as an environmental policy approach in which a producers responsibility for a product is extended to the post-consumer stage of the products lifecycle, including its final disposal (OECD cited in Widmer et al., 2005, p. 446). The policy today also applies to the management of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) in the EU through the 2002 EU WEEE directive). In line with the polluter pays principle (PPP), EPR shifts the physical and financial responsibility for the environmental impacts (waste) associated with products throughout their lifecycle from society as a whole (and municipalities in particular) toward the generators of waste e.g. manufacturers, importers, distributors and retailers and consumers. EPR aims to ensure that the external costs associated with products throughout their lifecycle (including final disposal) are internalized in the costs faced by waste generators and therefore to provide incentives to both producers and consumers to change their behavior in ways that shift waste management up the waste hierarchy. Table 2.1 highlights some of the instruments used to implement the EPR principle. Table 2.1 Policy instruments under the EPR umbrella Category ExamplesRegulatory instruments Takeback programs (mandatory or voluntary), including the provision of infrastructure reuse and recycling targets minimum product standards prohibitions of certain hazardous materials disposal bans mandated recovery/recycling obligationsEconomic instruments Product taxes, input/material levies, Virgin material taxes, collection and disposal fees, deposit-refund schemes, subsidies and tax/subsidy combinations Information instruments Environmental reporting Environmental labeling Provision of information to consumers, collectors, recyclers, etc. Source Nahman, 2009 Social imperatives Communities are known to appreciate waste disposal methods such as land-filling, incineration and composting. However, they were found to be aware of some of the environmental challenges they are associated with. For example, modern landfills were found to have the potential to produce negative social impacts. Thus, at the municipal level, recycling and waste reduction programs are generally influenced by community participation and health-related reasoning. According to research, recycling efforts are still low in developing countries due to low public participation. Possible explanations for this are that people do not separate wastes, infrastructure for waste separation is not in place, the waste collection system does not corresponded to recycling practices, and there are limited recycling technologies (Sukholthaman, 2012). According to Ezeah et al., (2013) recycling provides employment and a livelihood for impoverished, marginalized and vulnerable social groups that survive in a very hostile social and physical environment. The same idea is supported also by Manhart (2011) studying informal e-waste management in Lagos, Nigeria, that recycling does not require specific skills and is open to poor migrants from rural areas. 2.2.5 Product Life cycle models (cradle-grave) Recycling comes at the end of the useful life of a product. It can take different approaches or models, namely Avoided Burden Model involving repair and reuse Avoided Burden End of Life Recycling Model which includes selling or throwing away Cut-off Model consisting of recovering material for recycling and Economic Allocation Model which market driven as explained below (Olivetti et al. (2009). Avoided Burden Method of Recycling Worn out materials are not usually thrown but ways of prolonging the lifespan of the item are considered. This involves activities like upholstering or refurbishment of items like sofas in order to avoid the burden if the product is no longer useful. According to the waste management hierarchy this form of recycling is termed re-use. Avoided Burden End of Life Recycling Model (EOL) Products which have reached end of useful life are usually discarded by the initial owner. The initial owner disposes the products because he/she no longer sees value in it. Such products usually end up being sold or recovered by waste pickers either at curb side or at dump-sites and re-modeled into new products for further use. The Cut-off Method Waste recyclers are usually involved. They sort recyclable waste from the general waste before throwing away what is deemed as useless. The recyclable waste goes through reprocessing procedures before producing new products. Economic Allocation Model If the market is unsaturated, any materials can be destined for the market. However, when the market is saturated or fully developed (Olivetti et al., 2009), the marketers seek for unique recyclable materials with more value in order to enhance profitability due to increased competition. Such material as scrap metal and e-waste recycling give a competitive edge for the recyclers. 2.2.6. Nature of Solid Waste Recycling Waste can be any unwanted material that is due for discarding. Technically, waste is considered as a resource in the wrong place according to Abdullah, (2011) cited in Muhammad Manu (2013). As earlier on mentioned, recycling is a process that involves processing waste into other useful material. In this study, the working definition of recycling is that it is a chain process of collecting and processing of used materials that would otherwise be thrown away as trash and turning them into new raw materials and products according to Schultz et al., 1995 cited by Ali (2008).Recycling involves reuse as well as recovery. Reuse involves the process of recovering waste materials intended for the same or different purpose.On the other hand,recovery means the process or act of reclaiming or diverting waste materials for purposes of being reused or recycled but excludes the use for energy generation (Cow SWMP, 2009). Handling of recyclable waste is associated with both formal and informal sectors in the industry throughout the world, as illustrated in Figure 2.2. 2.2.7 Recycling Chain process Recycling is represented in three steps depicted by three chasing arrows as shown in figure 2.3 called the universal recycling symbol started by Anderson in 1970 as a way of raising awareness of environmental issues. Hickman (2009) defined recycling as process involving three major steps Step1 collection and processing, Step 2 manufacturing and Step 3 purchasing of recycled products. Figure 22 Recycling Network Players Source Viljoen, Schenck Blaauw 2012 HYPERLINK https// Source Hickman (2009) Figure 23 Recycling loop according to Boguski et al., (1994) identified two main types of recycling processes closed-loop and open-loop. Closed-loop recycling is a process in which the material of a physical product is recycled into the same product, a process that may-in theory-be repeated endlessly. On the other hand, open-loop recycling involves the conversion of material from one or more products into new products involving a change in the inherent properties of the material itself. Figure 2.4 shows a more detailed diagram of the recycling process derived from the recycling loop. Whichever, process used close or open recycling loop is represented in the same manner. Source WBCSD (2011) Figure 2.4 A standardized model for the sustainable value chain. Like any other industry, these processes involve value addition chains carried out within the steps highlighted earlier and associated benefit chains. Solid waste recycling value addition Chain Value chain concept was introduced by management expert Michael Porter in 1985. The value chain process describes the full range of activities which are required to bring a product or service from conception, through the different phases of extraction, collection, processing, production, delivery to final consumers (ADB, 2014) but excludes use by consumer and eventual discard is depicted in recycling value addition chain. The idea is getting the product closer to the consumer (Bohr, 2007) by improving its presentation, transportation, storage, packaging, labeling, processing as well as marketing A variety of materials e.g. plastics, paper, bottles and textiles can be discarded by individuals or entities because they are no longer desired. Solid waste recycling as a value addition chain begins with materials collection and ends with usage of recycled product according to Hickman (2009). Following material discard, comes material collection and storage which can either be through public or private collectors processing which involves sorting, cleaning, shredding, crushing, compacting or baling or similar operations to increase the bulk density of secondary materials in order to reduce transport costs in a way that is acceptable to the end user and finally production of raw material manufacturing which involves production of new products, depends on material type e.g. recycled cardboard and newspaper are used to make new boxes, papers, and other products such as tissues, paper towels, toilet paper, diapers, egg cartons and recycled plastics used for soft drinks, juices, and peanut butter containers etc. After manufacturing, products are distributed to different customers for selling. The recycled raw materials and products are bought and sold just like any other commodity, and their prices change with the market fluctuations. The following highlights these processes within the facilities generally provided in the recycling process. Recycling Collection Facilities Recycling activities begin with material recovery (picking and extraction) and collection after materials are discarded. Without this process, recycling is not feasible. How and where recyclables material can be collected vary from community to community. It can be collected from facilities at residences, schools, businesses etc. through Curbside collection facilities requiring homeowners to separate recyclables from their garbage, which is the most common method. Residents set recyclables, sometimes sorted by type, on their curbs to be picked up by municipal or commercial haulers. Clean recyclables may need to be placed in special containers, while the garbage goes in standard containers. Both are placed at the curb for collection. Efficient and effective recycling is achieved where secondary raw materials are separated from wastes by the generator. Therefore design and implementation of source separation must be sensitive to local cultural and socio-economic circumstances. ii) Drop-off centers are one of the simplest forms of collecting recyclable materials where people drop off their used glass, metal, plastic, and paper at designated sites. These centers are usually found in easily accessible location near a high-traffic area such as the entrances to supermarkets and parking lots. These centers are often sponsored by community organizations. iii) Buy back centers purchase metals, glass, plastic, newsprint, and sometimes batteries and other materials (Rahman, 2009). At these centres, recycled-content manufacturers buy their products back from consumers and reuse or remold the used products into new products. iv) Deposit and refund centers require consumers to pay a deposit on a purchased product in a container (e.g. bottle). The deposit can be redeemed when the consumer brings the container back to the business or company for reuse or recycling. Material Recovery Facilities Materials collected for recycling are usually sent to a materials recovery facilities (MRF). This is a specialized plant or building that receives, separates, and prepares recyclable materials for marketing to end users (Hickman, 2009). There are two types of MRF systems. A clean MRF is a facility that accepts source separated recyclable materials. A dirty MRF receives a mixture of waste material that requires labor intense sorting activities to separate recyclables from the mixed waste. The main function of the MRF is to maximize the quantity of recyclables processed while producing materials that can be transported at low cost to generate the highest possible revenues in the market. Sorting This is one of the main processes of value addition of the waste recovered. The greater in the level of sorting, the greater is the value of the material produced. For instance, if plastic is grouped into one category, its value is lower than when it is further separated into sub-categories of hard and soft, then HDPE, PET, and LDPE. Sorting is done according to color, size, shape and potential use or re-use of the materials so as to meet the end-user requirements. Volume Accumulation Less volume per unit weight adds value i.e. higher prices per-unit volume. If industrial stock-feeds are massive in volume, it follows that less storage space is required. Also, the greater the quantity, the better bargaining power the trader has, for example small quantities have high transactions costs, such as checking quality, arranging transport and paying the seller hence reducing the profit margin. Processing facilities Processing includes washing, change in shape by cutting, granulating, compacting and baling. This processing of recyclable materials happens in a variety of ways depending on what is being recycled and what the recycled material becomes. For example, plastic bottles are cleaned, sorted according to type (numbers 1-7), and shredded. The shredded plastic is heated to a specific temperature hot enough that the plastic can be formed into small pellets. Manufacturing and selling facilities Manufacturing companies purchase the pellets from plastic recyclers to make a myriad of new products from carpet and backpacks to decking and playground equipment (Mills, 2012). These processes follow the same procedure as conventional material. 2.2.8 Benefits chains associated value addition processes The benefits of recycling have been explored and highlighted through many scholarly works. A number of researchers agree that recycling has benefits chains that can be categorized into environmental, social and economic (Chanda, 2014 Abdul-Rahman, 2014 Mosia, 2014 Muzenda, 2013 Nahman, 2009 Harris et al. 2009) with further benefits of new raw materials, uses fewer natural resources, preserves landfills, prevents global warming, reduces water pollution, protects wild life, reduces waste, creation of jobs, requires less energy, creates new demand for recycled products etc. However, recycling has also been criticized and has dis-benefits which will not be discussed in this thesis. The benefit chains can easily be associated with a cause effect diagram whereby the main benefit is like the problem and factors contributing to the benefit are like causes of a problem. This can be represented diagrammatically like a fish bone cause effect diagram as given. This will be used to present analysis results. 2.2.10 Recycling Network Linkages Industrial linkages have been widely studied in economic geography since the 1960s (Hoare, 1985 Marshall, 1987). The term linkages, is mainly used in Industrial Geography to indicate the interdependence among firms or show the interrelationship among various industrial activities through the economic value chain and its effects on location choice (Johnston, 1994 Alexander,1977). Industries depend on each other for survival and growth. This interdependence therefore creates some linkages in the network. There are different types of linkages. These include communication linkages, formal linkages, material or work flow linkages, proximity linkages, and cognitive linkages. Networks are multiplex, that is, actors have more than one type of linkages. Companies create, maintain, dissolve, and possibly reconstitute network linkages due to self-interest, dependency and collective interest. A network consists of a set of actors (nodes) and the relations (ties) between the actors e.g. individuals or groups of companies (Talarowska Denana,2008 Wasserman Faust, 1994 Hkansson Ford, 2002 as cited in Haugnes(2010). Linkages can either be direct or indirect, strong or weak. Strong linking is defined as when equally involved business actors and consumers perform many complementing and specialized activities. Weak linking, on the other hand, is defined as involving few and general activities, the performance of which is dominated by either the business actors or the consumers (Granovetter, 19731982). Solid waste recycling activities also exhibit some linkages of different types. Chauldry (2003) noted that there are backward, forward and side-ways linkages. Scheinberg (2012) and Zikmund and Stanton (1971) pointed out that recycling is a complex process with linkages that need to be understood if recycling is to be a feasible solution to the trash problem. In Hong Kong, for example, recycling of municipal waste is a network of waste pickers, waste collectors, schools, institutions, recyclers or waste dealers and preprocessors (Recovery and Recycling of Municipal Solid Waste in Hong Kong, 2010). 2.3 Literature Review Literature review enables a researcher to develop a clear understanding of the research topic through what has been researched on the topic and identify gaps, which the researchers own study can fill (Bless Higson-Smith, 1995 Hart, 1998 Sarantakos, 1993). This literature review unfolds major empirical findings of recycling issues in Africa such as players in the industry, motives of recycling, recycling policies and legislation, recycling behavior of urban households and benefits of recycling. Global recycling examples are incorporated where necessary. Related literature in Namibia was limited, hence the many references to other parts of Africa and the world. This is not surprising as the area of recycling is still emerging in Africa as a whole as it is still grappling with the management of solid waste. Thus referenced research issues unfolded the dimension of waste management and behavioral attitudes on waste recycling. Specific literature on the recycling industry was limited. 2.3.1 Actors and trends in the Industry Globally, both formal and informal sectors are involved in the industry of recycling (Chandak, 2012 Courtois, 2012 Velis et. al., 2012 Gutberlet, 2010). In developed countries recycling is more organized and private sector is more entrenched in the industry and most activities are carried out formally e.g. registration and record upkeep. It is the opposite in most developing countries where the informal sector plays a more active role. Despite their importance in the industry as well as in solid waste management, it is noted that very few cities in the world have incorporated informal sector recycling activities and only a few policies have been developed to support this approach. This was also the case at some stage in the past, in what are now developed countries (Velis et al., 2012). Like any other parts of the developing world, recycling in Africa is still low and not well organized (Carbon Africa, 2014 Chukwunonye, 2013 Gutberlet, 2010 Mamphitta, 2009 Liebenberg, 2007 Otieno Taiwo, 2007) attributed to a number of factors such as financial constraints, low levels of participation and lack of knowledge. For example in Mozambique, Carbon Africa (2014) estimated that less than 1 of the solid waste generated was being recycled. Recycling activities are reported to be limited to a small number of local companies and NGOs mainly involved in recovery and collection activities. In Dar as Salaam a study by Senzige et al., (2012) on solid waste characterization found that 98 of solid waste generated per day was also not recycled. Another study on management of PET plastics waste through recycling in Khartoum by Fadlalla (2010) established that recycling was low as well despite the increasing plastic waste generated in that country. Courtois (2012) claimed that in Africa the full potential of the recycling industry is not yet fully realized and opinioned that private sector can be worthwhile to see more benefits of waste recycling in such developing regions. Studies have shown that there exists some form of linkage between formal and informal sectors in the recycling industry. Schenck Blaauw (2008) identified that buy-back centers (BBCs) act as one of the important link between informal sector and formal sector activity in the industry in South Africa. These create formal jobs and informal income generating opportunities for the poor and unemployable. In South Africa, BBCs are found in most urban centers. By definition, BBCs are depots where waste collectors can sell their recyclable waste. Langenhoven Dyssel (2007) studied the recycling industry and subsistence waste collectors (informal sector) in Mitchells Plain, South Africa and found that there was interdependency between subsistence waste collectors and buy-back centers, a similar trend as that reflected elsewhere in the world. In another study, Viljoen et al., (2012) also highlighted the role of buy back centers in Pretoria and Bloemfontein in South Africa. According to the study, buy-back centers (BBCs) play a crucial role as market centers for the informal sector participants. At these centers, waste pickers sell an assortment of recovered materials like cans, scrap metals, plastic and paper. Informal Sector According to Scheinberg et al. (2010b) and Wehenpohl et al. (2007) the informal solid waste sector refers to individuals or enterprises who are involved in recycling and waste management activities but are not sponsored, financed, recognized or allowed by the formal solid waste authorities, or who operate in violation of or in competition with formal authorities. The informal sector is quite active and dominant in the recycling industry and researches done attest to this. The role of subsistence waste pickers in the recycling industry in South Africa was investigated by Mamphitta (2011) and Dlamini Simatele (2016). Findings revealed that merchants, recyclers, homeowners and producers of recyclable materials alike agreed unanimously that informal waste pickers play an important role in the South African recycling industry. The study revealed also that 84 percent of recyclable materials recycled are sourced from waste pickers. These findings are further supported by Ezeah et al., (2013) in a paper Emerging trends in informal sector recycling in developing and transition countries. Ukoje (2012) and Njoroge et al., (2013) noted that in Zaria (Nigeria) and Nakuru Municipality (Kenya) respectively the waste pickers eke out a living by collecting waste and selling recyclables out of the urban solid wastes. The need to survive drives the majority of the poor to be involved in the industry despite the harsh working conditions (Fahmi Sutton, 2010 Mamphitta, 2009). In Egypt, Fahmi Sutton, 2010) found out that the industry was dominated by the informal sector as well who have operated over a decades, however the industry is under threat due to privatization of municipal solid waste management systems. The study recommends that the informal sector be recognized as stakeholders within the municipality in solid waste management as their resource recovery activities are quite significant in reducing waste. Formal Sector Despite informal sector dominance in the industry, formal sector participation is slowly making in-rods into the recycling sector in Africa. In Kenya, Rotich et al. (2006) reported the growth of recycling at a formal industrial level as an important source of raw materials while in Cameroon, governmental policies and strategies for environmental protection and promotion of conservation of materials were contributory factors to the growth of formal recycling (Manga et al., 2008) in that country. The same is also reported in South Africa, where a wide range of organizations are active in the field of recycling with typical examples being Collect-A- Can, the Glass Recycling Company, Mondi Recycling company (paper), Plastics Federation of South Africa, Nampak Recycling, SAPPI, PETCO, Paper Recycling Association of South Africa, e- Waste Association of South Africa, ROSE Foundation (Taderera, 2010). The government identified plastic, glass steel cans, paper and tires as priority wastes that needed to be kept away from landfill sites through reduction, re-use and recycling. Oelofse Strydom, (2010) in a paper, The Trigger to recycling in a developing country- in the absence of command and control instruments noted that waste recycling in South Africa is largely industry driven. The findings suggest that financial incentives are the main drivers for recycling from an industry point of view while environmental awareness supported by convenience are factors influencing post-consumer household recycling behavior. Muzenda (2013) studying formal industry in the Gauteng province of South Africa revealed that government, industry and household initiatives were promoting recovery activities in that country. Local government recovery initiatives included drop of centers, collection banks and buy-back centers. The initiative by local authorities was attributed to increased costs of land filling as well as unavailability of landfill space in the province. Drop-off centers are well established in Gautengs cities and larger towns, where waste is separated into glass, paper/cardboard, cans, scrap metal, plastic, garden, waste, e-waste and other waste types, and delivered in separate forms by members of the public under the initiative of a private company. However, separation of waste at drop-off centers is not effective, thereby hampering cost-effective recycling. In the case of buy-back centers, they are privately operated. Community members take recyclables of economic value such as bottles and trade them for a small profit, an initiative found to be a source entrepreneurial promotion through source separation. At Industry level, recovery initiatives focus on the recycling of packaging material, plastics, glass, metal, paper, e-waste and waste tires. Plastics South Africa, an umbrella organization for the plastics industry in SA which was founded in 1975 is the major force behind plastic recycling. For example, in 2009-17.80, 2010-18.40 and 2011-18 .90 of plastic were recycled (Muzenda, 2013). The Glass Recycling Company (TGRC), formed in July 2006, is South Africas official organization for promoting glass recycling (Muzenda, 2013). The company works in partnership with national government, glass manufactures and fillers. The efforts witnessed recycling rates from a mere 18 around 2005/6 to 40 in 2011. Viljoen et al., (2012) in a study on the role of buy-back centers (BBC) in South Africa, concluded that BBC is an important aspect in the recycling industry. They form an important link with the informal sector. Most of them are privately owned as revealed in the study. To date, buy-back centers are in all major centers of South Africa. At these centers subsistence collectors are mostly paid on an ad hoc basis for delivering certain types and grades of recyclables (City of Cape Town, 2004a). 2.3.2 Motives for Recycling According to Fall (2015), in a study, Waste and Recycling Programs in Hancock and Houghton, Michigan, individuals participate in voluntary recycling programs mainly out of pride for their communities and out of concern for the environment. Communities are aware of some of the environmental challenges associated with some disposal based systems. For example, modern landfills were found to have the potential to produce negative social and environmental impacts, including the following i) landfills produce hazardous leachate (liquid formed as waste breaks down and water filters through garbage), ii) despite the well-designed features like landfill liners, groundwater and/or surface water contamination can occur due to landfill liners leakages, iii) landfills release methane gas which contributes to global climate change which accounts for about 10 of all greenhouse gas emissions from humans activities iv) people prefer not to live near a waste disposal site because of the associated odor, noise, reduced property values and neighborhood disturbance. It can be difficult, especially in many urban areas, to find suitable places to site new landfills or expand existing ones. In a study Bangkok Recycling Program An Empirical Study of an Incentive-Based Recycling Program, Sukholthaman (2012) pointed that municipalities have considered and implemented recycling programs for many reasons. For example, shrinking budget allocations for supporting municipal waste management programs and high recycling goals set by Governments were some of the reasons in favor of full blown commercial recycling. Oelofse Strydom (2010) reported preliminary results of the research The Trigger to recycling in developing countries in the absence of Command-and-Control, which showed that in South Africa financial incentives are the main drivers for recycling from an industry point of view while environmental awareness supported by convenience is a factor influencing post-consumer household recycling behavior. However, one of the recommendations was to undertake a more detailed research in order to provide more insight into post-consumer recycling behavior in a developing country such as South Africa. According to Simelane Mohee (2012) many African cities recycling efforts are being promoted as one of the strategies to reduce waste. In most cases, these cities are characterized by inefficient collection, management, disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW) a situation attributed partly to budgetary pressures and inadequate resources. 2.3.3 Policies and Legislation Various initiatives are being implored in different countries to promote solid waste recycling including legislative provision and policy instruments as incentives (Baeyens et al., 2004). To date, in countries such as USA, Europe and Asia the state of recycling activities have been noticeably transformed following the introduction of policies and legislation promoting the industry. Some of the policy directives include the Extended Producer Responsibility Programmed (EPR), Packaging and Packaging Waste Directive, the End of Life Vehicle Directive, the WEEE Directive, subsidies, Pay-As-You-Throw, take-back obligations, deposit refund schemes (Philippsen, 2015 Priestley, 2011). In Europe, all vehicles have to be recycled according to law. For example, the European Community developed Directive 2000/53/EC, known also as the ELV Directive (EC, 2000) which aims to minimizes the environmental impact of ELVs through reuse, recycling, recovery and the EPR principles (Santini, 2012). In Italy, vehicles produced are supposed to enter into mandatory recycling according to Directive 2000/53/EC, and its National enforcement D.lgs. 209/03. Germany also supports the idea of recycling for resource recovery through the Closed Substance Cycle and Waste Management Act of 1996. The legislation views returning the secondary raw materials contained in waste to recycled of resource as an important element of sustainable resource management (Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology, Germany, 2010). In addition, many countries have introduced landfill tax to divert waste stream toward recycling and incineration. Yang and Innes (2007) reach the same conclusion for common household materials in Taiwan where recycling activities are regulated through the 4-in-1 Recycling Program. In developing countries a different scenario prevails regarding policing and legislation for recycling. In a study to assess the impact of Extended producer responsibility (EPR) for packaging waste in South Africa Nahman (2009) pointed out that developing countries have been far slower in implementing EPR policies to promote recycling. A number of factors were found attributing to this. Some of these are lack of funding to finance recycling or even adequate waste management, lack of safe and efficient infrastructure for recycling or appropriate waste management and lack of awareness among consumers and collectors of the environmental and health impacts associated with inappropriate waste handling and disposal, and of the benefits of recycling. Despite the fact, some countries like South Africa and Botswana have tried it. South Africa introduced these policies back in 2003, where the government was involved together with private companies in steel, glass and plastic business with less positive results produced. Mandatory, government-imposed plastic bag levy was not effective in stimulating recovery in South Africa. As a result, efforts to recycle these materials are still a long way. In Botswana, however, the situation was different as the introduction of plastic levy contributed to a reduction in littering (Bolaane, 2004). However, more still needs to be done, especially in terms of regulation and in promoting household recycling. The public needs to be made aware of the numerous initiatives already being undertaken, for example the e-waste and battery recycling collection points. 2.3.4 Benefits of Recycling Benefits of recycling have been explored and highlighted through many scholarly works. A number of researches agree that recycling has some benefits, environmental, social and economic (Chanda, 2014 Abdul-Rahman, 2014 Mosia, 2014 Muzenda, 2013 Nahman, 2009 Harris et al. 2009). However, recycling has also been criticized for having disadvantages as well. Economic Benefits In both developed and developing countries, recycling is a means of job creation according to Sakala Moyo, 2017 Scriba, 2015 Mosia, 2014 Muzenda, 2013 Botes, 2012 Ezeah et al., 2013 Fakir, 2009). In South Africa, Nigeria, Zambia and Mozambique recycling industry employs a numbers of people. Scriba (2015), studying the Recycling industry in Europe, reported that the industry employs about 30 000 people while Botes, (2012) stated that the industry in South Africa employs around 15 000 people in the formal sector. According to Muzenda (2013) studying the recycling situation in South Africa, processing of recyclables is a labor intensive exercise that creates more jobs requiring various skills and education background than waste collection and disposal. As a result of this, recycling jobs are fast growing as waste will continuously be generated and also increase in population growth. Sakala Moyo (2017) also reported the same on a research to determine the contribution of solid waste recycling companies to the job market in Zambia. In a Paper on Waste Recycling in Developing Countries in Africa Barriers To Improving Reclamation, Liebenberg (2011) revealed that, in the developing world reclamation of recyclable waste products from the municipal waste stream has become an important source of income for many people who cannot find formal employment and it is their only source of income. Besides employment creation, recycling is a source of raw materials for manufacturing industries such as automobile, electronic and steel. Through recycling, rare and expensive materials can be recovered (Muzenda, 2013). For example, a variety of rare earth metals such as platinum, gold and copper are recovered despite the presence of some hazardous metals such as mercury and lead (Abdelshafie, 2014 Yamoah, 2014). Mosia, 2014 noted that recycling is good for the South African economy as it decreases the necessity to import raw materials. Environmental benefits Besides, economic benefits, recycling makes environmental sense. Fall (2015) highlighted recycling and waste management as major contributors to environmental benefits. Some of the benefits cited include reducing the amount of energy required to extract and process raw materials hence reducing pollution associated with landfill and carbon emissions that contribute to global climate change and encouraging the development of systems and technology for using resources efficiently. According to Mosia (2014) less energy is used when recycled materials are included in the manufacturing process. This is also supported by International Aluminum Institute European Aluminum Association (2009), the energy needed to melt aluminum scrap is only a fraction of that required for primary aluminum production. On the other hand, recycling waste is known to save three times more as much energy as what is produced by burning it and to generate new energy with plastic recycling saves five times as much. Recyclingalso savesvaluable landfill space, land that must be set aside for dumping trash, construction debris, and yard waste untreated garbage of the kind discarded by homes and small businesses. The land space savings at the landfills enables an extension of the life span of the landfills, as well as an obvious saving in operational costs (Liebenberg, 2011). Japans drive to promote recycling is partly due to land scarcity, for instance for waste disposal. A study on e-waste issues in Ghana carried by Yamoah (2014) found that the activities of the industry were impacting negatively on the environment, a situation demanding urgent attention. For example, hazardous chemicals like copper, lead, tin, antimony, cadmium, etc that are released in the course of open burning of WEEE have already been found in toxic quantities beyond the background levels in soils at e-waste recycling yards claimed Yamoah (2014). As highlighted at the beginning og this section, this is one of many examples of why recycling has been criticized as a disadvantages. Social Benefits According to Guamba Tembe (2016) the industry has some social benefits as well since waste picking work provides opportunities for social integration of people who have always been marginalized. Global recovery of recyclables has been observed to be a source of livelihood for thousands of people particularly in developing countries. Botes, (2012) pointed out that the recycling industry in SA as a whole, employs approximately 440000 people in the informal sector. At the same time Ezeah et al., (2013) suggested that recycling provides employment and a livelihood for impoverished, marginalized and vulnerable social groups that survive in a very hostile social and physical environment. The same idea is supported also by Manhart (2011) studying informal e-waste management in Lagos, Nigeria that the 1s stage of recycling does not require specific skills, hence it is open to poor migrants from rural areas. E-waste recycling is emerging as a lucrative business in Africa (Oteng-Ababio, 2012 Benedicta, 2012). In a study on e-waste recycling in Ghana, it was found that the industry was mainly done by the informal sector but there are no specific laws for e-waste recycling in Ghana. Activities of the formal sector are still limited due to lack of safe e-waste recycling infrastructure and regulations. Thus the informal sector dominates the industry. The collectors are mostly youthful employing rudimentary tools in the dismantling processes despite the hazards nature of e-waste. A similar situation was observed by Hecker (2012) who noted that Indias e-waste recycling industry was dominated by the informal sector as well, where tens of thousands of people are estimated to make their living from its recovery. Thus, the practice of collection and separation of recyclables is prevalent as a survival strategy for the unemployed, the marginalized and homeless members of society. 2.3.5 Recycling value addition processes The subject of value addition has been a field which has attracted research from academics for some time in Africa. According to Ochieng (2010)s study Effect of value addition on price a hedonic analysis of peanut in retail supermarkets in Nairobi, Kenya value addition was found to have effects on the final price of goods. The study established eight different levels of value addition for peanuts, and prices differed significantly across the various levels of value addition as shown on retail outlets in Nairobi Kenya. Venkatesh (2010) also noted the same in a study on coffee value addition process, with the aim of developing small coffee producers in Karnataka, that coffee beans go through different processes before it reaches the hands of a consumer. In another study on economic value chain analysis study of Namibian diamonds was carried by Palander, (2015). The study found out that the Namibian diamond value chain is divided into four stages of processing (1) rough diamond mining, (2) sorting, valuating and trading of rough diamonds, (3) cutting and polishing of rough diamonds, and (4) jewellery manufacturing and retail. In a report on global value chains and Africas industrialization, African Development Bank (2014), findings revealed that little value addition was carried is out in Namibia with regards to agriculture products despite the favorable environment e.g. reliable infrastructure, modern transport and communication infrastructure, easy access to a range of South Africas expertise, research and development, advanced technology, and its strategic geographical location connecting it with southern African countries, Europe and the Americas through the Walvis Bay Corridors. However, some problems were identified that need to be addressed in order to enhance Namibias competitive advantage 1). the country is facing skills shortages across all sectors of the economy, especially middle-level skills, 2) the business environment in Namibia is also relatively less attractive than that of neighbouring countries e.g. a wide range of policy, legal, regulatory and institutional weaknesses places the country at a competitive disadvantage compared to South Africa and Botswana, for example key weakness areas include excessive bureaucracy, regulatory bottlenecks and a weak PPP framework as revealed by the report. Most researchers agree that most of Africas recyclable material is mainly prepared for export markets. Value addition processes were observed to be limited mainly to collection. For example, Carbon Africa Limited (2014) found out that in Mozambique, most of the material products end up in SA and Asia. In addition, the added value of the activity is weak in that there is little local processing of recyclable materials into finished products. In another study focusing on, waste collection by waste pickers in Maputo municipality, Mozambique Ribeiro (2015) noted that waste collection was hampered by lack of local industries that transformed recyclable materials into recycled products. The same findings are revealed in a study on management of PET plastic waste through recycling in Khartoum Sudan done earlier by Fadlalla (2010). Plastics processing simply involved grinding, cleaning and baling before export despite the fact that the collected plastics can be processed into raw materials. In another study, focusing on scrap metal recycling, Saremo (2015) found out that little recycling of scrap metal was taking place in Bulawayo Zimbabwe due to limited technical capacity resulting in simply dumping of most of the material posing a threat to the environment and humans. In order to tackle some of the countrys developmental challenges of unemployment, inequality and poverty, Mugano, (2016)s study The New Growth Path concluded that one way out of poverty rests on the idea of value addition, a concept still limited in most African countries. No studies on value addition in the recycling industry in Namibia, have so far been done, and thus an area for study. 2.3.6 Challenges of Recycling Participation in recycling has been studied in different parts of the world and a number of factors were found to be affecting recycling activities by different stakeholders among them are behavior, attitudes, perceptions and awareness. According to Stern (2000) recycling behavior is a function of internal and external factors which include education levels, gender, infrastructure availability etc. To support this, Siddique et al., (2010), suggested public education and information campaigns as effective approaches to change behavior, attitudes, perceptions and increase awareness, hence promoting recycling. Ali 2008 Riedik, 2009 Anderson et al., 2013 revealed that although governments promoted recycling programs through various campaigns, little was achieved due to the lack of participation and lukewarm attitudes of households. In Botswana, a study conducted by Bolaane (2004), revealed that the major constraints to organized recycling were low public awareness about recycling initiatives and lack of support from governing authorities despite the potential value of waste. There remain barriers to consumers commitment to fully support action required for recycling in the absence of appropriate incentives and structures to deal with peoples apathy and ignorance. Kotze (2015) studying perceptions and attitudes of women towards recycling in South Africa found that women were ignorant and lacked knowledge to implement effective recycling practices. In Kampala, Uganda, Banga (2011) investigated households knowledge, attitudes and practices on the separation and recycling of solid waste. Findings revealed that, although the public is aware of solid waste separation and recycling practices it has not participated in such initiatives due to low level of awareness of recycling activities in the area. Increasing accessibility to recycling facilities and an introduction of incentives were cited as motivating factor for promoting more recycling in Uganda, according to survey results, a situation not different from other studies done elsewhere. Anderson et al., (2013) examining the effect of race, socio-economic status and demographic factors on recycling by urban South African households and found out that socio-economic status household income, educational level and gender and contextual factors do influence perceptions and attitudes on recycling and littering as a problem. For example, it was found that the respondents with higher level of education recycled more than the less educated. 2.4 Review of Studies in Namibia Researches related to this study have been conducted earlier on by Hasheela, (2009) Magen, (2010) Lindell, (2012) Westphal Pfeffer, (2013) Croset, (2014) Jacobsen et al., (2014) Mughal (2014) focusing on solid waste management. The studies found out that solid waste management was a challenge in Namibia especially in most urban areas just like reported in other parts of the world. Thus the status of waste management in some small urban centers in the country needed improvement as confirmed by the Audit Report of the Auditor-General of 2013. Improper waste collection, removal and maintenance of dumpsites were found to be problematic partly due to lack of sufficient and appropriate waste collection equipment and vehicles, lack of cooperation between the relevant stakeholders among other issues. In Tsumeb town, some 500km north of Windhoek , Croset (2014)s study revealed that some recycling was already happening with formal and informal sectors participating and an informal network existed among the players. The main players involved were waste pickers (at the bottom of the hierarchy), scrap yard dealers, intermediate buyers and other buyers outside the town. A small informal community was observed to be making a living by recycling a few materials such as glass, bottles, card boxes and cans that were recovered from the dumpsites and some picked from bins. The development of recycling in Tsumeb was found facing some challenges of long distance to recycling depots in Windhoek and financial constraints despite its potential. The study concluded that more awareness and education about the benefits of recycling and importance of efficient waste management in general was needed. The same conclusion was reached by Magen (2010) in a study on waste management and recycling in Keetmanshoop and Ondangwa. A study by Mughal (2014) carried out to establish status of waste management in the three northern towns of Ondangwa, Oshakati and Ongwediva found out that there was a need to improve the existing status quo regarding waste management. Improvements in regulatory frameworks, financial support, public education and awareness among others, were cited as the challenges that Ondangwa, Oshakati and Ongwediva towns were facing in management solid waste. The culture of reuse was found absent among most of the people as most recyclables like bottles and plastic carrier bags were simply thrown away causing a lot of litter all over ending up posing danger to both human and animals. The study recommended the need for more education and awareness about the benefits of recycling as well as putting in place of effective by-laws. In Namibia, in general unemployment and inefficient recycling practices are significant problems according to Jacobsen et al., (2014) Kaapanda (2007). In a study to model the integration of informal waste collectors into the formal collection system, Jacobsen et al., (2014) found out that there was a possibility of improving peoples livelihoods through promoting recycling. However, inefficient collection of recyclables was partly found to be a result of transport problems in some areas particularly those in low income areas where inaccessibility is hampered by improper road networks. In the same study, Jocobsen (2014) pointed out that the feasibility of using bicycles driven carts to collect and transport recyclables could be a way to generate employment in Windhoek since unemployment and inefficient recycling practices were a significant problems in Namibia. If successful the bicycle model could be expanded to other towns as well. Westphal Pfeffer (2013) analyzing the role of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) contracted for the provision of cleaning and waste collection services for the City of Windhoek, found out that the sector provides low entry level jobs for men, women and young people who would otherwise have a difficult time entering the labor market as well as assisting the local authorities in waste management. Lindell (2013) focusing on identifying different concepts for improving waste management in developing countries with particular reference to the Kavango region of Namibia, found out that four different concepts namely Integrated Solid Waste Management, Integration of the informal sector, Private Public Partnerships and Decentralization could be implemented for improving the waste management in the region. Magen (2010) conducted a study to get more understanding about the different waste management and recycling practices and the social aspects that contribute and affect them in the municipalities of Windhoek, Keetmanshoop and Ondangwa. The study established that there was no national waste management policy, thus each local municipality had its own laws and regulations, a system which was found to compromise waste management operations such as enforcement of practices like recycling. On the other hand, recycling had not received enough attention from all stakeholders, a situation which compromised its success. For example, poor public participation from the general public was one of the constraints to successful recycling despite some efforts that were being made by the business communities and recyclers in promoting recycling. Hasheela (2009) investigated waste management practices at municipal level in Namibia with particular reference to Windhoek. The study found out that waste management practices in the City were running well compared to other centers, thus this made it the cleanest City in Africa. However, the recommendation was that the system of waste management in use could be used as a model for the entire Namibia and recycling to be studied in detail to establish how it can contribute to this endevour. Whilst appreciating the importance of waste recycling as a waste minimization strategy, Keyter (2009) emphasized a need for the introducing Public Private Partnership (PPP) concept, an approach that are now embraced in recycling initiatives in Namibia as will be presented in detail in this research. 2.5 Concluding remarks The chapter was mainly focusing on the concepts and literature review which the researcher had been exposed to during the research aiding in coming up with an area of focus for the study. As reported in studies done by Hasheela, (2009) Magen, (2010) Lindell, (2012) Croset, (2014), Namibia is recycling solid waste and as reported by Ashipala (2012) recycling of solid waste in Namibia is still an emerging business associated with the production of secondary raw materials. In the Namibian context, emerging industries are a newly classified sector of the economy and according to Bird (2010), Abernathy and Utterback (1978 Forbes and Kirsch, 2011) as cited in Tanner (2012) such industries are often difficult to identify during their early development phases until after their products appear on the market. Due to lack of adequate data little attention has been given to the emergence of new industries as cited by Forbes Kirsh, (2011), however, with the changing perception in economic geography, scholars have begun to pay attention to emerging industries (Boschma Frenken, 2006 Grabher, 2009) as cited in Tanner 2012). With that in mind, adequate data about the industry in Namibia is still limited as not much records are kept (RNF, 2013) resulting in little information known about the industry by the generality of the population. While previous studies have revealed that recycling activities are on-going in the country, no single comprehensive study has been carried out regarding the industry. This research is a direct response to that knowledge gap. In line with this, cities like Windhoek along with other towns and local authorities struggling with solid waste management could benefit from a broadened understanding of the industry. In light of such insights, this study sought to investigate the recycling industry in Namibia as a whole taking into account the different facets that shape industry. CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Introduction This chapter discusses the research methodology that was used for collecting and analysing the data for this study whose main focus was to investigate the countrys recycling industry that is an emerging economic sector. It explains the research paradigms the ontological, epistemological and methodological assumptions, research design, population, research instruments and describes the procedures used for data collection as well as providing how it has been analyzed. According to Creswell (2009), the term methodology refers to the form of data collection, analysis and interpretation used in a study. Walter (2013) emphasized that in methodology, attention is given to a number of aspects such as Why the research has been taken How the research has been undertaken Type of data collected Methods of data collection and analysis method Methodology answers the how and means knowledge was gathered and used to address the research problem (Mouton, 1996). Therefore methodology in this research refers to the approach adopted in gathering and analyzing data for this study. 3.2 Research paradigms Philosophical ideologies are the basic belief systems that guide an inquiry (Saunders, 2013). These are considered as the starting point that guides any research despite the fact that they are often taken-for granted. Reality is constructed based on some core components or philosophical ideologies i.e. paradigm, stand-point, ontology or epistemology according to Maggie (2013). The term paradigm, first termed by Thomas Kuhn in his 1972 book, titled The structure of Scientific Revolutions, refers to an overall theoretical research framework (Saunders, 2013). Positivism and interpretive are considered to be the broad frameworks of paradigms in which research is conducted, (Ngulube, 2015) cited in Matangira, (2016). The positivist paradigm is the approach of the natural sciences (Neuman, 2014). The term positivism was first coined by the founder of positivism, Auguste Comte, the French philosopher who believed that reality can be observed. The purpose of research in this paradigm is to prove or disprove a hypothesis. Positivist research also include an emphasis on the scientific method, statistical analysis, and generalizable findings. Positivists see reality as everything that can be perceived through the senses and that reality is out there, independent of human consciousness is objective, rests on order, is governed by strict natural and unchangeable laws, and can be realised through experience (Sarantakos, 2005). Positivism maintains that the scientist is the observer of an objective reality. From this understanding of ontology, the methodology for observation in natural science was adopted for social science research. There has been criticism of the positivist paradigm of applying the scientific method to research on human affairs. This gave birth to constructivism or interpretive ideologies. The interpretive paradigm can be also called the anti-positivist paradigm because it was developed as a reaction to positivism. The interpretive social science ideology is related to hermeneutics, a theory concerned with text interpretation and understanding of social life (Neuman, 2014 Sarantakos, 2005). Therefore the ontological assumptions of interpretive are that social reality is seen by multiple people and these multiple people interpret events differently leaving multiple perspectives of an incident. The same idea is supported by Saunders, 2013). Individuals view the world differently. Ontology in interpretive or constructivism emphasizes reality is far too complex to construct from one angle but from different views .The world in social phenomena has different meanings. As a result, different researches can have different conclusions for one observation. Positivism theory tends to see the world as fixed, from one angle based on careful observation, measurement and testing. There are three assumptions in research ontological, epistemological and methodological. 3.3 The Ontological Orientation of the Research Neuman (2014) p. 92 states that ontology concerns the issue of what exists, or the fundamental nature of reality. There are different assumptions to see the world as outside individual. Neuman (2014) noted that there are two basic positions as regards worldview namely realist and nominalist. Realists see the world as being out there. In support of this Creswell (2009) pointed out that knowledge development is based on careful observation and measurement of the objective reality that exists out there. A realist assumes that the real world exists independently of humans and their interpretations of it. The world is therefore seen as one and that there are no other perceptions. This makes accessing what is in the real world less difficult. The nominalist on the other hand, assumes that humans never directly experience a reality out there.Our experience with what we call the real world is always occurring through a lens or scheme of interpretations and inner subjectivity. Subjective-cultural beliefs influence what we see and how we experience reality, meaning the world in social phenomena has different meanings. As a result, different researches can have different conclusions for one observation. In order to have an in depth understanding of the nature of recycling industry in Namibia, the researcher relied on views of different actors of the industry who were identified, namely local authorities, government ministries and recycling companies. Interpretive principles therefore guided this research. 3.4 Epistemology Neuman (2014) refers to Epistemology as the issue of how people know the world around them or what makes a claim about it true. This depends on the ontological assumptions at hand. In addition, epistemology includes what people need to do to produce knowledge and what scientific knowledge looks like once available. Bryman, (2001) defined epistemological as ways of acquiring knowledge. For example, epistemology in the realist or normative paradigm, knowledge about reality is acquired as is done in the natural science that is through making careful observations. Hypotheses have to be tested by empirical approaches. The results have to be objective through scientific method. New knowledge is therefore produced deductively by testing preexisting ideas and conjectures about reality against empirical data according to Neuman, (2014), p. 93. In contrast, epistemology in the nominalist or interpretive paradigm, Neuman (2014) argued that making observations will not lead to knowledge about reality. To produce social science knowledge, it is important to inductively observe, interpret, and reflect on what other people are saying and doing in specific social contexts because the social context is different from natural science. To support this further, Mackenzie Knipe (2006) argued that the nature of reality is established through the perceptions and experiences of the participants. Therefore, investigating the social phenomena can result in many interpretations. Based on the interpretive ontological and epistemological assumptions, the study was guided by interpretive paradigm of research. The intention of the researcher was to have an in depth understanding of the recycling industry in Namibia. Such kind of research as this one allows researchers to view the world through the perceptions and experiences of the participants (Mackenzie Knipe, 2006). The goal was to rely as much as possible on the participants views of the situation being studied (Creswell, 2014). Information gathered through different respondents enabled the researcher to have an understanding of why companies were recycling, policies and legislation guiding the operations of the industry, networks, trends and benefits of the industry through interpretation of the responses. 3.5 Methodological Assumptions According to Morvaridi (2005), the most prevalent methodologies in social sciences and humanities research methodology are quantitative and qualitative research. Methodological assumption focuses on analysis of the methods used for gaining the data (Kohen, Manion Morrison, 2001). In the realist or normative paradigms, Bryman (1989), noted that quantitative approach is used to observe reality through the application of the scientific method. In this case, measurements, calculations and testing of hypotheses are done to generalize and test the theory. In contrast, the qualitative approach concentrates mainly on words and observations to express reality and tries to describe people and research phenomena in natural situations Creswell, 2009) As a result, the findings can be open to many interpretations. In order to understand the recycling industry in Namibia, the researcher used the qualitative approach through the use of interviews, observations as well as document searches. 3.6 Research design According to Yin (2009) a research design is a plan that guides the investigator in the process of collecting, analyzing and interpreting observations. The study at hand was a case study design which was qualitative in nature. 3.6.1 Case Study The research sought to perform the study using a case study approach. A case study allows an in depth understanding of phenomena in their natural setting according to Creswell (2002). According to Bell (1993), the greatest strength of the case study method is to allow the researcher to concentrate on a specific instance to identify or attempt to identify the various interactive processes at work. In addition, Hancock (1998) stressed the idea that case study claims to offer a richness and depth of information not usually offered by other methods. It is also a highly versatile research method and employs any and all methods of data collection from testing to interviewing. Case study approach is criticized on the grounds that the case under study is not necessarily representative of similar cases. The results of the research are not generalizable. 3.6.2 Qualitative Research Qualitative research is an inquiry process of understanding a social/human problem, based on building a complex picture formed with words, reporting detailed views of informants and is conducted in a natural setting (Cresswell, 2002). In support to this view, (Strauss Corbin, 1990) cited in Chiromo, (2009) qualitative research produces findings not arrived at by means of statistical procedures or other means of quantification. Most of these data is in form of words rather than numbers, and in general, the researcher must search and explore using various methods until a deep understanding is achieved (McMillan Schumacher 2010). Some of the features of Qualitative research according to Hancock, 1998 are that they are concerned with the opinions, experiences and feelings of individuals producing subjective data, social phenomena is described as it occurs in the natural state. No attempt is made to manipulate the situation under study as is the case with experimental quantitative research. An inductive approach is used develop concepts and theories, whereas Quantitative research is deductive in that it tests theories which have already been proposed. Qualitative data are collected through direct encounters with individuals, through one to one interviews or group interviews or by observation. Data collection is time consuming.The intensive and time consuming nature of data collection necessitates the use of small samples. Twenty companies were identified for the investigation in order to have an in depth understanding of the recycling industry in Namibia. Qualitative research is known to have some advantages over quantitative. One of these is that it provides a deeper understanding of things by addressing answers to the what, how, when, and where of a thing (Berg, 2007).Qualitative research provides a depth of understanding of issues that is not possible through the use of quantitative, statistically-based investigations. Qualitative research allowed the researcher to get information on the different objectives of the study through interviews with the participants as well as through observations. A qualitative research approach was the appropriate approach for the study as it complemented attempts to investigate the situation and focused on understanding the recycling network holistically and in its entirety. 3.7 Research Population A population is any group of things which are the subject of research interest to be studied. A study population is an aggregation of elements, from which a sample is actually selected (Babbie, 2004, p. 190), while Bryman (2001) defined a population as a universe of units from which a sample is selected. In this research, the population was made up of companies who were involved in recycling activities in Namibia. 3.8 Sampling Johnson and Christensen (2004) defined a sample as a group of individuals, items, or events that represents the characteristics of the larger group from which the sample is drawn. It is not practical or possible to study an entire population thus, a representative group is considered consider for the study. Samples for qualitative research are relatively small compared to those for quantitative research. According to Patton (2002), there are no rules for sample size in qualitative inquiry. Sample depends on what is being studied, why you want to find it out, how the findings will be used and resources (including time) available.Qualitative studies have been carried out with as many as 50 cases and as few as one (Patton, 2002 Yin, 2003). For the research, all identified companies were selected for the study which consisted of 20 recycling companies that were operating in Namibia at the time. Thus all the companies were considered the target sample population. However, not every company was willing to engage the research and also some of the companies were no longer operational. Eventually, through accidental sampling 15 companies were interviewed, hence the sample was 15 companies. Accidental sampling refers to the process of picking those participants who are available and willing to participate in the study (Hoyle et al., 2002). Data collection techniques This section discusses the data collection techniques and the instruments used for this study. Data collection techniques used comprised interviews, direct observation and document search. Multi-methods or triangulation is encouraged in empirical studies (Creswell 1994 Denzin 1978 Patton ,2002 Yin , 2003) . A variety of sources and resources, aids the evaluator and observer to build on the strengths of each type of data collection method, while minimizing the weaknesses of any single approach (Patton, 2002). 3.9.1 Interviews Interview as a data collection tool is very important. Chiromo, (2009) pointed emphasized that an interviewer can acquire information that would not be conveyed in any other way through the responses such facial and bodily expressions, tone of voice, gestures, from the respondent. In addition,interview method has an edge over other methods of data collection because it is flexible. The study used semi-structured interviews which allowed the researcher to collect data and to get a deeper understanding of recycling activities in Namibia through the companies that were involved. Interviews were conducted with company directors, managers (site, logistics,) supervisors and any other officials that were availed to the researcher since there was no control of who to choose to interview. Semi-structured interviews allowed the respondents room to air varied views unlike structured interviews, where the respondents are limited to a range of responses previously developed by the researcher. Even though certain questions were asked, the respondents were given freedom to talk about the topic and give their views in their own time. Besides flexible in the method, the researcher was able to follow up areas of interest. The participants were also able to give a broader picture on the situation on the ground. However interviews have shortcomings, which include distortions due to a number of factors such as bias, emotional state of the interviewee at the time of the interview and lack of awareness (Patton, 2002, p. 306). The researcher overcame these shortcomings by making sure that interviews were conducted when the time was convenient to the interviewees. Research agrees that direct interaction of the interview is the source of both its advantages and disadvantages as a research technique. Some of these are listed below. Advantages of using interviews You are assured that the responses are from the person intended. Verbal or nonverbal prompts to encourage more complete, better explained responses. Can use observation as another evaluation method. Allows respondents to describe what is meaningful or important to them using their own words. By using probes, interviews can shed light on the details of a particular response. Opportunity to explain or clarify questions. Disadvantages of using interviews Time-consuming. Interviewers need to be prepared. Analysis may be difficult. 3.9.2 Interview guides In conducting the interviews, the researcher made use of interview guides. Patton, (2002) points that an interview guide lists the questions or issues that are to be explored in the course of an interview and consistency in the inquiry. The use of an interview guide was encouraged as it ensured careful use of interview time, made the interviewing systematic and comprehensive by deciding in advance the issues to be explored while maintaing the interactions focused. The interview guides were designed in such a way that they addressed the key issues which needed to be answered as far as an understanding of the recycling industry was concerned. Issues such as companies motives and extent of involvement in recycling, policies and legislation for recycling, recycling products, recycling networks, benefit chains, value addition processes, awareness of recycling, challenges of the industry were covered in the guide. Data gathered answered the main objectives of the study. Appendix F gives details of the general structure of the interview guides with some omissions or additions in the different guides depending on the areas of focus. 3.9.3 Direct observation Observation is a process of recording the behavioral patterns of participants, objects and occurrences without necessarily questioning or communicating with them according to Mare (2012).The researcher carried out direct observations during company visits. These were done in order to confirm data collected during interviews and documentation. Observation captured situational aspects under investigation that interviews or documents could not and would also normally escape the attention of those being interviewed. Through observation the researcher collected data on activities and processes carried out by the different recycling companies. At MRF visited, the researcher was able to observe all recovery and preprocessing activities that took place. The same was the case at all recycling companies visited. At the plastic recycling companies, the various processing and manufacturing activities were also captured. 3.9.4 Observation checklist Observations were recorded through the use of an observation checklist. This was a list of questions that the researcher looks at for answers for a specific observation. In this case, to see operational processes of the recycling companies and the facilities under which these were taking place, checklists were prepared. 3.9.5. Document search Apart from primary sources of data collection, the researcher also made use of documents from companies and archived on the internet. Documents comprise of written material and other documents from the cases under investigation (Patton, 2002). Document search was important because it gave the researcher a general background and operation issues on the subject that was being studied. The researcher collected official documents in hard and soft copy such as the waste management policies, regulations and reports on waste reduction measures and waste audit plus other related documents from Company (O) while company (M) documents were a report and pamphlet about the recycling industry. Document search gave the researcher an insight into the activities taking place within the organization, for example, company (M) documents helped the researcher to verify what was happening in the recycling industry in Namibia as some of the issues raised like challenges of the industry were well documented. Unlike respondents, who are aware of being studied, documents have the advantage of unobtrusive and non-reactive measures (Hoyle et al., 2002, p. 361). However, not all companies provided this information therefore some information was obtained from the internet such as general policies and legislation governing the industry. As with other data collection methods, documents have limitations. They may be incomplete and in some instances inaccurate. 3.9.6 Piloting and pre-testing Pre-tests and pilot studies are different types of mini studies carried out as part of the process of planning and preparing for a study. When pre-testing, the researcher checks the effectiveness of the instruments to eliminate ambiguity and ensure that the respondents understand the questions as intended by the researcher, thereby ensuring validity. On the other hand, a pilot study is a small scale replica and a rehearsal of the main study (Sarantakos, 1993, p. 277). Piloting checks the effectiveness of the research design, suitability and reliability of the methods chosen and the practicality of carrying out the research (Bless Higson-Bless, 1995 Powell, 1997 Sarantakos, 1993 Yin, 2003). Sarantakos 1993, p. 277) states that with case studies piloting can establish availability of respondents, accessibility of the research environment and effectiveness of the data collection technique, whether it will collect too much or too little information. Following this argument, the researcher decided to carry out a pilot study. Piloting was carried out in March 2015 with one of the largest recycling companies in the country. The site manager was on duty and through interviewing him some adjustments were later made to the interview guide. It came out during the interview that questions had to be short as long questions ended up with part of it not addressed. Through piloting, it was possible to clarify as well as identify other issues pertinent to the study, which were then included in the inquiry. Piloting established that the time required to complete the interview guides was too long and that some of the questions were unintentionally repetitive and ambiguous. The interview guides were then adjusted accordingly and this was pilot tested to establish the content validity of an instrument and to improve questions, format and the scale. 3.10 Data collection process/Procedure This section describes the process the researcher went through to collect data from the different companies e.g. from seeking authority to conduct the study, arrangement for interviews, up to the collection of the data. 3.10.1 Seeking permission from the institutions and individuals For research conducted on an institution, approval for conducting the research should be obtained from the institution (Bell 1999). At the beginning of the research, the researcher physically visited the City of Windhoek since the researcher had no idea of who to talk to. After getting contact numbers, the researcher phoned all companies that were identified in order to seek permission to conduct the research in their organizations. This was a lengthy, frustrating process as very few responded in an amicable way. Having explained the purpose, the researcher then sent a letter to all institutions seeking permission to conduct the research in their companies as per request. Some of the companies did not respond despite endless efforts by the researcher to get feedback. In some instances, the researcher had to wait for a period of three weeks to get response. Of the twenty companies identified, 15 later gave the researcher permission to conduct the research. Data collection started in May 2015. After getting permission to conduct the research in the organizations, the next step was to arrange interview appointments, another lengthy process. Setting up interviews with the research participants was not an easy task with some of the participants. They would cancel appointments or request to be interviewed at short notice or simply to dodge the interview after giving promises of the date and time of when the interview will take place. 3.10.2 The interview process The researcher conducted all interviews personally. Before the interview commenced, consent letter had to be signed for agreement to be interviewed and audio tapped. All participants agreed to be interviewed and audio tapped, however, in all instances, the researcher was only able to use the voice recorder on two participants as the voice recorder malfunctioned in some instances and the researcher had no back- up plan except to take down notes as the interview progressed. Information sought from the companies was to do with motives, extent of involvement in recycling activities, policies and legislation governing their operations, value addition, linkages and benefits of the industry as well as constraints they faced in their operations and how they managed with them.Where given permission, photographs were taken during observations. The researcher reviewed notes at the end of each day for any insight on issues relevant to pursue in subsequent interviews. This is what Patton (2002, p. 383) refers to as the emergent nature of qualitative research. 3.10.3 Research ethics Issues of informed concern, confidentiality, and integrity during the research are important as recommended by some authors such as Patton (2009). Ethics is a discipline dealing with what is good and bad or right and wrong with moral duty and obligations. Observations of ethics were of great significance to the study. The researcher firstly debriefed the participants before carrying out the interviews. This was done by explaining the whole purpose and process of the study before highlighting the importance of the research. In this research, the participants were given assurance of confidentiality, and by so doing they were assured of no disclosure of information such as names of companies or respondents as such information obtained would be considered personal and private and was going to be used for academic purposes only. Creswell (2003) advises on the masking of names of people, place and activities to maintain privacy and confidentiality. Thus, the study apprehended ethical considerations. For example, the researcher used codes for companies in order to protect their identities no participants were coerced to take part. During and after the study, the identity of the respondents will remain confidential. Research information from interviews and discussions were coded and kept in a safe place with confidentiality. 3.11 Data Analysis procedures and presentation According to Thorne (2000), creating a database is not sufficient to conduct a qualitative study. In order to generate findings from the raw data, data analysis is important. Primary data processing and analysis involved transcribing interviews, typing up field notes, sorting and arranging the data into different types depending on the sources of information. Content analysis was used to identify, code, and categorize patterns in raw data and thereafter develop themes as suggested by Babbie Mouton (2001). 3.11.1 Validity and reliability Validity and reliability concepts have been associated mostly with quantitative research, but they are now considered applicable to qualitative research as well. Patton (1990) states that validity and reliability are two factors which must be of great concern to the researcher in qualitative studies while designing a study, analyzing results and judging the quality of the study. According to Esposito (2002) validity refers to whether the researcher actually measured what he/she wanted to measure. Reliability on the other hand means that responses to the questionnaire were consistent. To a large extent, the researcher obtained similar results in interviews an indication of the reliability of interviews conducted. The reliability of interviews for this research was observed through pilot testing. This was done to ensure that no information was missed from the respondents. Questions that were not clear to the respondents were noted and rectified. 3.11.2 Data Analysis procedures According to Nichodemus (2010) data analysis is the process of bringing order, structure, and interpretation to the mass of collected data. It is a messy, ambiguous, time-consuming creative and fascinating process. Jacobsen et al. (2006) also points out that data collection and analysis takes place simultaneously with qualitative research. In this study, data analysis was done as the data was collected. What follows in this section is how the data analysis for this study was carried out. The study applied content analysis, which refers to the process of extracting desired information from a text by systematically and objectively identifying specified characteristics of the text(Smith, as cited in Hoyle et al., 2002, p. 397) cited by Nengomasha (2009). Content was extracted from the interview transcripts, documents and observation notes. Gay et. al. (2009) suggested that data analysis follows some steps. The first step being to read and re-read the transcripts of interviews in order to get an initial sense of the data, which is followed by grouping or coding or breaking down ideas or concepts into manageable units, identified in the notes into emergent themes which can either be through induction or deduction. Inductive relied on pre-constructed solid templates of categories and deductive derived themes/categories as they arose in the content. Categorization was at the centre of content analysis because by breaking down the contents of materials into meaningful and pertinent units of information, certain characteristics of the message was analyzed and interpreted. According to Trace (2001), when analyzing the data, themes should be allowed to emerge rather than attempting to impose preconceived set of themes on the data. The themes in this study were derived from the theoretical background as well as the objectives. Using the deductive approach, the researcher thematically analyzed the transcript data first and then analyzed these themes in the light of the research questions. Data was analyzed manually although there were computer software packages that could be used to analyze qualitative data. Qualitative analysis packages such as Atlas/it and Hyper Qual (Mayring, 2000 Rourke et al., 2001) are reported to have proved their worth. However, these are essentially aids for sorting and organizing sets of data, but none are capable of the intellectual and conceptualizing processes required to transform data into meaningful findings (Mayring, 2000 Thorne, 2000). This view is supported by Hoyle et al. (2002 p. 399) who argue that computerized content analysis can analyze a large amount of data very quickly but cannot handle verbal subtleties such as sarcasm. The researcher considered the data collected as not being large enough to warrant the use of software. 3.11.3 Data Presentation Presentation of data can be by objective or by research instrument (Varkevisser, Pathmanathanb Brownlee, 2003). Where data is presented by objective, all the data from different collection methods, e.g. interview, observation and document is integrated and one set of data helps to validate, support or confirm the findings of the other. The research instrument approach presents the data separately by instrument and integrates the findings in the discussion. The approach of presenting data by objective was used for presentation of research findings of this study. The integrated presentations are in the form of narrative interpretations, illustrative quotes from in depth interviews and some charts and tables. 3.12 Chapter Summary This chapter discussed the research design and methodology and explained why the qualitative case study approach was used. The population was explained as well as the sampling techniques. The chapter also looked at issues of reliability and validity and ethical issues highlighting how the researcher ensured reliability and validity and took care of ethical considerations in this study. Analysis of data, research process and evaluation of the research methods were also covered in the chapter. The next chapter presents and interprets result of the analysis carried out. CHAPTER 4 PRESENTATION AND INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS 4.1 Introduction In order to generate findings from the primary data, processing and content analysis was used on the transcribed interviews involving examining, sorting, categorizing, evaluating, comparing, synthesizing and contemplating on coding, establishing patterns and arranging the data into different themes depending on the sources of information according to Neuman (2014). One of the enduring problems of qualitative data analysis is the reduction of copious amounts of written data to manageable and comprehensible proportions. The data collected through interviews emerged into categories guided by the specific objectives. The interview findings are presented according to the outline of these objectives. In addition to the predetermined objectives, additional thematic areas emerged during data analysis and these are listed below Industry player and their roles Company challenges Motives of companies Extent of involvement of companies Guiding Policies in waste recovery and recycling in Namibia Legislation controlling waste recovery and recycling in Namibia Emerging waste recycling trends. Recycling value addition processes and products. Benefits chains of recycling industry in Namibia. Network linkages in the industry. This chapter presents and interprets results of the analysis results obtained on the primary and secondary data. Primary data gathering was facilitated by semi-structured interviews with recycling companies and observations, while document search provided for secondary data. For confidentiality purposes the companies were coded as A, B, C etc. The research results are presented in Tables, Figures and in narrative format. 4.2 Industry players and their roles, challenges, motives and extent of involvement in solid waste recycling in Namibia The study required to establish actors and motives behind their recycling efforts in the country during the time of research. Thus, the first objective served to establish motives, themes and extent of involvement of companies in the recycling industry. It is however, very important to present first the profiles of those companies that participated in the study. 4.2.1 Industry players and their roles Different players were involved in the recycling industry as shown diagrammatically in Figure 4.1. Source Research Data, 2015 Figure 41 Communication lines of the players in the industry The following sections outline the demography of participants, the roles their companies are playing in the industry, the distributions of their operations within Namibia and the challenges they are facing. Role of players in recycling industry Both public and private institutions are involved in this industry in their different capacities as shown in figure 4.1. During the interviews, it emerged that these companies have been involved either as collectors and processors, manufacturers and packagers or supporters and promoters of recycling activities as given in table 4.1. Table 4.1 The role of different players in recycling industry PlayerRoleGovernmentRegulation and promotion of the industry (policies, legislation, land and other services)Recovery participants (informal waste pickers and waste collectors)Recovery of recyclables from bins, dumb site, homes and institutionsProcessing CompaniesRaw material production and distributionManufacturing companiesProduction and selling of new productsCorporate companies Other (Supporting through transport, education, awareness raising, funding and depository facilities.)Source Research Data, 2015 Demography of participating companies The literature reviews on recycling in other countries around the globe shaped the initial thoughts as to who the key players in the recycling value chain are. Twenty companies were the target population of the study. However, only 15 companies were eventually interviewed since not all companies were willing to engage the researcher. Table 4.2 shows the companies that were involved and their demographic data during the study. Table 4.2 Demography of participating companies CompanyGender of participantLocation of CompanyTitle of participantAge of company in business Number of workersAmaleWindhoek, Walvis Bay, Oshakati, Swakopmund Husab mineBusiness Developer27_500 total 35 Swakopmund 34 Walvis BayBmaleWindhoekPublic Relations Manager34400C male OkahandjaDirector (owner)4874DmaleOkahandjaProduction Manager1035E. maleWindhoek, Swakopmund, Walvis Bay, Rundu, Ondangwa, Oshakati, Angola, Cape TownPlant manager35150FfemaleWindhoeksupervisor856GFemaleWindhoekCountry Representative34unknownHmaleOshikangosupervisor2053I maleWindhoekContract manager15unknownJfemaleWindhoekDirector(owner)810K. maleWindhoekLogistic Manager43LfemaleWindhoekCorporate Relations Manager95unknownMfemaleWindhoekCoordinator10unknownNmale KeetmanshoopDirector (Owner)2217OmaleWindhoekSolid Waste Management Education Marketing Officer19322Source Research Data, 2015 The players were identified mainly through exploratory interviews with local authorities, desktop studies through the internet as well as secondary sources like local media publications. A number of players were identified throughout the whole country. However, only those who were willing to engage the researcher made up the sample of study. Ten companies that participated in the study were located in Windhoek, the Capital City of Namibia. The results revealed that the years of existence of the companies varied from four years to ninety five years of operation, which shows how old the participating companies were in Namibia. Number of workers also varied from three to over five hundred signifying the size of companies involved in the industry. Distribution of Companies and Contributory factors Recycling activities in Namibia are concentrated in Windhoek, Swakopmund, Walvis Bay, Keetmanshoop in the southern parts of the country and the northern towns, where Namibias largest concentration of people or major industrial activities are located. High concentration of companies and people is found in major towns particularly in the Capital City of Windhoek where most of these companies are situated. Nevertheless, in the other small urban centers recycling efforts were being facilitated through the establishment of collection depots and buy-back centers. According to an official of one company Namibia is a very large country and because of that, peripheral areas are sometimes left out in the operations yet there is a lot of recyclables lying all over the country for, example in resort areas and small settlements. Move around, and see how many plastic and glass bottles are lying around. The researcher also observed these recyclables heaped next to roads at small business centres especially in the northern part of Namibia Oshana, Oshikoto, Ohangwena and Omusati regions. According to the participants, this was attributed to a number of challenges highlighted in the next section and general awareness especially in towns. Thus, recycling efforts are concentrated in major towns but the majority of small centres on the country-side it remains a challenge. 4.2.2 Challenges in the industry While the issue of motives and extent of company involvement in recycling was being investigated, it came out that the industry is faced with a number of challenges which if they could be addressed, the industry will recognize its full potential, as respondents pointed out. Most participants revealed that the industry was not an easy one. On further probing into this matter, participants brought up challenges they were confronted with in the industry. The researcher asked the question What challenges are you experiencing in this industry The responses show that companies had different kinds of challenges they were facing. Poor public participation stood out as the major challenge, with ten participants reporting it, and labor issues were also highlighted as another worry some challenge. Labour issues included lack of commitment appeared to be one of the main source of concern. In Keetmanshoop at company N, on the interview day, the researcher confirmed during site observation, that one out of seventeen worker was present but doing nothing. To make it worse, at the same company, vandalized equipment was observed. The researcher was shown some of the crushing machines that had their wheels removed. Challenges that were revealed are all shown in the table 4.3. Table 4.3 Challenges in recycling industry in Namibia ChallengeNumber of ResponsesTransport and Logistics high transport costs, lack of transport 3Labor issues Lack of trained staff (skills shortage), lack of commitment and high turnover of skilled staff 5 4Financial constraints industry is expensive and not viable 4Weather Condition Harsh weather conditions especially coastal environment 2Space Shortage of storage and operational space 5Low Volumes To establish viable recycling plants 4Machinery Lack of operating machinery and equipment Vandalism and theft of equipment a big issue 2 1Public Participation Poor public participation and cooperation Lack of awareness on recycling 10Enabling Environment Lack of clear policies and legislation on recycling Lack of enough government support 4 2Market forces2Monopoly by big companies Low raw material prices on the international market2 3Source Research Data 4.2.3 Motives for Recycling For the researcher to establish motives, the following question was posed to all participants who were interviewed What motivated you to be involved in recycling activities Respondents gave different views and these were some of the responses as captured in table 4.4. Table 4.4 Motives for Recycling by Companies CompanyEnvironmentalEconomic Social Core or Side ActivityA Protecting the environment Business Raw Materials SideB Right thing to do for the environmentBusiness Raw materials CoreC Protecting the environmentBusinessCoreD Environmental BusinessCoreE Waste reductionBusiness CoreF Cleanliness businessEarn a livingCoreGSafeguarding environmentEntrepreneurs-hipUplifting families CoreH cleanlinessBusiness raw materialCoreI Waste reduction SideJ EnvironmentalEconomiclivelihood CoreK Environmental protectionSideL Environmental ProtectionRaw materialsssideM Environmental protectionCoreN Environmental ProtectionEconomicCoreO Protect and Cleaning of the environmentEconomicSideTotal15133Percentage10086.620Source Research data Companies were driven into recycling due to three main reasons environmental, economic and social. All companies responded that the motivation for their involvement in solid waste recycling activities was based on environmental reasons, which came out to be 100, economic reasons came out to be 86.6 and only 20 of the companies reported social reasons. Therefore environmental and economic stood out as the main motives for recycling by companies. Discussions with most participants, 100 of companies considered recycling to be environmentally driven. However, 100 of the companies who were physically recycling indicated that they were doing this for economic reasons. 4.2.4 Extent of Involvement in Recycling Industry The extent of involvement of companies varied depending on their core activities in the recycling loop. According to EPA (2016), the recycling loop involves the following three major activities step 1-collection and processing, step 2 manufacturing step 3 purchasing/selling of new products made from the recycled materials The loop is not considered complete without purchasing. These steps are repeated over and over again as the products are repeatedly recycled, thus companies aligned themselves with all or some of these activities. Extent of Involvement with regards to processes The study was based on the assumption that companies are involved in the three steps mentioned above, but these activities could be further broken down into smaller activities as illustrated later on in this section. To establish the extent of involvement with regards to the processes, the following question was posed What is the extent of your involvement in the industry in terms of collection, processing, manufacturing and purchasing and selling of new products Responses were as shown in the table 4.5. Table 4.5 Extent of Involvement with regards to the recycling process CompanyCollection and ProcessingManufacturingPurchasing/ sellingOthers/ PromotingTotal Activities Per CompanyRecovery and Collection Pre-processingProcessingA3B3C2D2E 2F2G2H4I 1J 2K2L2M1N2O1Total Companies ()98133764577212150Source Research Data The extent of involvement of companies emerged into five categories collection, pre-processing, processing, manufacturing, purchasing as summarized in Table 4.5. The responses illustrate that all companies were involved though one of the participants had indicated during the interview that There is no recycling here. We just collect and send the materials to South Africa. Majority of companies, 64 were involved with collection and pre-processing activities, the first step of the recycling loop 21 of the companies were into manufacturing and selling of products respectively, while 50 were involved in other activities and 7 in processing of collected materials (7). Extent of Involvement with regards to type of product materials Not all solid waste materials were recyclable. Recycling of solid waste involves handling plastic, paper, glass, e-waste or scrap metal. The residue after sorting recyclables was thrown to the landfills. To find out more, the researcher had to establish types and nature of recyclables that companies handled. In order to establish this, the following question was posed Which type of recyclable raw materials do you deal with It came out that seven products material were being recycled as in Table 4.6 Table 4.6 Product material handling per Company CompanyPlasticPaper GlassCansTiresScrap Metalse-wasteTotal ProductsA6B1C1D1E 1F3G2H4I 0J1K1L2M0NO0Total 824431Source Research Data A total of eight (8) companies handled plastics, two (2) handled papers, one (1) company was involved in e-waste recycling and three (3) companies were recycling scrap metal. Three (3) companies were not involved with any product material. These companies were not involved in physical recycling of materials but their roles were more of policy, regulation and supportive in nature. Only three (3) companies were handling more than 3 product material with 1 company handing almost all the products except e-waste. Respondents categorized these materials further as shown in Table 4.7. Table 4.7 Spectrum of recyclables materials in further categories MaterialCategoryTypesPlasticSoftcarrier bags, sheeting, wrapping packaging, Hardwheelie bins, refuse bags, juice and water bottles, storage containers, HDP, PVC, UPVC pipes, chairs, tables, cutlery, crate boxes, detergents containers, tiresPaperWhiteBond paper, writing, newspapers, magazines, envelopsBrowncarton boxes, envelops and wrapping paperGlass/bottles Clear Milk, soft drinks and juicebrownbeer, soft drinksgreenbeer, soft drinks, Scrap metalsCansSteel and aluminum (soft drinks, beverage, fruit)Ferroussteel, ironNon ferrousaluminum, copper, brass, silver, lead, nickel, tin, zinc, gold, silver, platinumE-wasteIndustrialdesktop computers, mouse, and computer screens, mp3 players, irons, microphones, laptops, calculators, printers, copy machines, keyboards, fax machines, cod players, video machines, speakers, remote controls, cameras, kettles, toasters, vacuum cleaners, answering machines, DVD players, electronic toys, servers, modems swiping machines mobile phones, batteries, circuit boards, hard disks, and monitors and sporting equipment, and any other electricalHouseholdTelevisions, electric kettles, hair brushes, microwaves, irons, food processors, toasters home appliances such as, air conditioners, electric cookers and heaters, fans, DVDs, radios Source Research Data Table 4.8 Plastics recycling codes and symbols Recycling CodeRecycling symbolExamples Recycled Productscodes 1 PET or PETE (polyethylene terephthalate) PlasticsSoft drink, water and beer bottles mouthwash bottles peanut butter containers salad dressing and vegetable oil.fleece, tote bags, furniture, carpet, code 2 HDPE (high density polyethylene) Plasticsmilk jugs, juice bottles bleach, detergent and household cleaner bottles shampoo bottles some shopping bags motor oil bottles butter and yogurt tubs cereal box liners.laundry detergent bottles, oil bottles, pens, recycling containers, floor tile, drainage pipe, lumber, benches, doghouses, picnic tables, fencingCode 3 PVC or V (Vinyl) Plastics.Plastics like window cleaner and detergent bottles, shampoo bottles, cooking oil bottles, clear food packaging and piping.Are rarely recycled and are recycled into decks, panelling, mud flaps, roadway gutters, flooring, cables, speed bumps, matsCode 4 LDPE (low density polyethylene) Plasticsplastics such as those found in squeezable bottles, bread, frozen food, dry cleaning and shopping bags tote bags plastic benches carpetrecycled into bin liners and cans, bins, packaging materials, floor tilesCode 5 PP (polypropylene) Plasticsyogurt containers, syrup bottles, sauce bottles, caps, straws .Companies however, handled mainly capsCan be recycled into signal lights, battery cables, brooms, brushes, auto battery cases, ice scrapers, landscape borders, bicycle racks, rakes, bins, pallets, trays.Code6 PS (polystyrene) PlasticDisposable plates and cups, meat trays, egg cartons, carry-out containers, aspirin bottles, compact disc casesInsulation, light switch plates, egg cartons, vents, rulers, foam packing, carry-out containers.Code7 Miscellaneous Plasticgallon water bottles, bullet-proof materials, sunglasses, DVDs, iPod and computer cases, signs and displays, certain food containers, Recycled into Plastic lumber, custom-made productsRecycled to Plastic lumber, custom-made productsSource Research Data Howard, 2008 Table 4.7 shows that each material had more than one category. Plastic was divided into two major categories of soft and hard plastic and the variety of types identified. Some of the respondents (Company A D) further categorized their plastics into recycling symbols or codes as shown in Table 4.8. Extent of involvement with regards to modes of collection Different modes of collection were used and materials collected from different sources as well. The researcher also established how companies were able to source materials for recycling. The following question was posed Where do you get the recyclable materials and how a) Source of material Recyclable materials were collected from different sources. Table 4.9 shows sources of raw materials. Table 4.9 Sources of raw materials by company Sources of Products Company HouseholdInstitutionsCommercialIndustriesOthersTotal SourcesA5B1C1D2E3F 1G2H4IJ 4K4L1MN5Total466710Source Research Data Five (5) areas for material recovery were identified. Companies A and N Two collected their raw materials from all 5 sources, while five (5) companies indicated less than 2 sources. Ten (10) companies had other sources of material from farms, mines, construction site, ship wreck site, fisheries, resorts.Table 4.9 also shows that companies were competing for the recyclable raw materials, with 7 companies collecting from industries, while only 4 companies were collecting from household. The fact that more companies are collecting from industries than residential areas may suggest that there are incentives given by industries than residential. b) Collection modes Recyclable raw materials were collected through different modes as shown in Table 4.10. Table 4.10 Collection Modes Collection ModesSource of CollectionKerb-sideDoor to doorDrop -Off or clear bag SystemsShopping centers, residential, open spaces etc.On- SiteLandfill, industries, mines, schools, institutionsSource Research Data Table 4.9 shows that three modes of collection were identified Kerb-side (door to door), drop off centers (shopping centers open spaces) and on site (landfill, industries, mines, farms, schools and institutions). 4.3 Policies and Legislation guiding waste recovery and recycling This next section establishes policies and legislation guiding waste recovery and recycling in the industry. It presents the interview results as reflected by the participants regarding their general knowledge on policy and legislation governing their activities and information from secondary sources. The views of the respondents varied from one participant to the other. 4.3.1 Policies and guidelines guiding waste recovery and recycling The existence and awareness amongst companies of policies, procedures and guidelines that regulated their activities were investigated. The researcher asked the question Are there any recycling policies that govern your activities and if not what do you do No national policies on recycling was the general answer given. We have our company policies, procedures and guidelines that we follow, company N responded. Although there is no direct stand-alone Nation policy on recycling, there are policy components that are directly and indirectly promoting recycling in Namibia. Authorities in Namibia displayed support for recycling indirectly through four policy instruments. Government Waste Management Policy The objective of the policy is to ensure public health and safety, and the conservation of the environment by encouraging proper waste management by all stakeholders in order to reduce risks from transmission of diseases and injuries, reduce environmental pollution, improve astatically the surrounding and derive economic benefits from waste minimization and improved land values. Directly, the policy objective advocates for waste minimization which can be achieved through waste recycling among other ways. Public Private Partnership (PPP) The aim of PPP is to deliver improved services and better value for money primarily through appropriate risk transfer, encouraging innovation, asset utilization and integrated life management under pinned by private financing of infrastructure and government services according to the Namibia Public Private Partnership (PPP) Policy p.3. Although the policy does not directly talk about recycling, it addresses issues of service provision by government and government entities, hence, the issues of waste management services directly arise and the need to reduce waste and protection of the environment. City of Windhoek Waste Management Policy(WMP) Any waste related matter in Windhoek is regulated through the City of Windhoek Waste Management Policy of 2009. In order to address the waste management, the City of Windhoek took a proactive approach through the development of a Waste Management Policy. In addressing waste management, the policy promotes the adoption of the principles of Integrated Waste Management Hierarchy namely waste avoidance, reduction, reusing, recycling and disposal. The Policy provides a framework within which waste can be managed effectively to minimize and avoid adverse impacts brought about by unnecessary waste generated and improper waste practices. This policy allows calls for various strategies in order to promote sound environmental waste management practices and has identified waste as a priority area that needs to be managed appropriately. The objective is to minimize the impact of waste on the residence and the environment. In addition, the policy aims to reduce the amount of disposal waste treated at landfill sites. Waste prevention measures can only be achieved at the factory level. Thus Namibia being primarily a consumption society, waste can only be minimize at the dump site by promoting and engaging in recycling. Formal Informal Partnership(Integration Policy. During discussions with the City of Windhoek it became evident that the City has embarked on a policy that promotes the integration of informal waste pickers. It was observed that, at landfill sites, instead of previous attitude of opposition and indifference as Medina (2012) noted, waste pickers(scavengers) collected discarded recyclables from refuse landfill or dumping sites and sold them to the formal recycling collectors. Some were even contracted to reclaim these recyclables on behalf of the recycling companies. This was also observed in other towns of Swakopmund and Keetmanshoop. 4.3.2 Legislation regulating Recycling Legislation enabling and governing their operations in recycling was investigated. The researcher found out that there is no legislation directly dealing with recycling operations in Namibia. Regulatory Environment To solicit information about regulatory environment, the researcher asked the question What legislation guides the work that you do Responses varied from one participant to the other. Some respondents displayed ignorance of the regulatory environment that they operate under. However, all participants identified Council Regulations to control their operations. This is what they had to say According to company A officials in Windhoek, Oooh yes the municipality regulates all our activities. Moreover, we also follow labor regulations and safety procedures where applicable. For instance, our workers are supposed to put on protective clothing like boots, overalls and goggles when breaking glass bottles. No one can take me to court because I am not recycling. The law is not there. My vision is to see Namibia turning into a recycling nation. Go to Europe, in Sweden recycling is a must said Company A official in Swakopmund. Company L official, was very detailed in their response to the question. Yes, these are the regulations that we have to follow EMA, 2007, Labour Act, Health and Safety, Employment Act, Local Authorities Act, ISO Standards and others. Both companies K and L highlighted that they follow most of the industrial regulations in the country. Company F official said There is no one who controls our activities or checks what I do. I just do what I want. The council is not even interested in recycling they just dump something which the researcher witnessed when a council official came to the landfill and dumped cardboard boxes among recyclables. Company I official who held the position of supervisor, showed ignorance on this matter as she was even hesitant to give a response I dont know, but yes the council However, some participants highlighted some pieces of legislation which controlled their day to day operations as businesses. Legislation controlling company operation From the discussion above, it was evident that the legislation was fragmented only City of Windhoek had a waste management regulation which promoted recycling among other waste reduction measures under the Integrated Waste Management Approach. A summary of legislation cited by respondents are given in the Table 4.11. It emerged that this legislation was applicable to any other company doing business in Namibia. At the time of study, any company was legally bound to operate within the framework of these pieces of legislation highlighted in the table. Table 4.11 Legislation guiding by Recycling CompanyLegislationEMA 2007Labor ActHealth and Safety ActAffirmative Act,1998Local Authority Act,1992ISO StandardsOther/ dont knowA BCD. E. F. G. I. J. K. L. M. N. O.Total678474840465326462653 Source Research data 53 of respondents indicated that Health and Safety Act controlled their operations, whilst 26 were governed by the Affirmative Act. 4.3.3 Summary No specific policy on recycling was the general response except for their own company policies. However, one company held that they had a policy commitment for recycling in order to maximize the diversion of waste materials from disposal sites, and to encourage waste generators and operators to recycle through their Waste Management Plans enacted in 2009. Thus, the general consensus was that there are no direct policies and legislation for recycling in Namibia and there is a need for these instruments to focus on material recovery. 4.4 Emerging Waste recycling trends, Value addition processes and associated benefit chains. This part presents the interview results to questions responded regarding issues of recycling patterns, value addition and benefit chains in the industry. 4.4.1 Waste recycling trends The following section presents recycling patterns that were established during the study. Emerging waste recycling trends The question Can you please highlight any changes that have taken place since efforts to promote recycling began was posed so as to establish trends within the industry. The following are established trends and patterns that came out clearly from these discussions Table 4.12 Recovery and collection trends in recycling TRENDinformal-to-formal sector collectionprivate companies observed to be playing a more active role which was traditionally performed by the informal sector and growth in number of players in the industry on the increaseMixed-to-source separation and collectiona move away from traditional approach to drop-off Centers at shop and schools drop-off-points in residential areas buy-back centers in small towns source collection from households (curb-side), commercial businesses, institutions, industries, mines, farms, construction sites, resorts, open spaces observed and waste generators contracts signed with big recycling companies.Recycling collection programsidentified programs were Clear Bag System in Windhoek, Orange Bin in Swakopmund, Buy Back Centers, Catch them young Schools recycling competitionRecovery facilitiesthe new trend being that of establishing Material Recovery Facilities MRF at the landfill sites as observed in SwakopmundFormal and informal sector partnerships working together moving from the traditional approach of not paying attention to the sector Areal Expansion (Recycling outside major centres) Two company officials (A, E) reported that their operations had expanded outside Windhoek through establishment of branches in Walvis Bay, Swakopmund, Henties Bay, Oshakati and Ondangwa. In smaller centers, recycling depots are being set by big companies in the industry e.g. in Rundu. Recovery of materials is taking place both in urban and non-urban environments e.g. construction sites, resort centers all over the country. Figure 4.2 already shows these places of operation. Growth in number of Companies in the industry Statistical information about the exact number of companies in the industry at the time of study could not be obtained. However, information made available by three participants indicated that there were a growing number of companies who were getting involved. It is no longer the case of big companies but even Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) are getting involved especially in Windhoek as reported. A number of companies were reported to have been interested around 2010 when recycling efforts were being promoted by City of Windhoek. Nevertheless, by the time of study company O official reported that many small companies had pulled out as they could not meet the operational requirements because they were undercapitalized and lacked knowhow. Trends in prices of products Company N gave information on scrap metal prices that showed fluctuation over the period from 1994 to 2016. Table 4.12 shows price fluctuations for scrap metal over the period. Table 4.13 Scrap Metal prices over the years Year Price range/ton1994120/20086000/20162000/ Companies E and N officials highlighted that price fluctuations were common due to market forces. In 1994, one tonne of scrap metal was sold at 120. The highest price was in 2008 when one tonne was sold at 6 000. In 2015 prices were reported subdued, thus companies were holding their products in anticipation of better prices. Growth in volume of recycled waste Companies were quick to mention that the amount of recyclable raw materials was increasing but refused to give statistical information citing confidentiality. Hence, descriptive information of what was happening in general was all the researcher could get. However, company O made available data for household recyclable raw material and the general waste that was collected over a period of four years. Trends in domestic waste generation in Windhoek The figure 4.2 shows the general waste generation trend in Windhoek before and during the recycling efforts invigoration. Figure 4.2 Trends in domestic general waste generated in Windhoek Source Cow 2015 Figure 4.2 shows an upward trend in domestic general waste generated from 2007 to 2014corresponding with the amounts disposed. In 2012 there was a dip in waste generated. CBS domestic waste generated and recycled in Windhoek Figure 4.3 shows a comparison of waste generated, recycled and disposed in suburbs using the clear bag system from 2011 to 2014 during the period when recycling promotions started. Figure 4.3 Domestic waste generation and recycling in Windhoek Source Cow 2015 The figures shows an upward trend corresponding with the amounts of waste generated, disposed or recycled. Table 4.14 shows the amount of waste generated and recycled in the form of figures. Table 4.14 Percentage of waste recycled in Windhoek YearWeight from CBS recycled (tons)Weight generated (tons)Recyclable raw material20111 36123 0425.920121 36626 5785.120131 97530 6856.420142 03336 1885.6Source Cow 2015 The percentage of household waste diverted from landfill through recycling was very low.The figure was almost constant but volumetrically the figures are on the increase. Recyclable material collected at MRF vs. ward contractors in Windhoek Of the recycled materials, figure 4.4 below shows the quantity of recyclables collected through the household collection system and the ward contractor system. Figure 44 Trends of recyclables collected at MRF tons/yr. Source Cow 2015 Figure 4.4 shows that the volume of recyclable material collected at MRF by ward contractors was high in 2011, slightly above 1 000 tonnes. There was a drop in 2012, slight increase in 2013 and 2014 respectively. The only explanation for the drop was due to high operation costs which forced small companies to stop recycling. Recyclables from suburbs started off low in 2011, rising to a high in 2013 before dipping in 2014. In general there has been a combined increase in the tonnages collected over the three years, with more waste collected in 2013 and 2014 may be due to the increase in awareness and effort by the collectors. d) Recyclable material collected by companies in Windhoek The total quantity of materials recycled by companies by material category could not be availed to the researcher. A few companies like E and K availed their monthly and yearly production figures shown in table 4.15 and 4.16 respectively at the time of the study in 2015. Table 4.15 Company E production figures Recyclable raw materialProduction (kg/month)Annual Production (kg)scrap metal35 000420 000steel cans12 000144 000aluminium cans1 00012 000glass 42 000504 000plastic 15 000180 000carton boxes and paper20 000240 000Source research data Company E was producing an average of 125 000 kg of recyclable raw material per annum based on these figures. Scrap metal was the main product which was recycled ever since in the country. From 2010, diversity of recyclable materials recovered has increased. Table 4.16 Company K production figures YearVolumes (ton/yr.)20135920142820159.2 (Jan-Oct)Source research data Recycling of e-waste started in earnest in 2011. The few records of e- waste collected demonstrated a decline in volumes over the years. Employment trends Company A revealed that women were becoming more involved in the industry particularly in pre-processing sector of the industry. Previously, it was pointed that it was a male dominated industry. However, despite their involvement, the official emphasized that This is not an industry for women. The tasks are very strenuous and also dirty. Women need light jobs. Look at that one dismantling that iron block, thats hard work Table 4.17 Companies contributing to total recycling in Namibia Company Activities by company ProductA Recovery of recyclables raw materialPlastics recovered bins, carrier bags, detergent bottles, plastic sheets, wrapping packaging, wheelie bins, refuse bags, juice and water bottles, storage containers, chairs, tables, cutlery, crate boxes, detergents containers, tiresDProduction of recycled raw materials (pellets)Pellets produced PETE (Polyethylene Terephthalate) HDPE (High Density Polyethylene) V (Vinyls including Polyvinyl Chloride) LDPE (Low Density Polyethylene) PP (Polypropylene) PS (Polystyrene) CManufacturing of pipesPipes produced HDPE (High Density Polyethylene) PVC (Vinyls including Polyvinyl Chloride) BManufacturing of plastic productsPackaging plastic, containers, binsWholesalers and RetailersSelling and packagingPipes, packaging plastics, bins, containersSource research data Growth of total recycling in Namibia Efforts to promote total recycling of products were reported. However, during the time of the research, total recycling in Namibia was still limited to plastics. Table 4.17 shows companies involved in total plastic recycling and products manufactures in Namibia. Legend Functional Recycling Chain Activities and stakeholders Recycling Supply Chain Product Supply Chain Figure 4.5 Processes observed in Namibia plastic recycling (Source Hickman, 2009) Four companies were involved in total plastic recycling as shown in the table. A variety of products were also produced locally. 4.4.2 Value Addition Processes in Namibia. The researcher wanted to establish how companies were involved in value addition processes in the recycling industry. A question was posed to the participants What value are you adding to the recyclables you are involved with Responses varied. What follows is a presentation in tables highlighting the different products and the value addition processes that were involved. Figure 4.5 shown the observed processes especially in plastic recycling where total recycling was taking place. Total recycling in Namibia value addition processes for plastic Plastics undergo various processes during recycling as highlighted in the table 4.18. Four major processes of value addition for plastics were recognized, that is recovering, processing, manufacturing and selling. At the time of study, seven companies (53) were involved in recovery activities of plastic. Only one (7) company was involved in pelleting to produce raw materials three companies (20) were into manufacturing of plastic products like pipes and plastic packaging as well as selling to whole sellers. Figure 4.5 shows a diagrammatic illustration of the value addition process for plastic as given by Botswana Recycling Guidelines of 2012. Table 4.18 Value addition by Company for Plastics in Namibia CompanyValue Addition ProcessingA, F, N, L,H, G,NRecovery Collection, sorting according to type, texture, color cleaning (smelly ones e.g. fish for plastics wrapping) crushing, cutting/shredding, chipping bottle caps balling transportation to final destinationDprocessing collection Chipping, crushing, cutting, Washing and drying Heating and Melting molding injection/ molding / extrusion Pelleting (chipping and packaging ) SellingB,C,H Manufacturing plastic pipes and packaging Injection molding/Blow molding extrusion, injection and injection stretch Packaging Selling Source research data Figure 4.6 Simplified schematic diagram for plastic recycling Source Botswana Recycling Guidelines, 2012 Value addition for Paper Paper undergoes varying processes during recycling. The different processes carried out in Namibia are highlighted in the table 4.19. Table 4.19 Value addition by Company for Paper in Namibia CompanyProcessingA,NRecovery Collection Sorting Shredding Baling transportation to final destination Source research data Only two companies (A and N) were involved in paper processing that is recovery. Value addition for Glass Bottles Companies A, N and F were into glass bottles recovery. It undergoes varying processes during recycling at different companies in Namibia. The different processes are highlighted in the table 4.20. Table 4.20 Value addition by Company for glass bottles in Namibia CompanyProcessingLTransportation Glass bottlesA,N, FRecovery Collection Transportation Sorting Crushing Baling transportation to final destinationSource research data Value addition for Cans The main processes of value addition for cans are highlighted in the table 4.22 Table 4.22 Value addition by Company for cans in Namibia G,LTransportation steel and aluminum cansA,N, FRecovery Collection Transportation Sorting Compaction Baling transportation to final destinationSource research data Five companies were involved in recycling cans. G and L were involved in the transportation of these cans while companies A, N and F were involved in recovery and the other value addition processes identified in table 4.22. Value addition for Scrap Metals Scrap metals were reported and observed to undergo various processes. These are summarized in the table 4.23. Three companies (E, J and N) were involved in scrap metal recycling, which involved separating metals from the mixed scrap metal stream or the mixed multi-material waste stream. Secondary sources revealed that automated recycling operations using magnets and sensors are used to aid in material separation. To allow further processing, shredding is done to promote the melting process as small shredded metals have a large surface to volume ratio. As a result, they can be melted using comparatively less energy. In this stage, scrap metals are formed into specific shapes such as bars that can be easily used for the production of various metal products. Once the metals are cooled and solidified, they are ready to use as new raw material for production. They are then transported to various factories where they are used as raw material for the production of brand new products. Table 4.23 Value addition by Company for Scrap Metals in Namibia CompanyProcessingE,J,NRecovery Collection dismantling sort Shredding Compaction transportation to final destinationSource research data Value addition for E-Waste Only one (1) company K in Windhoek was involved in e-waste recycling at the time of study. The company was involved in all the processes highlighted above plus transportation to South Africa for further processing. The e-waste recycling process was observed to be highly labor intensive. According to literature, e-waste recycling involves the following further steps use of over-band Magnet, non-metallic and metallic component water separation. Components e-waste retrieved are sent to recyclers of plastic and metal. Table 4.24 Value addition by Company for E-Waste in Namibia CompanyProcessingTrans-world (E-waste)Recovery Collection, sorting, dismantling, cutting baling transportation to final destinationSource research data 4.4.3 Benefit chains associated with recycling processes. Table 4.26 Participants View of recycling Benefits Number of RespondentsageEnvironmentalReduces waste dumped at landfill320Promotes sustainable development426.7Cleans the environment960saves natural resources853.3reduces pollution533.3Economicsource of income213.3defer investment on landfill213.3creates and promotes new businesses16.7Cheap raw material853.3Cheaper goods213.3Cost saving on wastes removal operations213.3Local economic development213.3Potential Source of revenue213.3Socialsource of livelihood for the poor426.7creates employment,1493.3 Source research data Table 4.26 shows benefits that recycling in Namibia has. Ninety three (93) of respondents highlighted that the industry creates employment, while 53.3 revealed that it saves natural resources, 53.3 pointed out that it is a source of raw materials and 60 noted it keeps the environment clean. Figure 4.7 Benefits chains of recycling solid waste Source research data Figure 4.6 gives an illustration of the cause and effect diagram to represent primary and secondary benefit chains of recycling. Secondary benefits can further be sub-divided into further indirect benefits. 4.5 Local network linkages in the industry local and regional backward and forward operational network linkages in the industry in Namibia are presented. Information gathered showed that most companies had both local and regional linkages. 4.5.1 Forms of linkages Table 4.26 shows forms of network linkages in the industry from secondary sources. Table 4.27 Forms of linkages InstitutionRecycling CompaniesLinkagesGovernment institutions Recycling Companies Education information flow Promotional information flowWaste Generators Raw material flows Promotional information flowWaste Pickers Raw material flows Promotional information flowTransporters Corporate Worldtransport and logistics Promotional information flow, Funds flow, Education information flow receptor material linkages, transport logistics linkages PartnershipAcademic Institutions Research information flowSource research data The predominant forms of linkages are material flow, and promotional and education information flow. Due to the infancy of the industry the later are very important linkages. 4.5.2 Local Company Linkages Local linkages are considered as linkages between companies in Namibia. Table 4.27 shows the entitys backward and forward linkage players and the form of linkage that exist between them. Table 4.28 Local backward and forward linkages of companies CompanyBackward LinkagesForm of linkageForward LinkagesForm of linkageA Municipalities, Households, Industries, Commercial Retail and Wholesale companies, Government institutions, banks, schools, colleges, universities, Waste Management companies, waste pickers, Mines, Fishing CompaniesPromotional, Information flow, land resource and Material flow Funds flow Company D, Transport companies and Landfill companies Raw Material flow Waste flow Transport logistics DCompany A, Households, Fishing Companies, plastic packaging cRaw Material flow Hardap Plastic Distributors, North West Plastics-Ondangwa, Ogowa Vehicle Company O, H, C, BRaw Material flow EGovernment, Trans-Namib, Nampower, Namdeb, Oshakati, Mines, SMEs, trolley-man, Shipping CompaniesRaw Material flow noneRaw Material flow KWindhoek-Households, Industries, Institutions, individuals, corporate World-Private companies promoting the Green Movement, FNB, Samsung, NECRaw Material flow Company O, landfill sites, Company E, Tsumeb Customs Smelters, Raw Material flow Manufacture products flow BGovernment, Company O, Company D Okahandja, virgin RM from Overseas Suppliers, Financial Institutions, Company M, Company ARaw Material flow information, financialMarkets-shops, wholesales, , Manufacture products flow Funds flowNKeetmanshoop, Karasburg, AisAis, Company NWR, Gondwana Lodges, Nerkatal Dam Raw materials flowLIndividuals, Wholesalers and retailers, NWR, Companies M , G, educational institutions, OCompany ARaw material flow CCompany DRaw materials flowMarkets-shops, wholesales, New products flowsFLandfill sites, open space pickingMaterial flowCompany A, Coca Cola IWaste Management Divisions, Scavengers, WM companiesMNamibian Populace, WM companies and recycling companies, institutions e.g. schools, Corporate WorldEducation information flow Promotion information flowlocalEducation information flow Promotion information flowJLocal businesses, trolley-man, farms, Raw material flowCompany ERaw material flowOAll CompaniesEducation information flow Promotion information flowAll CompaniesEducation information flow Promotion information flowSource research data Information gathered showed that all companies had local linkages in one form or the other. 4.5.3 External Linkages Table 4.28 shows external linkages for the companies under investigation. The backward linkages are as presented in table 4.27. For confidentiality purposes the actual companies will not be given but only cities and countries of operation is provided. Table 4.29 Forward regional and international linkages CompanyForward LinkagesForm of linkageARegional S.A companies in Cape Town, Durban JHB, International Company Finland Raw materials flow Partnership ERegional SA scrap metal Companies, International Asian Markets- Vietnam, IndiaRaw materials flowKRegional SA, Raw materials flowBRegional SA, Angola, New products flowsNRegional South African Markets, International Asian Markets Raw materials flow CRegional Angola, Botswana, Zambia, ZimbabweNew products flowsFRegional SARaw materials flowJRegional SA Markets International Asian MarketsRaw materials flowSource research data Most companies had regional and internal linkages in terms of raw material flow, but a few had information flows and resources flows (human resource, transport, machinery, financial, partnerships) linkages. For raw material flows, regional links were mainly with South Africa and international link with Asian markets. For new products, the links are mainly regional with SA, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Botswana and Angola. The researcher was not privileged to get the name of recipient companies in these countries. Figure 4.7 shows the local, regional and international material flow linkages networks. Figure 4.8 Recycling linkages Local, Regional and International Source Research data 4.6 Summary Research data from interviews, observation and document search was presented in this chapter according to the thematic areas of the study. Data was presented in the form of tables, figures and descriptive narratives. The study established that recycling is still in its infancy, faced with challenges such as weak legislation resulting in low participation levels. Plastics, papers, glass, cans, scrap metals and e-waste are the materials that were being recycled at the time of study. Recovery and pre-processing were the main recycling activities that were executed in Namibia with further specialized processing and manufacturing completed outside the country. Only plastic had complete recycling in Namibia. Data showed that recycling was undergoing through the transformation stages with private sector involvement becoming more entrenched in the industry that was previously dominated by the informal sector. Establishment of Material Recovery Facilities at the source was seen as a great step towards promoting the industry and creation of employment. Linkage networks in the industry were viewed as very important by all actors for survival. Discussion of these findings follows in the next chapter. CHAPTER FIVE DISCUSSION OF RESEARCH FINDINGS 5.1 Introduction This chapter discusses and interprets the findings of the study. The research data as presented in Chapter Four is organized according to the research objectives and research themes. Wherever the word recycling is used, it means the process of converting re-used materials to produce new raw materials for purposes of producing new products for selling. 5.2 Industry actors and their roles, Challenges, Motives and Extent of Involvement in Solid Waste Recycling in Namibia This section presents the findings in the following four thematic areas industry actors and their roles, company challenges, company motives and company extent of Involvement. 5.2.1 Industry players and their roles Like any other industry in the country, actors in the industry were varied as shown in figure 4.1 in Chapter 4. The actors in the industry included government ministries, non-profit organizations, business world, recycling companies (large and small scale), manufacturing industries and waste pickers. Their involvement was as a result of the nature of their business, being collecting, processing, manufacturing, packaging, or promoting recycling in Namibia. All business activities in Namibia are controlled by Government through particular Ministries policies and regulations. The Ministry of Industry and Trade (MIT), Ministry of Environment and Tourism (MET), Ministry of Regional and Local Government, Housing and Rural Development (MRLGHRD), Ministry of Health and Social Services (MOHSS) and Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Water Resources (MAFWR) were considered to be governing directly the activities of the recycling industry. The Ministry of Industry and Trade (MIT) is involved in the governance of all business activities in the country through policies and legislation. Waste management activities and operation licensing are overseen by the Directorate of Regional and Local Government, Traditional Authority Coordination within the Ministry of Regional, Local Government, Housing and Rural Development (MRLGHRD). Environmental management is the responsibility of the Department of Environmental Affairs (DEA) under the Ministry of Environment and Tourism (MET). In addition to formal companies, waste pickers (informal sector) were also part of the recycling system. Even if the position of some companies was not very clear regarding the position of the informal sector, the researcher established that they were part of the recycling industry. Companies A, F, I N and O reported receiving recyclables from informal waste pickers. At company E, one of the big scrap metal recycling company in Windhoek, waste pickers could be seen trickling in and out with an assortment of materials. The operations manager confirmed that they always brought in their recyclable merchandise. This scenario of waste pickers in Namibia was found to be quite similar to what happens in other developing countries. Croset, (2014) pointed that these are marginalized as well as poor people trying to eke a living through scavenging. In South Africa, waste pickers are part of the recycling value chain system as well (Muzenda, 2013 Mosi, 2011 Mamphitta, 2009). Recycling activities in Namibia were concentrated in Windhoek, Swakopmund, Walvis Bay, Keetmanshoop, and the northern towns of Oshakati, Ondangwa where Namibias largest population or major industries are found. High concentration of companies is found particularly in the Capital City of Windhoek. This is not peculiar, according to Least Cost Location theory by Weber which takes a look at industrial location. According to Weber, industries tend to agglomerate (cluster) in certain areas in order to take advantage of the pool factors present. This allows the industries the opportunity to better maximize its profits. Industrial agglomeration refers to clustering of industries in an area. Weber stressed that agglomeration saves transport costs by proximity to input suppliers or final consumers it allows for labour market pooling and facilitates intellectual spillovers. In this case, urban areas stand more chances for industries to benefit a number of things e.g. labour, raw material availability, transport and networking. However, efforts were being made to spread recycling all over the country e.g. in resort centres through the efforts of companies A, L and M in conjunction with a government entity responsible for wild life and resorts. At Sossusvlei Area, one of the premier tourism spots in Namibia, waste separation was going on, taking predominantly glass, tin cans and sometimes plastic back to Windhoek. Due to health as well as safety and security aspects, land owners in some of these areas expressed concern about the idea of having recycling centres close to their land. In urban centers recycling efforts were being facilitated through the establishment of collection depots and buy-back centers. Years of existence of companies varied from four to ninety five years although most of the companies were involved in recycling for less than twenty years. Number of workers also varied from three to over five hundred. Male participants, who contributed to the research, dominated the industry, and according to two companies E and J participants they felt the industry was most suited to males due to the nature of the tasks which are too strenuous for females. The outcome of the investigation of the industry was therefore primarily based on findings from the formal sector in Windhoek as presented in section 4.2.1 in Chapter Four. It emerged during the study that both formal and informal sectors were involved in recovery and recycling activities in Namibia. However, the formal sector had become deeply involved in the activities of the industry through the involvement of private owned companies, a situation similar to that highlighted by Muzenda (2013) in South Africa. Manufacturing industries in South Africa were found to be driving the recycling initiatives in the country with new recycling centers developing in major cities. 5.2.2 Challenges in the industry The industry was faced with challenges as shown in Table 4.3 chapter 4. Therefore the research question What challenges are you experiencing in this industry was investigated. Ten participants reported challenges encountered. In Walvis Bay company A manager highlighted that it was quite difficult convincing every household resident to take recycling seriously. It emerged, the older population had attitude problems as they were said to resist on the grounds that they were paying rates and not their duty to separate recyclable for recycle. Those in the twenties to thirties age group were found quite embracing of the idea. In Windhoek, low levels of public participation was too highlighted particularly in low income areas, to the extent that a project to promote recycling that was underway during the time of study had to be abandoned. This phenomenon is not peculiar to Namibia alone as some researches done elsewhere reported the same findings. In South Africa, Kotze (2015) a study on perceptions and attitudes found out that participation in recycling by women residents was poor due to ignorance and lack of knowledge to implement effective recycling practices. In Malaysia, Omran (2008) found out that household participation in recycling was low due to attitude problem. Participation in recycling of household waste was a function of level of awareness and understanding, level of education and availability of recycling facilities. These factors were considered important as they help to remove barriers preventing households from recycling. In Namibia, there was need to raise more awareness about the benefits of recycling, so as to bring everyone on board. Magen (2010) studied waste management and recycling in Namibia and found out that recycling levels in Keetmanshoop and Ondangwa were still low partly due to lack of awareness and education. Shortage and exorbitant prices of transport also was another challenge that affected the industry. There was agreement across companies that it was very expensive to transport materials especially from sources in the northern part of Namibia to outside markets like South Africa. Only perceived high value recyclables like metals were lucrative at times owing to fluctuating fuel and commodity prices which affected the viability of transportation costs. All companies agreed that the average price for one trip to South Africa, which was in the order of between 10 000 to 12 000 Namibian dollars was quite costly. Availability of transport was considered a big challenge as smaller companies did not have transport of their own. This is all I have a small pickup truck. I have to hire transport but its very expensive company J respondent said this while emphasizing the transport difficulties they faced.The issue of transport was greatly affecting operations of the industry in many ways. A lot of recyclables were not being collected from other parts of the country due to transport costs coupled with lack of labour for uploading and off loading materias. The findings of this study are consistent with the findings of the study done by Croset (2014) who concluded that the long transportation distances made it expensive to move recyclabes. Jacobsen et al., (2014) also agreed with Croset (2014)s findings that transport problems were hampering recycling efforts in Namibia. As a result of this, participants agreed also that a lot of recyclables were not being collected around the country due to transport issues.Longdistance transporters experienced difficulties in accessing collection sites (e.g. dumpsites) where a lot of recyclables were assembled. Labour issues also stood out as some of the challenges of major concern, Low skilled staff, lack of commitment and high turnover of skilled staff were raised concerns. In Keetmanshoop, company N explained that workers lacked commitment thereby affecting company productivity. On many days, greater number of the workers was reported absent. On the day of interview, only three out of a total of the seventeen workers had reported for duty. To make it worse, vandalism of industry equipment was also reported a situation which was found affecting work progress. In the coastal towns of Swakopmund and Walvis Bay weather conditions also affected operations of the industry. Buildings and machinery needed constant repair attention due to wearing by corrosion. In Walvis Bay, the manager of company A expressed that this was an issue of concern as the operating space was limited leaving some equipment lying exposed to weather elements. It was his hope that the discussions on land allocation with the council authorities would bear fruit full and so would be able to construct bigger premises which could accommodate all things in doors. Whilst the industry was reported to have potential for growth, the issue of low recyclable volumes was reported as a concern. The volumes that were being collected could not sustain the industry. It is not profitable with the volumes that we collect said company A, N and K officials. Similar challenges affecting recycling were found out in different studies carried out in other African countries (Carbon Africa, 2014 Senzige et al., 2012 Fadlalla, 2010 Bolaane, 2004). A study on waste management in Mozambique found out that the low levels of recycling were attributed to factors such as financial constraints, low levels of participation and lack of knowledge (Carbon Africa, 2014). It therefore shows that the industry in Africa is still bedeviled with challenges. Owing to a whole lot of challenges the industry faced, it explains why the recycling initiatives were concentrated in Windhoek Swakopmund/Walvis bay (coast) and in Ondanwgwa/Oshakati in the north. 5.2.3 Motives for recycling Any initiative has a motive behind it. So, one of the main objectives of the study was to establish the motives behind companies involvement in recycling activities. In this research study, it was important to understand the driving forces in recycling of waste. The research question What motivated the companies to be involved in the recycling business was investigated. The next discussion presents the findings of the study with regards to motives for recycling in Namibia. The study established that all the fifteen companies were driven into recycling by three main reasons environmental, economic and social. Involvement in solid waste recycling activities was based on environmental reasons as evident from empirical data presented in Table 4.4, Chapter Four. These findings concur with (Pitchayanin, 2012) that recycling is influenced by altruistic, economic and legal considerations. Although legal reasons were not cited, it is perceived that it comes as a result of an underlying social, economic or environmental concern. The legal system with regards to recycling was still weak thats one reason why it did not feature as a motive. Environmental Reasons In Namibia, issues of environmental protection are high on the governments agenda as stipulated in the Namibian Constitution. Namibia is a signatory to a number of international environment treaties and declarations for environmental protection as Shikongo (2006) established. Thus, the Namibian government emphasizes that environmental protection has to be upheld by all for the benefit of everyone now and in the future. No wonder during the interviews, all participants were aware of this national duty. The first response for why they were recycling was environmental. Responses as for future generations to protect water resources and it is unsightly suggested that there was awareness about the relationship between waste and the environment. Generally, all companies agreed that their motive for recycling was driven by the need to protect the environment because they thought waste was a major cause of environmentalwater,land and air pollution. Waste sent to landfills was noted to produce methane, a powerful greenhouse gas which has the potential to cause global warming. With environmental pollution, participants said a lot of challenges are created such as groundwater pollution, air pollution when waste is disposed through burning and destruction of scenic beauty of the landscape due to indiscriminate dumping. Thus, the move towards zero waste to landfills as a sustainable option for waste management and environmental protection was suggested. Hasheela (2009) Muranga, (2014) concluded that at the national level in Namibia, the environment is threatened by unsafe waste disposal, which is detrimental to the environmental integrity. Lindell (2011) confirmed that waste recycling was an important waste management strategy to assist local authorities in dealing with the waste as it was affecting the environment. Thus, the need to recycle was considered very important. Recycling was considered as a waste reduction strategy. Companies A, I and O stressed the idea that their motives for recycling was driven by the need to reduce the volumes of waste that were being disposed at dumpsites since the amounts of waste generation in major towns particularly were increasing and management becoming difficult. Waste generation in the capital City of Windhoek was noted to be increasing and becoming a major cause of concern at disposal despite the fact that Namibia is big. In 2007, 64 843 tons of waste were generated by 2014, the figure had risen to 75 594.The waste generated was expected to rise to 86 977 tones by 2019 according to the Draft Waste Reduction Strategy 3rd (CoW, 2016). It was noted that if waste was left unchecked additional challenges were bound to be experienced life span of landfill sites were being threatened and yet establishment of new sites was considered very costly even though Namibia has vast tract of land. Landfills need to be closer to the areas they serve in order to reduce transport costs. Nearby suitable land was considered a challenge since the terrain is mountainous. In order to prolong the lifespan of the landfill sites the need to recycle was inevitable. In Japan, however, Liebenberg (2011) observed that the drive to promote recycling was partly due to land scarcity for waste disposal. Even though the motives were different, waste recycling was seen as a waste reduction measure. While waste recycling was considered a waste reduction strategy, company A, I, O officials and documents reviewed by the researcher, showed that recycling was still long way to yield desired results of reducing volumes of waste disposed at landfill sites. A lot of waste is still coming here said company A official in Swakopmund. In Windhoek, amount of waste generation and disposed was increasing as shown in Table 4.13 in Chapter Four, which did not correspond to effort put to recycling. Recycling percentages remained relatively low as shown in Figure 4.3 of the same chapter. A number of factors were contributory to this, chief among them being low public participation coupled with rising consumption patterns. This scenario pointed to the need to upscale awareness campaigns among the different sectors of the society in these areas. The idea of recycling was further supported by company O official on the pretext that it was the new root to follow in line with sustainable development. Globally, solid waste management has moved towards an integrated approach system. This approach promotes waste avoidance through prevention ahead of reuse, recycle and disposal. Solid waste disposal should only be a last resort when all other options have been exhausted. Supporting the findings of this study, (Tukahirwa, 2011 Munthali, 2006) concurred that the problems associated with waste management are global and require an integrated approach to arrive at a possible long term solution. It therefore shows that recycling efforts in Namibia is not something out of line with global trends. The study also found out that the other motive for recycling was to protect the environment from hazardous materials. For example, e-waste was considered dangerous since it contains hazardous metals such as lead and mercury. In most cases not everyone was aware of proper disposal of this kind of waste. Indiscriminate dumping in some cases was reported. In most parts of the country this waste stream was still being disposed together with other waste streams at dumpsites despite their potential danger to the environment and human health. The study confirmed findings of studies carried out in India, which revealed that improper e-waste disposal was having immense potential to harm human health and the environment (Anwesha Kunal, 2013) which contributed partly to policy level initiatives that were considered relatively new but could not adequate address the issue. Sejane (2005) in a study on electronic records management in the public sector in Lesotho came up with similar findings. It was revealed that even though e-waste was hazardous, a lot of important precious mineral components were contained in it. Thus the need to recycle in order to retrieve these mineral components required by manufacturers was considered inevitable. This is partly supported by a study by Namias (2013) who found out that e-waste contains precious and special metals, including gold, silver, copper, palladium and platinum, as well as potentially toxic substances such as lead, mercury, cadmium and beryllium. Therefore, responsible end-of-life management of e-waste is imperative in order to recover valuable components and properly manage hazardous and toxic components. Waste was also considered a health hazard as well. Thus, there was need for sustainable management in order to avoid some of the health challenges associated with waste. A lot of plastics that were increasingly becoming part of the waste were considered dangerous to both domestic and wild animals. Due to non-biodegradable plastics Plastic kills animals if consumed. commented company C official. The need to recycle plastics was considered a necessity in order to reduce some of the dangers it poses to animal health. The findings of this study are in line with the findings of Murghal (2014) in a study on waste management in northern towns of Namibia. The study concluded that there was need for all local authorities to protect dumpsites in order to prevent animals particularly cattle from feeding on waste such as plastics. In one of the small urban centers in the northern part of the country, Itamalo (Namibia, 5 October, 2017) reported that residents were up in arms over a dumpsites which they blamed on a dying cattle suspected of eaten plastics. Common waste like bottles was also dangerous to children who are often victims of broken bottles in playgrounds. The occurrence of such incidents in high density suburbs was considered quite high. Such occurrences, according to the owner of company F pushed him to start a recycling business and eventually earn a living in Windhoek. Company officials were quite aware of the impact of raw material demands on the environment. With increasing manufacturing raw material needs, they noted that demand of raw materials has risen globally. Recycling was considered save natural resource and thus the drive towards supporting it was justified. Sukholthaman (2012) s study established that one of the best ways to extend the lives of natural resources is through recycling. In addition, it was also noted that not only does it reduce the amount of virgin materials in the production process, but it also reduces waste generation, health risks, and pollution. Sharpe, Agarwal, (2014) in a study on industrial ecologys links with business came up with similar findings that the declining availability of natural resources and the environmental impacts of continued extraction of primary resources for production activities have forced greater focus recycling activities. The need for sustainability in as far as natural resources conservation was highly emphasized. From an environmental perspective, it is clear that global efforts have influenced the development of recycling in Namibia. According to Galizzi (2005), environmental protection was the main topic of discussion during the Rio Earth Summit in 1992, thus waste management and resource conservation were some of the topical issues on the agenda. Individual countries were called upon to address the environmental and waste management issues at local level and in order to execute this, ministries of environment in most countries were mandated to look into issues of environment planning seriously. Unsustainable activities were to be limited upon realizing that the world we live in has limited resources, thus the drive towards sustainability. Most companies were very supportive of this goal for the sake of the future generation but these efforts could not be achieved without an economic backing in business as will be discussed under economic reasons. Economic Reasons Apart from environmental motives, economic forces were also the major push factors among the companies that were directly involved with recycling activities. Although these companies were 86 of all companies sampled for the study, the subset constituted 100 recycling companies. This made economic sense since this push factor was responsible for financing environmental wishes. This combination made recycling a sustainable venture but not without the social dimension as will presented later. All these companies felt that recycling was a business opportunity just like any other businesses which bring in profits, which sustains the ventures. Thus, companies felt the value in waste could be tapped for economic development. The economic importance of recyclable products like scrap metal, plastic and e-waste was also considered Waste has value as it is raw materials in the wrong place these were opinions that were expressed by company A officials. With demand for raw materials rising accompanied by escalating prices of virgin materials, companies felt it was an opportunity to participate in this industry as a way of making money. Those in manufacturing felt it was cost saving as they could buy cheaper raw materials from recycling. Companies B and C involved in manufacturing of products especially plastics said that virgin pellets (raw materials) needed for the production of their goods were quite expensive as compared to recycled ones (secondary raw material). Virgin materials were sourced abroad which made them expensive due to high transport costs and foreign currency demands. The price for virgin pellets was N20.00/kg from abroad whilst recycled pellets were N3/kg locally. Using secondary raw materials, companies viewed it was a cost cutting measure as their imports of the raw materials from international sources were making their goods less competitive on the regional market. Furthermore company O and I added that recycling made economic sense as it reduced municipal costs of waste management. Waste management was considered quite expesive.The manager of company I to maintain landfills required a lot of money. In Windhoek for instance, the mountainous terrain was cited as one of the greatest challenges for the development of new sites at reasonable costs and with the Not In My Back Yard Syndrome this would leave council with no choice but to develop distant sites which would attract high transport cost. The promotion of recycling was a welcome development. If it were not for recycling, maybe Kupferberg would be full by now he said the manager of company I. It cannot be overemphasized, that without economic benefits the perpetuation of recycling would be virtually impossible, hence it can be concluded that companies directly involved were doing so as a business although they were aware of the environmental obligations. Social Reasons Recycling was considered as a source of survival by company J. Their involvement was driven by the need to earn a living as the husband had lost his job in the formal market and could not find alternative employment opportunities. Thus, involvement in recycling was the only option available to them. This finding is also supported by studies in African countries (Mamphitta, 2009 Mbeng, 2013 Dlamini Simatele , 2016) where this industry is a saviour for the unemployed as anyone can earn a living through recovery of recyclables. Even though the researcher did not interact with the waste pickers, company officials who dealt with them on a day to day basis pointed out that waste pickers were mainly participating in recycling activities driven by poverty. Through selling their recovered materials, the monies obtained enabled them to buy food although most of it was used for buying alcohol as the researcher learnt. Some respondents were happy about their efforts as it was a genuine way of earning a living. The findings of this study are consistent with the findings of the study done by Reno (2009) who concluded that most waste pickers collect waste merely as a means of survival as cited in Mampitta (2009). Findings from this study revealed that the high level of unemployment in Namibia contributes to a number of individuals participating in the informal recycling industry. A study by Croset (2014) p.33 in Namibia also supports this findings Tsumeb has a small community of informal workers acting in recycling because most of them are only scavenging for food . The same sentiments were aired in Windhoek by some company officials interviewed in this study. The researcher concentrated mainly on formal companies due to language barrier. This is an area of further research to understand the contribution of waste pickers in the recycling economy. Other reasons Solid Waste Management (SWM) Division of the City of Windhoek (Cow) within the Department of Economic Development and Environment established in 1997, embarked on the recycling initiative in 2010. The main drive was hinged on the company policy to ensure that Windhoek becomes not only a cleanest City, but ultimately a green City as dirty surroundings were seen as jeopardizing the image of the City. Company O said the main motive was to keep the City environment clean, reduce waste at disposal sites and maintain the status of being the cleanest City in Africa. The status of being a clean City came at a cost to residents who sought to protect it as revealed by City officials. In support of this the city implemented a Cost Recovery Accounting Model based on the principle that sufficient income be generated from the residents to whom the service is rendered, in order to be able to sustain the required standard of service delivery. Thus, a tariff structure was established and implemented as reported in the SWM Newsletter Issue 6 (January-March 2015). As highlighted earlier, the company was motivated again by the need to reduce disposable waste as the implementation and maintenance of waste management systems and services was getting more and more expensive. These findings are consistent with other studies done elsewhere Cheru, (2016) Mahajan, (2016) Mosia, (2014), Makwara Magudu, (2013). Reno, (2009) concluded that the need to recycle in most countries municipalities is inevitable in the face of increased waste generation. Mahajan (2016) found out that in Indian megacities, municipal solid waste management has become a challenging problem, especially in cities like Chennai, which generates 0.71 kg of municipal solid waste per capita every day the highest in the country thereby creating a number of environmental and health challenges. From the discussions with most participants, recycling was considered to be environmentally driven. However, most companies involved in recycling indicated outright that it was for business purposes as well since it was a business venture like any other as well as a source of new raw material. Only those small companies and government institutions did not mention recycling as a business. Thus both environmental and economic factors were the major drivers of recycling in Namibia. 5. 2.4 Extent of involvement in the recycling industry The researcher wanted to establish the extent of companies involvement in recycling. The researcher posed the question What is the extent of your involvement in the industry in terms of collection, processing, manufacturing and purchasing and selling of new products Companies were involved in recycling in different ways. In this discussion the company operations are grouped in the following broad categories involvement in the recycling processes, products range, and other activities. Extent of Involvement with regards to processes Companies A, D, E, F, G, H, J, K, L and N were involved in the first step of the recycling loop, involved in collection and processing. Of these companies, 64 were into collection and 57 in pre-processing activities such as sorting, cleaning and volume reduction. Company D situated in Okahandja town was the only one involved processing, a situation attributed to lack of knowhow and skills. 28 of the companies were involved in manufacturing and selling activities as evident from the empirical data presented in Table 4.5, Chapter 4. The discussion on the findings will be further categorized into non-metallic processing, metallic processing and manufacturing and selling companies. Some companies participated in one or more activities. Non Metal Waste Processors According to literature, the system of kerb-side raw material recovery requires homeowners to separate recyclable raw materials from their garbage and place them separately alongside the street for pickup by a private or municipal recycling agency on a regular collection schedule (Sukholthaman, 2012 Scheinberg et al., 2012). The following companies were directly involved with non-metals recycling Companies A, D, K, and N. These companies partake in raw material recovery, collection, pre-processing as well as promoting recycling as a sideline activity. The contribution and involvement of these companies in the recycling loop is given in more detailed in the following sections. Company A The main activity of the company was collection and processing of recyclable raw materials in Windhoek, Swakopmund and Walvis Bay, with other collections activities reported to be carried out in the northern regions of the country through depots that were established over the years. Collection was from different sources such as households, commercial businesses and industries through the use of their fleet of about 70 vehicles which had grown over the years from one small truck. The company was involved in the free collection, of a wide range of materials such as aluminum/aluminum food cans papers, glass and plastics which were also witnessed by the researcher during on site observations. However, confidential documents were charged on collection and companies were issue with destruction certificates on accomplishing the task. About 8/9 trucks were reported exporting these material to SA per month comprising an average of 300 tonnes of glass, 100 tonnes of cans, 700 tonnes of paper and 29 tons of clear plastic. However these figures varied in amounts from month to month. One branch in tyre collection revealed that lack of markets for the product had resulted in stoppage of collection of the product resulting in 70 tonnes of rubber tire lying idle. Company N was established in 1994 as a family business in Keetmanshoop. Initially, the company started with scrap metals recovery but at the time of research the company was collecting and processing carton boxes, plastic paper, glass, , metal cans and scrap metal ferrous and non-ferrous. Raw materials were collected in and around Keetmanshoop, Karasburg, Ais Ais, Nerkatal dam, Gondwana lodges and NWR in the south. Most of the raw materials in Keetmanshoop were recovered from the dumpsites by contracted workers who collected about 15 000kg of plastics per month. Individuals who brought recyclable raw material were paid but the practice was said to be creating challenges as the people ended up stealing from each other for the sake of getting more money. After collection, materials were sorted, crushed, baled and transported to SA. Plastic and paper was chipped and used to make pillows and duvets. Apart from this effort, the company was educating people about benefits of recycling which was met with resistance. The researcher found out that anyone who was known to support the initiative was discouraged and vandalism of equipment was evident. Efforts to open recycling stations in Karasburg and Luderitz were futile due to lack of cooperation from the people. Despite these challenges, the company was working hard to promote a culture of recycling in southern districts of Namibia. The company worked hand in hand with all recyclers from top levels down to grassroots levels. In 2013 the company was involved in a cleanup campaign, which took place at the /Ai-/Ais Resort, which yielded 17 357kg of glass in the form of bottles, 1 684kg of tins and 1 641kg of steel metal. The dumpsite was established in the early 1960s and had accumulated domestic and industrial waste over the years. The Company later donated metal bins and plastic collector bags, which were used to store the materials. The raw material was transported to Keetmanshoop, where it was weighed and the proceeds were divided among the volunteers, as a token of appreciation and also as an incentive for future initiatives. Company K Only one company was involved in e-waste recycling at the time of study. This was a Windhoek based company whose main business was transport and logistics and e-waste was being done as a sideline business. At the time of study, this company was involved in the collection and processing of e-waste from any generator such as residence, government institutions, commerce and industries. Collection was done for free. However, some of the materials were brought in by the residents themselves. With the cooperation of the corporate world, the company introduced some drop off points at colleges, schools and universities and other institutions in the City. Generation of e-waste has increased in Namibia just like any part of the world due to more usage of electronic gadgets, in homes, institutions, retail and industries. A wide range of products is given in table 4.7 in chapter 4. Before the company involvement in e-raw material recycling, all e-waste generated in the country was disposed at landfill and dumpsites or left idle in homes, institutions or industries. Even up to this day not all e-waste is being recycled in Namibia. Outside Windhoek, e-waste is still being disposed at dumpsites, since this company is only operating in Windhoek and does not take e-waste from outside the capital due to a number of logistical and legal issues. Legally the local authorities act stipulates that each local authority is responsible for its waste hence recycling across local authorities is seen as illegal. Therefore, in small towns e-waste is still finding way to dumpsites together with general waste despite known hazards to the environment and humans (for recycling to be effective and contributory to waste management this issue needs addressing). E-waste processing involved sorting, dismantling of the different components of the gadgets, baling of precious minerals and their transportation to markets and subsequent disposal of unwanted materials such as plastics to Company D and scrap metal to Company E or to the dump site. A visit to the company found that this was done in a metal structure which was going to be replaced with a bigger and better structure as the current one was not up to standard. However, on the day of visit, the researcher was not able to see them working and taking of photos was not allowed. The researcher was able to see a variety of e-waste raw materials that were still to be sorted and dismantled. Company D The Company was started in 2008 and its core business was the production of plastic pellets from recycled waste plastic materials. Plastic was the only raw material which was processed completely in Namibia and the establishment of this company was key to complete the recycling loop. About 60 of plastic raw materials were recycled to pellets at this company. Pellets are the main raw material for the manufacturing of plastic products. The recycled pellets are considerably cheaper if compared to virgin pellets. A kilogram of recycled pellets is sold for N3 compared to N20 per kilogram for virgin pellets as reported earlier. Companies involved in plastic manufacturing reported that this was quite important as this reduced their costs of raw materials. Scrap Metal Processors Of the 15 companies that were under study, companies E,F and N were into scrap metal recycling. Although, the researcher identified 6 scrap metal recycling companies only three were interviewed. The rest of the small companies were not keen to participate in the study. Company E This is a scrap metal processing company which is the largest in Namibia with branches all over the country. The company began recovery activities of scrap in 1982, as a business idea by the owner after completing tertiary education. From a small collecting truck, the company had 82 heavy trucks and an assortment of machinery for the business. The core business is the collection and part processing of scrap metal, both ferrous and non-ferrous. Company E has branches in Swakopmund, Walvis Bay, Rundu, Ondangwa, Oshakati and the head office in Windhoek. There are two branches established in Angola and the company is also a major shareholder in Scrap for Africa in Cape Town, which consists of two scrap yards. The company has contractual agreements with various industries in vessel shipping, agriculture, fishing, transport, mining and manufacturing industries where they collect any scrap metal. Since the company only does semi processing of the products, further processing and manufacturing is done in SA and other Asian countries. Materials processed included batteries, microwaves, irons, fridges and stoves from the e-waste collected from company K, vehicle bodies and parts, steel, aluminum, copper or any scrap metal they could lay their hands on, big and small. Due to a good network of existing infrastructure, the company has gained market leadership in scrap recycling in Namibia. To promote the industry, the company was also supporting their own workers to start their own businesses in metal recycling. A visit to some of the small companies was done by the researcher and even though was not allowed to interview the companies, through observations, there was proof of scrap metal recycling that was going on. Company J This was a small scale scrap metal recycling company born out of the major company E. The owners were mostly former workers of company E. As a way of empowering them some of them were given choices to start their own businesses. Their operations were not very different from those of Company E. As small businesses, their operations such as lifting of heavy goods, storage space depended on company E. At the time of study this company, was involved in the collection recovery and processing of scrap metal for onward transmission to Asian markets such as India and Indonesia through Company E. Manufacturers (B, C, H) Companies in this category were involved in manufacturing business of raw material obtained from recyclables. These companies complete the plastic recycling loop in Namibia. Company B Company B is a leading company in the local manufacturing industry. The company is involved in the manufacturing and distribution of plastic packaging products in Namibia, Angola and the Northern Cape. The researcher found that products of the company span a wide range of the Namibian market such as the retail and wholesale businesses, industrial, agriculture, mining sectors, meat processing, fishing, dairy, catering and food processing industries as well as any other segment that requires packaging products. Products included the manufacturing of LDPE, HDPE and LLDPE products, and plastic bags, and sheet such as shopping bags, wrapping bags, household bags, shrink film, and many more. During manufacturing process, there was the waste factor of about 10 of a carry-bag due to cut-out for handles and sizing. As a result of increased waste, the company failed to handle it all and this prompted it to open up a branch just for recycling plastics in Okahandja company D. To date, the company is one of the largest plastic recycling companies in Namibia with 60 of plastics in Namibia being recycled there to produce pellets. Together with other private companies, this company spearheaded the starting of recycling stations in Windhoek at shopping centers in order to promote the industry. Today, the company as a main producer of plastics, a product which is non-biodegradable, is in the forefront of promoting recycling efforts in Namibia particularly plastics. Company C Indirectly, the company is supporting recycling in Namibia by buying locally produced recycled raw materials for manufacturing pipes and tanks. The company has been in the business of pipe manufacturing since 1968 producing PVC- M and PVC-U pressure pipes PVC solid wall sewer pipes for water supply and drainage etc. Before 2008, their raw materials were sourced from SA, which was quite costly in different ways. However, at the time of study, the company got 10 of its raw materials locally from company D in the plastic recycling business. So the company products were for both the Namibian and regional markets such as Angola, Botswana, Zambia and Zimbabwe. Company H This is a company located in the northern parts of Namibia close to the Angolan border established in 2003. Plastic is being recycled to produce pellets for use in the manufacturing of their products. The company was manufacturing various plastic products, initially using virgin raw materials. At the time of research, online secondary sources revealed that the company was also using secondary raw materials from recycled plastic which the company was collecting from around Oshikango and some bought from company D in Okahandja. The Company specialized in the production of a wide range of plastic products which included buckets, chairs and tables, shopping bags and much more for both the local and international market. Although, the company is into manufacturing, it is also trying to promote the concept of recycling among the people as they observed poor management of waste in the northern regions of the country. The company is well equipped with latest heavy machinery including injection molding, extruders, printing machines, sealing machines, treatment machines and grinding machines. Summary According to EPA (2016) complete recycling involves three major steps collection and processing of raw materials, followed by manufacturing, and finally purchasing of new products made from the recycled materials. The loop is not considered to be complete without purchasing. The study revealed that companies were involved in recycling in different capacities in all the three processes. Extent of involvement in the Recycled Products Plastic, paper, glass, scrap metals, aluminum are the common materials that were recycled. These were sourced from different places such as households, institutions, industries, farms, dumpsites and even in open spaces. Table 4.6, Chapter 4 shows the materials each of the companies recycled. A total of seven products were recycled, namely plastic, paper, glass, tires, scrap metals and e- waste. A total of eight (8) companies recycled plastic. Companies A and H recycled paper and company K was involved in e waste recycling. The breakdown of each of the materials is shown in table 4.6 in the same chapter. Companies E, J and N were recycling scrap metal. (3) CompaniesI, M and O were not involved in physical recycling of materials but their roles were more of managerial and supportive in nature. Company A had the highest range of recyclable products .Six products were recycled. Fivec ompanies B, C, D, E,J only recycled one (1) product as shown in Table 4.6. These plastics as shown in table 4.7 in Chapter 4, were divided into two major categories, that is soft and hard plastic. Soft plastic was mainly carrier bags, sheeting, wrapping and packaging, whilst hard plastic was materials like wheelie bins, refuse bags, juice and water bottles, storage containers, HDP, PVC, UPVC pipes, chairs, tables, cutlery, crate boxes, detergents containers and tires. Companies A and H were involved in paper recycling. Like plastic, paper was also grouped into two main categories as shown again in the same table 4.7. Paper was divided into white and brown categories. The white paper was mainly bond paper or printing paper, writing, newspapers, magazines, envelops and brown paper consisted of carton boxes, envelops and wrapping paper. In all cases, cardboard boxes were the most in volumes and this was explained by the officials that Namibia uses a lot of imported products and these come in various packages and cardboard-boxes were some of these. Hence, the large volumes of this waste stream. Glass bottles was another product. Companies A, F, H, L, and N recycled glass bottles.The product was categorized according to color that is clear, brown and green. Clear bottles were mainly of milk, soft drinks and juice, whilst brown and green bottles were for beer, soft drinks and wine bottles. Companies E, J and N which were in scrap metal recycling concentrated on two categories that are ferrous and non-ferrous as shown in the table. Company K was involved in e-waste recycling at the time of study. This was a Windhoek based company whose main business was transport and logistics and e-waste was being done as a sideline business. A variety of e-waste materials were being processed by the company such as computer monitors, printers, personal computers, computer mouse, keyboard cables, phones, swiping machines, and any other electrical electric kettles, hair brushes, microwaves which were sourced from industries, households and institutions. Extent of Involvement in other activities 50 of the companies (A, B, G, I, l, M and O) were involved in recycling through other activities such as promotion, education and awareness raising on recycling. During the time of study, respondents were in agreement that much more still needed to be done with regards the public and industries awareness about the benefits of recycling. Based on the findings, 30 of the companies studied were involved in general awareness and education about the need to support recycling in the country. The following companies were involved in promoting recycling efforts company O, G, M, I and L. This section briefly outlines the activities of companies in this regard and an endeavor to change attitudes and behavior of people towards recycling. Company O The Local Authorities were not involved in physical activities of recycling. However, it was their responsibility to facilitate recycling activities inWindhoek. Company O in Windhoek which also doubled up as a local authority had to ensure that systems were well developed and implemented to manage the waste and any waste related activities because they were obliged to do so according to law. In addition, the company had the responsibility to ensure coordination among various stakeholders, in both public and private sector in as far as recycling is concerned. In order to control and regulate the companies involved in recycling activities, company O developed a Registration and Licensing System (RLS), for instance, contracts were issued to recycling companies for a period of 5 years. Through the strategy, recycling companies were compelled to register with the CoW and to submit Waste Management Plans of their recycling businesses as well as providing data pertaining to their operations. At the time of study, the study established that a number of small companies who had registered to be in the recycling business had stopped operations due to failure to meet all business requirements but the most crippling factors noted was financial and technological. In addition to management tasks, company O was also involved in recycling education and public awareness. This awareness was in conjunction with other companies(B, D, M and L) and any other interested stakeholders like banks. In support of this, the researcher noted company O had a newsletter specifically for public awareness and cleanup campaigns program for 2015 for school education programs, public awareness and community meetings. The company thought that peoples attitudes and behaviour had to be changed to ensure the success of recycling as a waste minimization and prevention strategy. In Windhoek, public participation was mixed in this regard. Population in high income suburbs more receptive about the idea than some of the population in low income suburbs. Therefore, local authorities were instrumental to the success of recycling by promoting it, availing land for establishment of facilities and registration, licensing, monitoring and coordinating the efforts of recycling and waste management companies. Company G Through a telephone interview with the country representative, the researcher established that company G had been in operation for the past 25 years. The founder started the company to address proactively the steel beverage can industrys waste. So the company was involved in facilitating the collection of beverage cans both aluminium and tin-plated steel cans around Namibia in partnership with other private partners. Having realized that some parts of the country had a lot of waste left littering the country side, company L, Namibia Beverages and Dresselhaus Transport assisted in the transportation of metal cans to Windhoek where the compressed scrap is sold to steel mills in South Africa. The company took the initiative to be involved in clean up campaigns as well as recovery and collection of beverage cans. It operates on the principle of people taking responsibility for their environment. According to records made available, since 1994 just over 809 tons of metal cans were removed from the environment, by 2015 the amount has increased six fold to an average yearly load of 4 000 tons being collected for recycling. In 2002, a record amount of more than 7 000 tons of cans were collected across Namibia. Apart from assisting with collection of cans, the company together with other private organizations promoted recycling through cleaning campaigns as well as sponsorship programs. Company M In 2008, company M was established by a group of individuals and organizations to promote and facilitate recycling in Namibia. The company partnered with different interested stakeholders in its efforts to establish collection points in different parts of the country. For example, in 2012, they partnered with the Global United Football Club Environmental Programme (GUFC) to place recycling stands in Henties Bay (coast). In 2013, Henties Bay became the focus of the GUFC activities with the Henties Bay Municipality as their main partner. According to the coordinator of the company, it was the mouthpiece of the Namibian recycling industry which was committed to promote the 3 Rs recycling, reducing and reusing of solid waste. It was the aim of this company to successfully implement projects that raise awareness, and changed the behavior of Namibians to embrace the 3 Rs through projects such as the Schools Recycling Competition with the theme Catch them young, donation of recycling bins, clean up campaigns and provision of transport as the country was said to be still lagging behind in terms of the culture of recycling. A number of companies were reported joining the organization where networking in the promotion of the 3Rs was facilitated. As a result, the company found it imperative to bring different stakeholders together including the general public to share relevant information about recycling. Unfortunately, the company bemoaned limited data and information on recycling and that despite the enactment of the Environmental Management Act No.7 of 2007, waste management and in particular recycling, was not yet high on the agenda of most stakeholders sharing the same sentiments aired by company G. Company L Company L is committed to environmental protection among other social responsibilities outside their core business of brewing beverages. In order to achieve this, the company was involved in promoting recycling at the corporate level. During the production process, it was reported that their manufacturing business produced a lot of waste both liquid and solid. Solid waste generated was sorted on-site into plastic, glass (where possible, already colour-sorted), steel, aluminium and paper. Over 80 of all inorganic solid waste produced was collected and recycled by an accredited waste contractor. The waste contractor also provided, what it calls, File 13 containers for offices use. Its involvement is pronounced in Sponsorship of Schools recycling competition. The company recently added Namibia Wildlife Resorts – in particular the Okaukuejo and Halali rest camps – to its list of companies with collection points where it picked up recyclable raw material such as paper, glass, plastic and tins destined for its depot Windhoek. Company L was part of this, since the introduction of the initiative in 2010. The company sponsored a number of clean-up campaigns across the country and schools competitions. One of the schools in Windhoek won N10 000 cash prize as part of the competition. Company I During the interview, with the Contract Manager of company I, it was revealed that the core business of this company was construction and management of landfill sites in some towns of Namibia. Although, it was not physically involved in recycling activities directly, the company was facilitating and managing logistics for picking and collection of recyclable raw material from landfill sites by waste pickers to recycling facilities. Summary It was established during the study that lack of awareness and low participation by the generality of the population as well as other industries was hampering progress in recycling a scenario similar to other countries studied by other researchers. Education and awareness took different forms like road shows, meetings, clean up campaigns as well as recycling competition in schools. The schools which collected the most recyclable materials per student at the end of the year won cash prizes for their efforts. Over and above this, the recycling industry is promoting the spirit of recycling among the young generation. In order to do so, recycling companies are working together with the corporate world in this regard to raise awareness. These findings concur with Magen (2010) who concluded that in Keetmanshoop awareness raising was greatly required if recycling was to bring more positive results. Low levels of public involvement in recycling activities were also revealed in a study by South Africas Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) which revealed that only 3.3 of the countrys urban population regularly recycled household waste in 2010 (January 11, 2013 by Editorial Staff). According to the survey, about two-thirds of the population surveyed did not know where to dispose of their household recyclables. In addition, over 73 of South African population living in urban areas reported no recycling activity at all. This was due to lack of space or time, inconvenient positions of recycling facilities and ignorance as to what is recyclable and what is not. Low public participation in Namibia is not peculiar if compared to what is happening elsewhere. 5.3 Policies and Legislation guiding recycling in Namibia The existence and awareness amongst companies of legislation that regulated their activities as well as policies, procedures and guidelines in use were investigated. 5.3. 1 Policies and guidelines guiding waste recovery and recycling In interviewing action officers the researcher wanted to establish awareness regarding policies that govern recycling business The researcher posed the question Are there any recycling policies that govern company business and what they do During the time of study, there was no direct national policy on recycling as evidenced from empirical data presented in Table 4.11, Chapter 4 a situation which compromises performance of the industry. No national policy on recycling was the general answer given by all. Although there was no direct stand-alone Nation policy on recycling, there were policy components that directly and indirectly had some influence on the industry in the country and these are discussed. Government Waste Management Policy Through literature, the researcher discovered one such policy that was on the ground, the Government National Waste Management Policy, July 2010 of the Ministry of Health and Social Services. The objective of the policy is to ensure public health and safety, and the conservation of the environment by encouraging proper waste management by all stakeholders in order to reduce risks from transmission of diseases and injuries, reduce environmental pollution, improve aesthetically the surrounding and derive economic benefits from waste minimization improved land values (Republic of Namibia. (2014).Performance Audit Report). Directly the policy objective advocates for waste minimization which can be achieved through waste recycling among other initiatives. Companies B, D, C and O were aware about the government need to ensure public health and safety in their operations as industries. In order to ensure this, some of the companies had waste management plans which are a requirement according to the WMP. 5. 3.1.2 City of Windhoek Waste Management Policy Company O,) took a proactive approach through the development of a Waste Management Policy (2009) and regulations (2011). The main objective of the policy was to provide a framework within which waste can to be managed effectively so as to minimize and avoid adverse impacts on the environment and human health brought about by unnecessary waste generated and improper waste management practices, while simultaneously continuing to improve the quality of life for all residents of Windhoek in terms of economic development as envisaged by Vision 2030. Recycling companies operating in Windhoek were obliged to operate their businesses in line with rules and regulations as laid out in the Waste Management Regulations No.16 of 2011 in order to ensure success of the WMP. It was a requirement for all businesses to have a waste management plan given to the council and failure to comply resulted in business permit being withdrawn. In addition, the Waste management Policy was aimed at reducing the amount of waste per capita as well as reducing waste treated at landfill sites. Prevention measures could only be achieved at the industry level, therefore Namibia being primarily a consumption society can only minimize waste by promoting recycling. Public Private Partnership policy The policy of Public Private Partnership (PPP) was being promoted considering the benefits that come with it as revealed in literature. The aim of PPP is to deliver improved services and better value for money primarily through appropriate risk transfer, encouraging innovation, asset utilization and integrated life management under pinned by private financing of infrastructure and government services (Namibia Public Private Partnership (PPP) Policy p.3). There was realization that government could not do it alone. Local authorities were working in partnership with private companies in their efforts to promote and implement recycling and waste management. In Windhoek, Walvis Bay and Swakpomund, efforts to promote recycling were being spearheaded with local authorities working in partnership with company A. The same was happening in Keetmanshoop where by company N was a working together with the local authority in waste management and recycling matters. Awareness campaigns were also considered as joint ventures of the companies with other interested stakeholders. Integration Policy Integration Policy was also being promoted through formal partnership. During discussions, the study established that in major urban centers, integration between formal and informal waste pickers was ongoing. At landfill sites, instead of previous attitude of opposition and indifference as Medina (2010) found, the informal sector collect discarded recyclable from refuse landfill or dumping sites and sold them to the formal recycling collectors. Some were even contracted to pick these recyclable raw material on behalf of companies A, F and N. This was observed in Windhoek, Swakopmund and Keetmanshoop. According to literature, Informalformal partnership in material recovery and solid waste management in general vary among countries. A study by Mamphita (2009) on the role of informal waste pickers in South Africa observed waste pickers play an important role in the recycling industry. The study highlighted that waste pickers supplied a minimum of 80 percent of all waste received by merchants and recyclers in Johannesburg. Muzenda (2013) established that waste pickers play an important role in recycling in the Gauteng province of SA. Even studies done in Namibia supported Mamphitas finding. Croset, 2014 Jacobsen,2014 Magen,2010 Murghal, 2012) concluded waste pickers at dumpsites were recovering reasonable amounts of recyclable raw material as well as contributing to reducing litter from the environment by some of their pickings. Industrialization Policy The study established that Government was promoting industrialization. Industrial development was seen as a shared responsibility between the private sector and the Government. Through the Policy, the Government was advocating for partnerships in Namibias quest for industrialization through promotion of publicprivate partnerships (PPPs).Taking heed of the policy, company E was working assisting interested persons mainly its former workers to start businesses in scrap recycling. Three small scrap recycling companies which grew out of company Es initiative were identified by the researcher. For their operations, the companies relied on company E for technical assistance as established. Summary The situation in Namibia regarding policy directives on recycling resembled that of most African countries. Extended Producer Responsibility Policies which guide recycling in developed countries are still lagging behind as observed by Osibanjo, (2008) cited in (Nahman, 2009). If Namibia is to seriously promote these policy directives of EPR such as Pay as you throw and Refund Deposit Schemes, maybe the full potential of the industry may be realized. 5.3.2 Legislation governing recycling Industry in Namibia The research question was Are there any recycling law that govern company business and what they do The study established that Namibia did not have an overall waste recycling act or national regulations to provide a framework for solid waste recycling. Neither did it have an overall waste management act to provide a framework for solid waste management. Instead, individual local authorities controlled waste management through creation of their own bylaws approved by the Ministry of Local Government. The lack of national waste regulations made it difficult for the Local Authorities s at all levels to manage waste effectively with the exception of a few (Republic of Namibia. (2014).The Solid Waste Management Performance Audit Report). Windhoek municipality was one of them.Companies agreed was that the country could perform better if there was a legislation to provide rules on how the industry should operate No recycling law, so no one can take me to court for not recycling was a clear indication that companies, households and individuals were not obliged to participate in recycling. Despite the fact, the industry was regulated just like any other business operating in the country. Any business in Namibia is compelled to comply with any applicable occupational health and safety law, environmental law, health law, labour law, tax laws and any other relevant law or directives or orders issued by the government. In line with this, the industry was controlled by a number of pieces of legislation which included Environmental Management Act 2007, Labor Act, Affirmative Action Act, Health Act, Financial Acts, Water Management Act and municipal by-laws which fell under different government ministries as shown in Table 4.11, in Chapter 4. Companies B and C highlighted that they followed most of the industrial regulations in the country. In Windhoek, all companies operating were regulated mainly by council regulations and by laws as set out in the Local Council Act of 1992 and Waste Management Regulations No.16 of 2011. The discussion which follows outlines legislation that is directly or indirectly affecting recycling in Namibia. Public and Environmental Health Act No.1, 2015 The main objective of the Act is to promote public health, prevent injuries and disability and to encourage community participation in order to create a healthy environment among other objectives. In terms of Section 3, it is the duty of every local authority to take all necessary and reasonably practicable measures for maintaining its local authority area in a clean and sanitary condition for prevention of health nuisance, unhygienic conditions and other harmful occurrence or for remedying conditions liable to endanger public health. Section 51 stipulates that all waste generated must be collected, disposed of and recycled in accordance with the management of the waste stream. It also provides for efficiency, affordability and sustainable access to collection, disposal and recycling of waste to the community. None of the recycling companies were aware of this new act but the old Public Health Act of 1919. This is the only piece of legislation which directly addresses recycling but only in general terms but it places the responsibility of recycling on the local authorities in line with the Agenda 21 which promoted the implementation at local level. Environmental Management Protection Act, 7 of 2007 The Earth Summit of 1992 brought the issues of sustainability for the benefit of present and future generations on the forefront of development activities and solid waste management. Sustainable use of resources and protection of the environment were promoted by the Namibian government through the Environmental Management Act of 2007. Namibias economy depends largely on the wealth and exploitation of natural resources. Thus it is considered important to promote sound environmental management, which is essential for the protection of resources. In line with this, any business operating in the country is obliged to ensure its activities do not cause health and environmental hazards. The Environmental Management Act No. 7 of 2007 states that sustainable development must be promoted in all aspects relating to the environment and that damage to the environment must be prevented and activities which cause such damage must be reduced, limited or controlled. The Act also promotes the Integrated Waste Management Hierarchy that focuses on waste prevention and minimization ahead of waste disposal. According to the law, any activities carried out need to pause minimal damage to the environment. Companies were quite aware of this and thus reported that their activities were done in line with this statute. In order to reduce the effects of waste generated during the manufacturing process, company B reused and recycled its waste component according to the guiding principles of the EMA. Moreover, they were taking their campaign even to the consumers to avoid indiscriminate dumping of package materials through reuse or proper disposal as they were fully aware of the environmental hazard of plastic waste which takes a long period of time to decay due to its polymer elements. Company O as a regulatory body ensured proper waste management by any waste generator and operators within its area of jurisdiction, Windhoek City according to the Waste Management Regulations NO.16 of 2011. The Local Authority Act, 23 of 1992 Section 30 (1) sets out the powers, duties and functions of local authority councils with the approval of the Ministry of Regional and Local Government, Housing and Rural Development (MRLGHRD). Under this Act, local Authorities were required to administer, control and manage local areas of their jurisdiction. Among the many responsibilities, they were to manage any solid waste related activities such as generation, transportation, treatment and disposal. In order to meet these requirements, Local Authorities made some by-laws under the Act, such as waste management regulations. At the time of study, not all Local Authorities had these by laws as revealed by the Auditor general Report of 2012/2013. However, the City of Windhoek was one of few Municipalities which had some regulations in place. Chapter 2 Section 2(1) (C) of the Schedule sets out the powers and responsibilities of the Council in ensuring that all waste related activities were managed in a manner not posing a threat to human health or the environment. In addition, it was the duty of the council to register all business activities related to recycling as stipulated in Part 4, Section 27, 28, 29). Companies reported they were complying with the set rules and regulations although monitoring was done once in a while. Solid Waste Management Regulations No. 16 of 2011 The City of Windhoek, being a regulator at local level by virtue of section 94 (1) of the Local Authorities Act, Act 23 of 1992, developed Solid Waste Management Regulations in-line with Chapter 2 Section 2(1) (C) the Local Authority Act, which empower the City Council to regulate waste management activities within its area of jurisdiction. Among other goals, the Solid Waste Management Regulations support the implementation of the waste management hierarchy and waste management plans. The Regulations also allow various strategies to be developed in order to promote sound environmental waste management practices. All waste related activities are controlled by these by-laws within the City hence all activities had to be registered with the City Council and operations monitored through heath Inspectors. Noncompliance was accompanied by some penalties as provided for by the by-laws. It was a requirement by council regulations in Windhoek, that all operating businesses furnish the Department of Waste Management with their waste management plans. According to the Regulations, the Council may identify and require a waste generator to submit a Waste Management Plan according to which their waste will be managed to ensure human safety and protection of the environment against waste hazard. Labor Act. Number 11, 2007 It was an obligation by companies to adhere to the conditions as set out in the labor statutes. The Labor Act regulated health and safety issues of employees at work which employers were expected to adhere. It protected employees from unfair labor practices and regulated basic terms and conditions of employment.There was full awareness about this requirement of the law among companies. Workers were provided with protective wear such as boots, goggles and overalls although it was reported that some worked do not always use them. Water Resources Management Act, No. 11, 2013. Prevention of water pollution, and the polluters duty of care and liability to make good is to be up-held according to the Water Resources Management Act, 2004 No. 24, amended in 2013. The aim of the law is to provide for the management, protection, development, use and conservation of water resources and to provide for the regulation and monitoring of water services. Precautionary measures need to be taken by any person or business responsible for carrying out any activity involving the production, conveyance, storage, or deposit of waste which results in water pollution. Even though participants did not mention this piece of legislation, they were legally bound by it through the Municipal by-laws and regulations just like any other person in the country A local authority or any other authority or person that has authority over any area in which any domestic or industrial activity, that may cause pollution, takes place, is ultimately responsible for the prevention of any pollution in that area. In relation to this, recycling companies were to take the necessary precautions to ensure that no activity or situation resulted in water resources pollution. In line with this, Local authorities were bound to monitor any water polluting activities in areas of their jurisdiction. For example, CoW through its SWMP ensured that waste generators or industries had the necessary measures in place for proper waste monitoring. They also monitor activities of waste disposal so as to ensure environmental protection. Standard Act. No. 18, 2005 Quality standards in Namibia are regulated by the Standards Act of 2005(Act No. 18 of 2005). The Act provides for the promotion, regulation and maintenance of standardization relating to the quality of commodities for use by consumers. Namibian Standards Institution is entrusted with the authority and responsibility to monitor quality of manufactured products. Companies B and C which were into production of plastic goods pointed out that their products adhered to required standards both nationally and internationally for trading purposes. Company C complied with ISO 9001, 14001 and 18001 at the same time. Affirmative Action (employment) Act no. 29, 1998 Article 10 and Article 23 of the Namibian Constitution provides for the establishment of the Employment Equity Commission to redress discrimination in employment. In line with this, the Affirmative Action (Employment) Act, 1998, was introduced to achieve equal opportunity in employment and to eliminate discrimination in employment among certain groups e.g. disability, women and race which was linked to discriminatory laws and practices of colonial governments. This Act was another legal control measure that specifically applied to industry in Namibia and the recycling sector was not an exception. Four companies were aware of this law and its principles. In line with this Act, companies were taking the initiative to promote balanced employment of all genders as women in the past were discriminated upon on employment matters. The majority of workers at company A was women at all the three stations in Windhoek, Walvis Bay and Swakopmund. At Company E, women were employed in positions traditionally reserved for males with targets already surpassed. Yes, we are now also employing women, but this industry is not for them. The work is strenuous and dirty. The researcher observed one lady at company E, who was struggling to shred an iron block. Summary Recycling of solid waste is not provided for in any act of parliament or a regulation at national level. The legislation available is fragmented and only highlights principles but does not touch on the core issues i.e. no one can be sued for not participating in recycling and no one is compelled to recycle. The researcher came across two pieces of legislation that could be useful in future as recycling unfolds the Solid Waste and Recycling Act of Australia and the Recycling Regulations in Taiwan which are centered on an extended producer responsibility (EPR) concept that requires manufacturers and importers of new products to fund recycling through a recycling fund. However, it should be noted that the company O has made considerable strides in recycling and many local Authorities are following suit. On the other hand, the Public and Environmental health Act has already laid a foundation by clearly stating the agent responsible for recycling. However, the funding and the responsibility of the producers of waste and manufactures or importers of the product are not yet clear. Again, Namibia was found sailing in the same boat with other African countries where no clear law regarding recycling exists. Not only in Africa, a study Bangkok Recycling Program An Empirical Study of an Incentive-Based Recycling Program by Sukholthaman (2012) found out that there were no laws or regulations that directly mandate recycling of waste and even specifically regulate the social and health impacts caused by Municipal Solid. In contrast, in Europe and other Asian countries, these laws are quite clear and enforced. Taiwan recycling regulations and the Australia Waste Management and Recycling Act spell out clearly what every waste generator should do as regards recycling. Japan also passed the Law for the Recycling of ELV in 2005 (Yu, Omuru Yoshimura, 2008). As a result of such laws, in Japan only 5 of waste goes to landfills. As of 2010, recycling rate (ELV) in Japan was pegged at 95. In Sweden, recycling industry is well advanced (Becker, 2014), resulting from a well-established recycling system comprising of well-functioning components e.g. infrastructure and policies (EPR). The protection of the environment is not only a concern, but a constitutional issue in Namibia as stipulated in Article 95(l). Namibians are obliged to protect the environment and to promote a sustainable use of natural resources. All these laws are in-line with the environment with very little reference to the recovery of raw material. No wonder why 100 of companies interviewed highlighted that they were recycling for environmental reason. Moving forward, economics reasoning and recovery of raw materials need to be inculcated in the laws and policies. 5.3.3 Conclusion In Namibia, environmental protection is one of the priority areas of the Government in order to promote sustainable development (Ruppel, 2013). To ensure this, some regulatory frameworks are in place e.g. Environmental Assessment Policy and the Environmental Management Act of 2007. According to the Environmental Assessment Policy the principle of achieving and maintaining sustainable development must underpin all policies, programs and projects undertaken within Namibia. In addition wise utilization of the countrys natural re- sources, together with the responsible management of the biophysical environment has to be practized for the benefit of both present and future generations (MIT, 1994, Environmental Assessement Policy). The government therefore calls for strategies to promote this. Recycling is considered as one option for sustainable solid waste management in this regard as highlighted in the EMA of 2007(EMA, 2007). 5.4 Emerging waste recycling trends, recycling value addition processes and associated benefit chains In spite of financial, labour, transport and weather elements challenges the industry faces,recycling patterns were changing.The major change realized during the study was the formal sector involvement in waste recycling in Namibia which had gained ground as evidenced by a number of actors in the industry and noticeable changes in the industry that are beneficial to the country and participants. These are discussed in the following section. 5.4.1 Waste Recycling Trends The researcher wanted to investigate emerging waste recycling changes. The research question was Are there any emerging patterns taking place in the industry And if so, what changes can be highlighted Private Sector Participation The study found the recycling industry in Namibia had evolved over the years to what it was at the time of study. The industry started off in a haphazard state as revealed by the managing director of company C. The industry began to take shape in the mid-nineties when private companies in manufacturing started to organize the industry prompted by the increase in waste generated particularly plastic. Formal sector participation in the industry was considered a new development in the country. Traditionally, informal recycling sector dominated through waste pickers (scavengers) as a survival strategy. The scavengers recovered any useable items to them ranging from abandoned food, textiles, bottles, broken utensils, plastics and paper destined for personal use or for sale from bins, dumpsites or anywhere accessible. The initiative to promote recycling was started in Windhoek where by recycling stations were set up at shopping centers like the AiGams, Auas, Wernhill Park and Maerua Mall by a few private companies. Materials such as cans and tins, papers, plastic and glass were collected. After collection, companies processed these materials and then exported them to South Africa for further processing into various products. The whole idea was to organize the industry in line with developments in countries like South Africa. Although recycling efforts were mainly concentrated in major urban centres like Windhoek, Swakopmund and Keetmanshoop, private companies were making inroads to smaller towns like Rundu, and remote areas through opening of new depots and branches in these small towns. To compliment privatepublic sector efforts in recycling, the business world was reported getting involved as well across the full spectrum of recycling. Businesses had social investment programmes which focus on environmental protection. Our company has a social investment programme which focuses on environmental preservation said company L official. The company was outside towns, supplying recyclable receptacles, as well as sponsoring recycling campaigns around the country. Recovery of recyclables A number of initiatives have evolved on the recovery of recyclables ranging from the traditional informal recycling to drop off centers, point source collection (CBS, etc.) and landfill collection contracts to development of on-site material recovery facilities. Originally, waste recycling was minimally practiced by a few and most of the materials had to be recovered after disposal, usually from disposal sites. With private companies getting involved in recycling, collection systems were changed. From disposal sites collection, private companies introduced drop off collection sites. At the time of study, changes in collection system of recyclables were evident. Companies A, F, G, J, N and L were becoming more involved in on-site collection, a departure from the traditional system where waste generators sent materials for recycling at drop off centers especially at shopping centers in Windhoek mainly or to companies that were known to be involved in recycling. However, this system was seen to be counterproductive to the recycling drive as not much was brought via this mode. Thus the on-site collection system of collection targeted homes, industries, retail outlets, hotels, lodges, landfill sites, mines, ship wreaks to farms. In their efforts to boast recycling activities in the country, some of the big companies in the private sector signed contracts with some waste generators such as mines, fisheries, farmers, shipping industry, construction industries etc., a slight departure from the original system of material recovery at disposal sites. To facilitate growth in this, company A had its workers on site in these places to facilitate recovery as some of the industries were not keen on recycling activities as learnt during the study. It is not easy to work with some of the industries. So we have our own workers who do recovery in some industries said one company official in Swakopmund. Skip bins for collecting recyclables were seen by the researcher in Windhoek at construction sites and industries a system termed recycling stations. Company E which was into scrap metal recycling was also involved in on site separation and collection for example at the coast where ship breaking was carried out. This was particularly so with large recycler companies, a situation which was not well received by small recycling companies. This was viewed as a setback as they were seen to monopolize the industry. Surviving under the situation was considered difficult as their sources for raw materials was limited. On-site collection system of raw material was being promoted through programmes such as the CBS, orange wheelie bin system, bicycle recycling, dumpsite picking through formal to informal sector agreements. Clear Bag System The Clear Bag System was first introduced in Windhoek in 2010 by Company A in partnership with the City of Windhoek. It involved distribution of clear plastic bags to households and File 13 Box in offices in Windhoek into which recyclable raw material were sorted from general waste by individual households. In offices, only paper was put in the File 13 Box. The CBS was first rolled out in high income suburbs of Windhoek as pilot projects done proved that these areas were more receptive to the idea of separating recyclables from other waste streams. Although CBS has been implemented in the middle income areas, the information obtained shows a rather poor performance of these suburbs. In low income areas performance was reported very poor. In one of the suburbs, the bags were actually being used as raincoats and in some cases the clear bags could not be even traced as the researcher learnt. As a result of this, Company A was not keen to continue with the project in those areas. Apart from Windhoek, the system was rolled out to coastal towns by use of 240litre orange wheelie bins which were different from the municipal green or blue 240 litre wheelie bins. This was done with the approval of the municipal authorities of concerned towns. On the day of waste collection, the orange bins were also collected from the households. Information gathered by the researcher established that performance was also high in high income suburbs than in low income suburbs. Introduction of CBS strategy was a way of encouraging more recycling as the drop off strategy was viewed as yielding less positive results particularly from the general population. Landfill Site Reclamation While waste pickers had usually operated from dumpsites, their interaction with waste recycling companies was minimal as the researcher established. Company A and N officials reported that they were recovering products at landfills through contracting waste pickers. A visit at the dumpsite in Keetmanshoop by the researcher verified the heaps of plastic bottles, cardboard boxes and glass bottles found ready for collection. In Windhoek, Contract manger of company I confirmed the development. A group of about twenty waste pickers operated at the landfill on a daily basis.This was also supported by Jacobsen et al ., (2014) research which found out that an authorized and organized cooperative of informal waste collectors operates within the Kupferberg Landfill to recycle material brought in by garbage trucks such as glass bottles, plastic bottles, other plastics, card boxes, cans and paper. This cooperative has been operating at the Kupferberg Landfill since 2000. In Swakopmund, it was also the same with women pickers recovering some materials from the landfill. At the time 35 women were involved in reclamation of recyclables at the site. Efforts to work with the informal sector was not a new idea as literature reveals the importance of this sector in the recycling value chain. Even though they are the least in the ladder of the chain, their role cannot be underestimated. On Site Collection The introduction of on-site collection led to an increase in volumes of recyclables waste collected. In Windhoek, trends showed that the quantity of recyclable raw material collected through the household collection system and the ward contractor system had increased in tonnages from 2011 to 2014 as shown in Figure 4.13, chapter 4. More waste was collected in 2013 and 2014 maybe due to the increase in awareness. Even though areal coverage of recycling was growing, amounts of recyclable raw material dumped at landfill sites was still on the increase attributed to low levels of participation by residents and continued growth of waste due to population growth. Material Recovery Facilities With the generation of a steady stream of recyclable came the introduction of the Material Recovery Facilities. The development was established by company A, starting in Windhoek in 2012 followed by Swakopmund in 2015. Plans were reported by the same company to establishing more MRFs facilities around the country. In Windhoek, the MRF one of its kind in southern Africa, is located about 10 km on the western side of the City center on a piece of ground that was donated to the company by the CoW. Materials collected in Windhoek by any recycler are brought to the facility where sorting, processing and baling is done before the same materials are send to markets within and outside the country for further processing. In Swakopmund, the plant was established at the landfill site on land donated by Swakopmund Municipality. The idea of having the plant at the landfill site was to reduce transport costs for collecting recovered material and disposal of residual waste from preprocessing activities in the recovery plant. Other reason highlighted was that residents were not separating organic and non-organic materials, hence the need to do on site pre-processing. In Walvis Bay, plans were also underway to have the MRF constructed at the landfill site in 2016. All materials sorted in Swakopmund and Walvis Bay had to be delivered to Windhoek MRF before they it was finally delivered to end user markets. Growth of the industry The growth in the industry has been noticed through the introduction of new players and the increased diversity of the recycled raw materials, the involvement of women and the introduction of total recycling of plastic waste. Statistical information about the exact number of players in the industry at the time of study could not be obtained. However, verbal information made available indicated that there were a growing number of actors who were getting involved. It was no longer the case of big companies but even SMEs were getting involved especially in Windhoek. A large number of players had been interested around 2010-2013 when recycling efforts were being promoted by City of Windhoek. However, by the time of study, the number of small companies had reduced as they could not meet the operational requirements because they were undercapitalized and lacked knowhow. The researcher was only able to get a list of those who were operating in Windhoek. Out of the nineteen SMEs only one was willing to entertain the researcher as the rest were not forthcoming at all despite concerted effort. So the researcher only got to know from the department of Solid Waste Management of the CoW that they were also involved in recovery activities in different areas of Windhoek. Another development observed at the time of study was recycling of e-waste. The recovery of e-waste began around 2011 in Windhoek. Only one company was in this business at the time of study. To facilitate e-waste collection, company K created 8 drop-off points within the City of Windhoek at institutions such as schools, colleges, universities and at the company premises itself. Any e-waste was dropped in the secured cabin boxes. Most of the drops off points were sponsored by the business world as part of their responsibility to promote environmental conservation. Collection was for free although some customers delivered their items on by themselves. In 2013, according to the logistics manager, the company collected aound 60 tons of which 14 tones went to SA, 31 tones to company E and 14 tones to Kupferberg landfill after pre-processing. However, volumes were getting less and less for example, in October 2015 company K only received 12 tones, a situation attributed to depletion of reserves from generators, but in other towns, e-waste was still going to landfills together with other general waste a situation which was viewed as unsustainable considering the nature of e waste. E waste contains some hazardous components like lead, manganese apart from some valuable ones like gold. Scrap recycling companies E, J and N were affected by fluctuation of demand for recyclable raw materials from international markets. It was revealed that before 2012, the business was quite lucrative as demand for both metals (ferrous and non-ferrous) was quite high both in SA and Asia. The world recession of 2008 was however impacting the industry at the time. Huge stoke piles of scrap could be seen at one of the major scrap companies due to depressed market prices. Another encouraging development established was the increase of women employment in the industry. Company A reported an employment complement of about 80 of their workforce to be women. Women were credited for being good and patient especially in sorting recyclable raw material. In addition, the empowerment drive being encouraged through the Affirmative Policy saw most companies employing more women even though some officials lamented that the nature of work in the industry was not suitable for women as it was sometimes hard and strenuous. But because most of the women did have little or no formal education, this was their only way for earning a living to support themselves and their families. Thus, they had no choice Recycling efforts saw the development of a polymer recycling plant in Windhoek in 2005. Before this was established, all recyclables were sent to South Africa for further processing. This development was well supported especially by those in the manufacturing business. Originally, manufacturers in the plastic industry relied on imports for the much needed raw material (pellets) which was considered very costly. However, with more plastic waste generation going on, one of the plastic manufacturing companies established a plastic polymer recycling plant in Okahandja. The company to date produces pellets from recovered plastics from Company A for local market. Despite an increasing involvement of several companies in recycling initiative, Namibia is still not really where it is supposed to be as most recyclables were still finding their way to disposal sites and at the time there was no marked improvement of recyclables from residential areas, with only 6.4 recycled. Promotion of Recycling Companies especially in the business world also took an initiative to implement the concept of recycling in schools to create awareness. The idea started in Windhoek. The initiative was also being taken to other urban centers to promote the spirit of recycling among school children in Namibia. Such an initiative was supposed to encourage learners to take from home recyclable raw material such as papers, bottles, sweet wrappers along to schools which are recorded by an assigned teacher as part of a competition. The results of the initiative was reported as quite encouraging as more and more recyclable raw material were being collected from schools. Logistic problems were reported to be hampering the initiative to spread into rural schools. The awareness initiative for recycling in schools culminated with schools competition. Company A in conjunction with other partners in the private sector equipped schools in the Windhoek area with separation bins and the students at the school were encouraged to utilize the bins. The schools which collected the most recyclable materials per student at the end of the year won cash prizes for their efforts. Summary Around the year 2000, some private companies gave a boost in the industry growth by starting the idea of drop off centers at major shopping malls in Windhoek like Auas Valley, Merua Mall whereby waste generators would drop any recyclable raw material they had to dispose ranging from plastic, paper and bottles. In 2001, one of the leading recycling companies in the country began recycling in Windhoek. However, the drive towards more recycling in Windhoek and other parts of the country followed the introduction of the SWMP (2009) introduced by the CoW which laid emphasis on an IWMA (waste avoidance, reduce, reuse, recycle and disposal) and Green Productivity (GP) measures as highlighted by Koh, (2007). The concept of Green Productivity (GP) refers to harmonization of environmental protection and economic development to enhance the peoples quality of life. Prior to this, all generated waste in the city was disposed at landfill sites around the city as established by the researcher during the study a practice which was still prevalent in other smaller centers of the country. Thus, the industry was getting organized in the hands of the formal sector and was slowly experiencing growth. At the time of study, formal sector participation was reportedly growing as evidenced by the many companies that were involved in the industry. Most of the recycling activities were in the hands of private companies that were given contracts to operate. This scenario is contrary to other developing countries in Asian and other African countries where waste pickers play an active role in the recycling industry, although without recognition in some countries (Dlamini Simatele, 2016 Chukwunonye, 2013 Medina 2012 Mamphitta 2012). 5.4.2 Value addition chain processes in Namibia The researcher wanted to establish recycling value chain of the different materials that were being recycled. Therefore the research question was What is the value added by companies on the various recycling processes Discussion of the findings is descriptive and based on responses and observations since companies were not willing to part with their financial figures. Responses varied among respondents depending on the nature of business. The general answer from companies which were involved in recovery activities was that little value addition was done. I wish everything is done here because we sent our things out and later buy them very expensive company N official said. For companies which were into recovery activities such as A, E, F, H, J, K and N, collection of recyclable raw material was the initial process in the value addition chain process. Most companies indicated that they collected for free either directly from the source or point of generation households, commercial businesses, industries, institutions like schools, colleges, mines an and construction sites whilst others indicated collection from drop off centers located mainly at shopping centers, along streets, parks, open spaces and at landfill sites. Companies A, F and N were some of those who were collecting from disposal sites through the services of waste reclaimers. In some cases, companies used the services of middlemen to collect recyclable raw material from farms or tourism resorts. In such cases, they paid the middlemen based on weight delivered. Large companies also had active contracts with large industries such as fishing companies, mines to collect any recyclable raw material. Collection, sorting, cleaning, crushing, shredding, baling and exporting were the most common value addition processes most recovered materials underwent, but transportation and packaging featured many times throughout the processing of the material and distribution. However, this differed from company to company and material to material. In order to get an appreciation of value addition processes used, each material will be looked at separately, with an in depth analysis on plastic which has a complete recycling loop in Namibia followed by paper. For the rest only the features occurring in Namibia are highlighted. The section on value addition is different from the section on extent of involvement in that the extent of involvement section was looking at the roles were played by companies involves in recycling in general whereas value addition chain is looking at activities adding value to the raw materials being recycled. There is an overlap in some of the aspects presented here and those presented in section 5.2.4. Value addition processes for Plastics (Total recycling in Namibia) Plastic was the only product which was undergoing 100 recycling in Namibia that is from collection to sell of new products. As mentioned earlier on, plastics of different types as shown in Table 4.7 and 4.8 in Chapter 4 underwent different processes in order to enhance product value. According to self-observation the recycling of plastics in Namibia involved processes such as collection including transportation, storage, sorting, baling and transportation chipping/ shredding, washing using disinfection chemicals, pelleting, packaging, and transportation product manufacturing, quality control, packaging and distribution and marketing and selling were considered as the main recycling value chain processes observed for plastics. The companies given in this section were involved directly in the different stage of recycling of plastics. Companies A, B, C, F, G, H, L, and N were involved in collection, transporting, storage, sorting, baling of plastics and transportation for soft plastics but hard plastics were chipped before baling. These steps were observed as value addition processes in the recycling of plastics. The study established that collection marked the first step in the recycling value chain process following discard of the plastic waste materials. Plastics for recycling came from two main sources post-consumer (households, institutions, businesses) and post-industrial (rejects from industries e.g. off-cuts, damaged batches and packaging material) which mainly came from company B. Upon collection, materials were stored ready to be sorted, which was done manually. At company A, in Windhoek, there were 35 sorters on the conveyer belt. Each one of them concentrated on one type of plastic e.g. Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET), High density Polyethylene (HDPE), Vinyl Plastics (PVC or V) as given in table 4.8, Chapter 4 confirming Wongs (2010) observation that the coding system allows for an efficient separation of different types of plastics for recycling. These were also further sorted according to texture and colour. At Company A plastic from the fish industry was cleaned using a cleansing detergent, which was considered very expensive. The same was reported for plastic from mines which was said to be heavily polluted with corrosive materials at times. Great care was needed during the cleaning process, since some of the plastic containers were used to carry dangerous products. The company ensured adequate protective clothing for its workers. All this added to high costs of plastic recycling for the company. After sorting, most of the plastic materials were compacted or chipped so as to reduce bulkiness and volume before they were baled for the end user market. Compaction was done using machines or by hand depending on available companys resources. Wheelie bins, beverage crates were washed to remove any impurities and chipped into small pieces. At company A, drinking bottle tops were granulated before baling. At company N, some chipped soft clear plastic was used to make pillows, duvets and throw over blankets. The owner of the company however complained about the lack of markets for the products as people preferred to buy elsewhere. As a result, the researcher just saw these products piled with prospects for finding buyers. However, most of the plastic from these companies were transported to South Africa for further processing. However, some of the plastic was taken to Company D which is in Okahandja, about 100km north of Windhoek, for further processing. Company D The major business of company D in the value chain for plastics was the production of plastic pellets which are the main raw material for manufacturing of plastic products. This is the only company identified to be producing these raw materials locally. The different processes involved in pellet production are discussed below. The company collected all sorts of plastics sourced and received from anyone including companies highlighted in the previous section. Chipping of the plastics was the first step. This involved cutting products such as wheelie bins, beverage crates into small pieces to be melted down. Dirty wheelie bins had to be washed first to remove contaminants. Chipping was done using a chipper. After chipping of all plastics, the next stage was washing. The chips were washed in an alkaline detergent to remove glue, paper labels, dirt and any remnants of the product they once contained. This was done in a spinning tower after which, the plastics were rinsed and dried ready for the pelleting process. The pelleting process was considered as the most important part of the processing. The extrusion process was the technique used during value addition at this company, whereby the plastic material was melted in a tubular metal chamber. The molten paste was then extruded like toothpaste from paste tube through hole like mince grinder. The plastic came out like spaghetti strings. In order to avoid tangling of the strings, the strings were immediately immersed in cold water to solidify before cut into very small oval shaped pellets using a rotating cutter. The pellets were dried and packed. The different plastics PET, HDPE etc. were produced in a similar manner. Similar processes were highlighted in a study on Management of PET Plastic Bottles Waste through Recycling in Khartoum State by Fadlalla (2010). Company B and C Only two companies A and B visited were manufacturing plastic products using some of the raw materials obtained through the pelleting process described above. Colour difference distinguished the recycling pellets from virgin pellets which are pure crystal white. Only 10 of raw materials used were from company D however, the official interviewed at Company C emphasized the importance of supporting this company in order to promote local industrial development and cheaper products. At the same company, pellets were used to make pipes for a variety of purposes e.g. irrigation, sewage and waste water supply. According to the company director, virgin pellets produced more durable pipes compared to secondary or recycled pellets. Thus, water pipes which were some of the products manufactured were made only from virgin pellets but Irrigation and sewage pipes were mainly produced using secondary raw materials. Company B, the mother company for company D, produces a variety of plastic packaging products such as carrier bags, meat packaging plastics, agricultural bags, refuse bags as well as liquid containers. Both virgin and secondary pellets were used in the production process. Only packaging made from virgin pellets are used for packaging consumables as those made from secondary raw materials are considered not safe. Company H was also into manufacturing of plastic products such as chairs and household utensils etc. The researcher could not manage to visit the company due to logistic problems. Production of these plastic products at company B and C was through injection and blow molding processes. Through the injection molding process, pellets were first melted before injecting the melt into a cavity mold, followed by cooling to obtain solid product, and ejecting the product for subsequent finishing. At company B, films of plastics were produced from the mould upon which the films were fed into cutting machines to produce carrier bags or waste bins packaging plastics were labeled later on. In order to produce coloured plastics, colourful virgin pellets were mixed with secondary pellets before the melting process. The researcher established that a number of carrier bags used by most retail shops in the country as well as wrapping plastics used in the meat industry are manufactured at company B. The company produced products according to customers specifications. For example, some customers require thinner packaging plastics whilst others require thicker packaging plastics. The thinner the packaging the cheaper they were. According to Fadlalla (2010) injection molding is one of the most popular processing operations in the plastics industry. Upon production of new products, manufactured products were first checked for any defects before packaging and storage in a large warehouse before delivery to different customers in and outside the country. Any products with defects were considered waste and thus sent to company D for recycling. Quality control was considered very important as part of policy requirement by the government and international standards. The researcher witnessed the loading of carrier bags destined for Angola during the study period. The company has wholesale shops around the country, thus some of the products were sold locally. The same also applied to company C, the pipes manufactured were stored in company warehouses awaiting dispatch to local and regional markets. Quality control is also considered to be very important. Thus any defects detected, the products were abandoned as rejects and sent back in the recycling chain. Value addition processes for other materials Since manufacturing is low in Namibia, market forces for selling produced good were also cited as another factor hindering the full development of the industry. Thus, most of the recyclers exported their products for further processing in South Africa and further afield. These recyclables paper, glass, metals and e-waste collected and pre-processed in Namibia will be presented here. Companies A and N were the only two companies that were involved in paper recycling. Different types of paper such as newspapers, white printing paper, writing papers, paper packaging, and envelopes with or without plastic windows, telephone books, magazines and cardboard/carton boxes were handled as shown in Figure 4.7 of chapter 4. Company A handled a lot of cardboard paper since most of the countrys consumer goods are imported packaged in various packages including cardboard. Wholesalers disposed a lot of these paper products. The rest of paper products were collected from various sources such as households, retail shops, industries and institutions. Upon collection of the different papers, sorting of the papers was the first process that was done by the two companies. At Company A, apart from receiving single stream waste, they also received comingled waste which was sorted into different categories of paper. To reduce dust emission and odor, the waste was constantly sprayed as the labor-force hand sorted the materials. The papers were sorted by type, colour, texture i.e. hard or soft and white or khaki. After sorting, cardboard/carton boxes were simply compacted and baled before transportation to South Africa for further processing. On average 700 tons of cardboard boxes were being exported to South Africa every month by company A. Newspapers were also treated the same baling in 5 ton batches. Paper with contaminants such as glue or paper clips was condemned and thrown at dumpsites as it was costly to clean them. However, soft white paper especially from institutions such as banks, government offices was shredded first for confidential or sensitive documents before baling them. The rest of the papers were simply sorted and then baled. The final step was transportation to South Africa since Namibia does not have facilities for further processing. The study found that it was quite difficult to set up a paper recycling plant in the country due the fact that most paper packaging is done in South Africa for the products that Namibia imports. Thus, the companies found it cost effective to export the recyclables. However, the researcher feels that some of the paper could be recycled locally to produce smaller products with a ready market. Namibian recyclers are also involved in glass recycling. Pre -processing of glass is the only value addition process done as no facilities are available in the country for total recycling. A glass recycling company which was meant to carry total recycling failed to be built in Tses a small settlement town in the southern part of the country. According to information gathered during interviews this failed due to lack of support from relevant authorities despite endless efforts by the entrepreneur. At companies A, F and N involved in glass recycling, upon collection, glass was sorted according to color brown, green and clear, as well as type of use juice, soft drinks, beer, milk jars, beverage drinks. Beer bottles constituted the most. After sorting, bottles were either sent to local bottling companies and wholesales that paid the providers of these products for reuse or crushed. Crushing of the glass was done manually, but due to the hazardous nature of the job, workers involved had to put on goggles. After crushing, the glass was baled into 5 ton bags ready for transportation to South Africa for further processing and subsequent production of new glass containers. At company F, lack of transport resulted in hording of excess stock leaving no spare capacity to accommodate any new supplies. The study also found out that some of the glass bottles collected especially outside major centers do not reach their destination due to transport problems and loading equipment. Consequently, some of the bottles are simply left lying at assembly points in the rural areas and eventually destroyed. The issue of buy- back centers is therefore suggested as a solution to this problem. Namibia is also involved in cans recycling. Pre -processing of cans is done as no facilities are available in the country for total recycling. Both steel and aluminum cans were collected and preprocessed by different companies A, N, F, E and G. The major value addition process was collection, crushing of the cans to reduce bulkiness, baling and finally transportation to South Africa for further processing. Companies also collected a variety of scrap metal ferrous and non-ferrous from industries, from construction companies, farms, ship wreaks and mines as well as individuals. Company E had contracts with mines, NAMDEB, Nampower, shipping companies and Trans-Namib for scrap collection and disposal. Collected scrap metals could be seen in heaps in the scrap yards ready for dismantling and sorting, which were done mechanically, but some materials were also dismantled manually. The final step was crushing or compaction and baling of the pieces before transportation and shipping to Asia via Walvis Bay port. Loading machines were used to load the materials onto the containers. Due to lack of equipment, small companies like Company J hired loading equipment from company E adding more costs to their operations. The company paid about 400 per hour for hiring the equipment. Although this was a reasonable rate for the construction industry, it was considered very high due to low returns from the recycling industry. Complete e-waste recycling value chain involves primary processing collection, transport, sorting, depollution and dismantling, shredding and separation and secondary processing as given by Borh (2007). The study established that in Namibia, primary processing is the only processes done before to South Africa were secondary processes were carried out. A variety of electronic waste materials such as desktop computers, mouse, computer screens, mp3 players, irons, microphones, laptops, calculators, printers, copy machines, keyboards and ATM machines were collected from various sources within Windhoek only. These materials were either collected by the company mobile trucks or dropped off at the industry by the consumers. On the day of visit, the researcher witnessed, an assortment of materials that had already been sorted, dismantled and some shredded. A lot still had to be processed and baled. Dismantling was done to retrieve essential elements as well as to remove hazardous metals before sending to further markets. This process was in line with Bokss (2002) literature cited in Bohr (2007) which reported manual dismantling. South Africa was the final destination of all the retrieved valuable materials for further processing. The products were baled in 5 ton bags. Summary Collection, sorting, cleaning, crushing, chipping, manufacturing, packaging and selling were the value addition processes recyclable raw materials underwent within the industry for most products except plastics. Due to small manufacturing industrial base in Namibia, companies felt it was not viable to establish recycling plants for most of the recyclable materials. This was so because of high capital costs involved in setting up new industries and the low volumes of recyclable materials which could not sustain the industry. Since manufacturing is low, market forces for selling produced good were also cited as another factor hindering the full development of the industry. Thus, most of the recyclers exported their products for further processing to South Africa and further afield. Thus value addition chain process described the full range of activities for plastics only that were required to bring a product or service from conception, through the different phases of production, delivery to final consumers as highlighted by Kaplinsky Morris, 2001). 5.4.3 Benefit chains associated with recycling in Namibia The researcher wanted to establish the benefits of the recycling in Namibia, hence the research question was What are the benefits associated with the processing of recyclable raw material wastes in Namibia. Discussions on this issue with participants revealed that they were knowledgeable about various benefits of the industry. Analysis of the data reveals that the economics of recycling brought about environmental benefits in the context of the recycling model prevalent in Namibia, where the whole system is financed by the proceeds from recycled raw materials and product. Unlike other models where recycling is financed by the waste producers, this model is self-perpetuating as long as it makes economic sense to recover, process and transport the material to manufactures. However, if the whole country is to benefit environmentally and socially the two dimensions should work hand in hand as presented in Chapter 6. The section of benefits is not much different from the section on motives. The motives section was focused on benefits to the proponent of the recycling business, whereas benefit chains section is focused on benefits derived throughout the country. There is an overlap in some of the aspects presented here and those presented in section 5.2.3. Three main categories of benefits chains similar to motives were identified economic, environmental and social as presented in Table 4.24 in chapter 4, and will be discussed here. Economic Benefits Recycling was associated with economic benefits such as employment creation, creation and promotion of new businesses, production of cheap raw materials and goods, potential source of revenue among others as shown in Table 4.24 of Chapter 4. The major benefit of recycling economy identified by 93 of the participants was employment creation both directly and indirectly. The study established that recycling industry in Namibia brought relief to some people who were unemployed particularly the semi-skilled both men and women. Unemployment was considered a contributory factor to rising crime in the country as people struggled to survive particularly in urban areas. Even though companies highlighted that the numbers employed directly in the industry are not very big as compared to that of other countries, it was considered a great benefit. Employment figures for each of the companies visited are as shown in the table 4.1, Chapter 4. The finding on employment supports researches done earlier. According to Jacobsen et al., 2014 Hasheela, 2009, unemployment is a significant problem in Namibia just like in other parts of the developing world. Studying on the role played by informal waste pickers in recycling in South Africa (Mamphitta, 2011) observed that the industry is a source of employment not only to the skilled but also the semi-skilled. In Mozambique, Carbon Africa Ltd (2014) also revealed that beside the environmental and public health benefits recycling contributes to informal employment opportunities for numerous people. This situation is not different from findings in a study on e-waste recycling, in Nigeria, Manhart (2011)s study also found that people were employed in recycling industry especially from rural areas because recycling does not always require specific skills. The study found out that the recycling sector has about 2000 casual workers. From an economic point of view, recycling has been necessitated by high demand and scarcity of raw materials globally. Production of secondary raw materials through plastic recycling going on in the country is very important because these are relatively cheap. For example, virgin raw material pellets, an important raw material in plastic production, costs 20/kg compared to secondary raw material pellets cost of 3/kg, as highlighted earlier. Even though some companies still import some of the raw materials from South Africa and Saudi Arabia, production of secondary raw materials here through recycling in the country is a great benefit. Recycling was considered a saving in raw materials use as compared to the use of virgin materials. Researches done elsewhere also support this finding. For example, Koehn (2011) in an article, Urban Mining Recycling as a Key to Ensure Raw Material Supply pointed out that scrap recycling is an important resource of secondary raw materials for the global steel industry. Around 34 of all global steel production is made out of recycled material with Germany already producing 47. Besides, Koehn also revealed the energy saving done through recycling steel scrap than getting primary raw materials through mining. Use of recycled raw materials was also was found less harmful to the environment. Using 1t of steel scrap can save up to 1,400kg of iron and around 400g of coal, which are both essential for the production of steel.The recycling of every tonne of steel saves the mining of 1.2 tonnes of iron ore, 0.7 tonnes of coal and 60 kilograms of limestone, while recycling 1 tonne of plastics saves 3,000 litres of oil (Hickman, 2009).In China, various industries are relying also on the use of secondary raw materials from recycling for paper mills, plastic manufacturing and other manufacturing sectors as revealed in Trommer (2011)s article Challenges in Chinas Waste Management. The economy of Namibia relies on agriculture, tourism and mining (gem diamonds, uranium, gold, silver, and base metals) therefore the recycling industry is an addition to the diversity of the economy. Coupled with this, is the production of cheap products which are easily accessible to the rest of the populace resulting in the availability of locally produced goods especially plastic products e.g. pipes, tanks and plastic containers. If one goes into Agra, Pupkerwitz, OBECO, ARK trading, these products are readily available. The industry also benefits indirectly other industries in the country. For example, transport and construction industries are some of the beneficiaries as the industry utilizes heavy vehicle and machinery to load and transport raw material. Most recycling companies do not have their own means of transport especially heavy trucks hence they rely on hired transport. Thus through this industry, the heavy duty transport industry is growing. Another benefit of the recycling industry which was highlighted was that the industry was a source of foreign currency earning. The sale of e-waste, scrap metals and products such as plastic packaging, pipes, chairs, cups etc. exported to international and regional markets such as Botswana, Zambia, Malawi, Angola, and Zimbabwe were sources foreign currency earning. However, no company was willing to delve more into this subject as it was considered confidential. There was consensus among most respondents that waste generation was increasing particularly in urban environments a situation quite similar to what is happening in urban areas worldwide, as a result of rapid population growth, urban spread and change in consumption styles as observed. Recycling was therefore considered as a waste reduction strategy. Companies A and O were very supportive of this venture as a way of minimizing waste disposal volumes at landfill sites which prolonged their life spans as well. Therefore recycling was a welcome initiative in the face of increased volumes of waste that were reportedly generated. It meant reduced volumes of waste destined for disposal effectively increasing landfill useful life, thus reducing municipal operational and investment costs, a finding supported by other researches (Ferronato, 2016 Simelane Mohee, 2012 Hickman,2009). With limited financial support, not all local authorities had the capacities to efficiently manage the waste. In the City of Windhoek, Solid Waste Management Department officials stated the City Council could still manage the situation however there was a need to be proactive in order to avoid future challenges of waste. Environmental benefits Some participants were quite articulate on how the industry was of benefit whilst others did not give detailed information on how but just said it keeps the environment clean. The direct benefits identified were waste reduction, reduced pollution and a safe environment hence less health hazards and conservation of environmental resources through use secondary materials. Fifty-three percent of the participants pointed that recycling saves natural resources through the use of secondary raw materials thereby reducing dependency on virgin raw material. In addition, extraction of virgin materials e.g. minerals was said to be associated with environmental destruction. Participants emphasized the importance of recycling as a way of reducing environmental destruction. Recycling reduces pollution. Twentyseven percent of the participants had this to say. They argued that waste is linked to environmental challenges such as pollution if disposed either through open or crude dumping, burning, land filling or feeding animals or disposing in water bodies such as oceans. Pollution of surface and groundwater in a dry country such as Namibia has serious repercussions since the resource is so limited. With more waste, especially e-waste, disposed at landfill sites, potential of groundwater contamination are continually increasing. In Windhoek, it was highlighted that there was a lot of aquifers on the southern part of the City where the main landfill site Kupferberg is situated. It is therefore important to ensure that pollution of groundwater is minimized in this area. Thus recycling made a lot of sense in this regard. Apart from this, 60 of the participants revealed that recycling keeps the environment clean. In areas where recycling is not practiced, litter is found scattered and was considered to result in negative effects on both the environmental and health (human and animal). Litter all over was considered unsightly. In Okahandja town, company C official was concerned about the problem of plastic waste particularly along the highway in trees. This was not pleasing considering the road is used by tourists visiting different parts of the country. The suggestion to upscale recycling awareness in the town for people to desist from reckless management of their plastic waste was recommended. The official was of the opinion that even though it was not easy to cultivate the new culture of recycling among the general public, with concerted effort keep the environment could be free of litter. Not only is the environment at risk with litter, people as well as animals are also exposed. In the absence of pastoral grass during drought, animals like cattle, were reported feeding on anything e.g. plastics. In addition, children were also at risk. According to document search, the drive into recycling by company F was a result of lack of hygiene, general state of litter, injuries and lacerations inflicted on children from broken bottles. Thus, there was a strong drive to recycle as a way of getting rid of litter. The City of Windhoeks quest to continue providing an efficient waste management service resulted in the adoption of IWMA, one of the core principles governing their SWM Policy of 2009. Since the adoption of this Policy, recycling efforts were scaled up in order to reduce volumes of waste disposed as it was becoming challenging to manage their disposal sites. Satellite dumpsites had already filled and decommissioned. Thus, to the City recycling was a welcome development in order to reduce waste. The site manager of the contracted company managing Kupferberg landfill confirmed that recycling was helping the City as he postulated that the landfill would have filled up had it not been for recycling. According to Ferronato et. al., 2016 and Momoh and Oladebeye (2010) recycling has been viewed as a tool in minimizing the amount of household solid wastes that enter the dump-sites. However, the research found out that more work still needs to be done since a lot of recyclable raw material is still entering the dumpsites. Through the interviews and document search, it was revealed that recycling is not doing much to reduce waste volumes disposed at the landfill site. Social Benefits In addition to environmental and economic benefits, the study established that the industry was a source of livelihood for some people in society particularly the poor as supported by 26 of participants. Even though it was pointed out that their earnings were quite low, it was considered a great benefit as it afforded them to put something on the table. In some major towns such as Windhoek, Walvis Bay and Swakopmund, informal waste pickers were now part of the recycling chain as they were contracted to pick recyclable raw material for sale to the formal recycling companies. In Windhoek, at Kupferberg landfill site , it was revealed that two companies contracted an organized cooperative of informal waste collectors that has been operating at the Kupferberg Landfill since 2000. In Windhoek, companies A and F three quarters of their workforce were women. The supervisor for Company F said man shunned the work especially sorting or street picking recyclables because they said it was demeaning to be seen doing that especially by women. Nevertheless, the industry has been commended to be doing something for the unskilled women. This situation is not different from findings by Manhart (2011) in a study on e-waste recycling, in Nigeria, where people who are being employed in recycling industry were especially from rural areas because recycling does not always require specific skills. Thus, anyone can get a job as long as they are willing to cope with the nature of job. Participants further highlighted that if government could do more to come up with policies that support this industry this can assist with easing the problem of unemployment in the country. Informal food vendors were beneficiaries of the industry as they sold their food stuff especially roasted meat to workers of recycling companies. The industry was also promoting some small scale business entrepreneurs such as those in food making industry as the researcher learnt from company E. The entrepreneurs were seen selling roasted meat (kapana) to recycling workers nearby. This gentleman has been selling kapana here for the past 10 years, said company official E official. Summary Even though the industry is still in its infancy, all participants commended the industrys welcome development particularly in terms of employment creation. With employment comes a lot of other benefits such as improvement in standard of living, housing, food, clothing, medical, children going to school, builds confidence, women empowerment, and reduced family conflict, crime, poverty, disgruntlement, social ills, loitering, less stealing, prostitution, passion killings, drug abuse, alcohol abuse, marriage breakdowns, government handouts and tax payer burden. According to literature, the finding where in agreement with a number of citations confirming that recycling has economic, environmental and social benefits (Chanda, 2014 Mosia, 2014 Muzenda, 2013 Tischler 2013 Nahman, 2009 Hickman, et al. 2009). 5.5 Operational Network linkages in Recycling Industries survive because of links with other industries. One of the objectives of the research was to establish these linkages in the industry. Thus the research question was What are the backward and forward network linkages of the industry in Namibia This research found out the existence of local, regional and international linkages. Linkages were either educational, promotional and research information flows, raw material, receptor material and financial flows, transport and logistics and partnership. These link were either backward or forward linkages. Companies were linked among themselves with local authorities with transport and engineering industries business world waste generators, raw material producers, manufacturing companies, wholesale and retail companies, and academic institutions. See Table 4.25 page 108. The discussion which follows outlines the linkages at local, regional and international levels. 5.5.1 Local recyclable material linkages Table 4.25 in Chapter 4 shows forms of recycling company backward and forward linkages within Namibia and outside. Locally, companies have linkages with a number of players supplying raw material such as households, industries, waste management companies, retail businesses, schools, waste pickers, SMEs, universities and colleges through material flows, information flow, transport logistics, financial flows, technology, physical resources, promotion and educational. Some companies were reluctant to divulge their linkages but could only say they work in partnership with the City Council. Interviews with other recycling players brought to the attention of the researcher, revealed the wider network with a number of businesses. The following sections outline the major companies in the recycling industry and their backward and forward linkages. Total Plastic Recycling linkages Company A is at the center of most of the activities in the nonmetal recycling in Namibia. The company was working in partnership with local authorities, businesses and informal sector in a urban centers such as Windhoek, Swakopmund, Walvis Bay, Henties Bay and Oshakati as a recycler and a promoter of recycling. Networks among recyclers were developed due to plastic raw material needs. Company A had backward and forward linkages with companies involved in plastic material recycling such as company B, C, D F, G, I, L as well as waste pickers whose material sources varied from households, businesses, industries, mines, construction sites and institutions (Government and private), dumpsites and even from open spaces. Some of the plastic materials collected and processed by these companies were traded with company A and in turn company A forwarded these to company D in Okahandja or to South Africa Company D is the only plastic raw material producing company in the country. Raw plastics of different types (soft and hard) are processed to produce pellets, the main raw material for the manufacturing of plastic products. Pellets produced by company D have local linkages with markets such as company B, C and H, and other plastic producing companies around the country that produce various plastic products as well as transporting vehicle companies. These companies use both virgin and secondary raw materials acquired locally and internationally for the production of the various products. Company C supplied pipes products to building construction companies, farmers and wholesales. The same with company H that also had local linkages with wholesalers, retail shops and individual buyers. Plastic was the only product where there was a complete recycling loop with linkages from suppliers of raw material, processors, manufacturers, retailers and recycled product consumers, and back to supplier of raw materials within the network. Non-metal material linkages Companies A and N were into paper recycling. These companies were linked to producers such as wholesalers, retailers and institutions (gvt, schools, colleges, universities, banks etc.). Company A however was the only major player on this material. Processed materials were only sent to regional markets in South Africa. Companies A, F, L and N were the main recyclers of glass, which was collected from various sources by other companies linked to them as follows waste pickers deposited these materials in bottle banks which were found at some shopping centers in Windhoek or delivered to company A directly some of the glass material was sent to wholesalers by these companies, for example, company F sent some of the glass bottles to Coca Cola and company L as well. However, company A received most of the glass materials from anyone. Upon pre-processing, companies sent their products to South Africa for further processing. Both steel and aluminum cans were processed in the country, most of them being soft drink and bear cans. Companies A was linked to F, G, L, N who receive raw material from the network and processing them for the regional market. The rest of the companies were processing the cans upon collection from dumpsites, households and businesses. Metallic Material linkages Company E was at the center of most of the activities in the scrap-metal recycling in Namibia. The company was working in partnership with local authorities in a number of urban centers such as Windhoek, Swakopmund, Walvis Bay, Henties Bay and Oshakati among others. The researcher observed a variety of recyclables aluminum, steel, cans being processed. The company E had a much wider network throughout the country ranging from government institutions, (Trans Namib, Namdeb, and Nampower), mines, shipping companies and anyone who had any scrap to offer. The company had backward and forward linkages with other companies in the material flow network e.g. many small companies who were into this business were the brainchild of this company and were working in partnership with these up-coming small recycling companies. Company E provided the expertise, storage and equipment facilities to the small recyclers and in turn these companies traded some of their products with the company. This was supported by company J that was also into scrap metal recycling, so it depended on company E for storage as well as equipment and marketing. E-waste material linkages Company K which was involved in e-waste recycling was also selling scrap-metal and plastics, as by-products of e-waste recycling produced during dismantling of precious metal recovery, to company E and A respectively. Other waste materials were deposited at the main dumpsite of Kupferberg under the care of company I. The semi processed materials were exported to South Africa and Asian markets for further processing. 5.6. Local non-material linkages In order to encourage recycling, local authorities assisted by providing land for operations by recycling companies. In return, companies recycled municipal solid waste. Company O donated land to company A in Windhoek in 2010 to build a MRF. In Swakopmund, the company site manager also confirmed allocation of land they were working from. However, in Walvis Bay, the company was still in talks with the Local Authority to give them land outside town to construct a MRF. These partnership arrangement enabled more recovery activities as more space was made available, a development which other companies longed for as they lamented shortage of land as a hampering factor in their operations. Company A was also involved in promoting recycling among the young generation working together with Local Authorities, other recycling companies and the business world. In order to do this, the company and companies B,M,L were linked to promoting participation of school children through Recycling Competitions. The promotion however was mainly in urban schools during the time of study. Collection booths were placed in various schools in Windhoek and Walvis Bay. Thus company A was linked to the schools and other companies in the quest to encourage recycling. Recycling companies were also partnering with waste pickers (informal sector) in most urban centers. At the time of study, in Windhoek, Swakopmund and Keetmanshoop waste pickers and companies A and N were working in partnership. Waste pickers recovered an assortment of materials from dumpsites which were then collected by recycling companies in return for a fee. Like any other industry, one of the factors influencing the performance of the industry is transport. Despite the numerous companies involved in recycling, the network could not manage to collect most of the glass bottles and cans as there were a lot left lying around the country side. This was a sign of weak linkages in transport logistics and low commodity price in the market to stimulate provision of this service. However, where transport was economic, the industry is linked to transporters because not all of them have their own means of transport for example companies G and L were involved in provision of transport for collection of cans and a number of cross-border transporters carried recyclable across to South Africa. 5.6.1 Regional and International Linkages Total recycling was still limited to plastic products due to limited capacity in the country, hence all products recovered and processed were sent for further processing to South Africa. Apart from the local networks, these companies also had regional and international linkages. The main trading partner for most of the companies was in South Africa however on the international front there were links with companies in India, Indonesia and China. Company B had regional markets where its products were sold Upington in South Africa and Angola. On the other hand, company Cs products were sold to countries such as Botswana, Angola, Zambia and Zimbabwe as shown in Table 4.26 on page 110. Company A was also in partnership with a renowned world class international Finnish Waste Management company based on skills and technology transfer. 5.6.2 Summary on linkages Company A had backward and forward linkages with most companies in educational, promotional, information flow, material flows, partnership and financial flows. Although, the research established a number of linkages only material flow linkages could be demonstrate clearly with a map given in figure 4.6. The linkages are both backward and forward with link showing the flow of materials and nodes showing processing zones in the recycling industry of Namibia. According to one of the officials this was unavoidable due to the nature of the business. On financial flows none of the companies was willing to discuss this issue as it was considered confidential. What came out during the study was that the industry, was well networked with a number of players such as financial and academic institutions recyclable raw material producers and generators and processing and manufacturing industries just to mention a few. Networking was considered necessary in the recycling industry as supported by Sharpe, S. Agarwal, R. (2014 p.363) who emphasized that the increasing sophistication of recycling processes requires collaboration and network linkages across different components of industrial activities, just like in any other industry which requires a number of inputs for it to remain viable. Both backward and forward linkages existed in the industry with bigger companies at the center of the network. The main companies identified were company E dealing with scrap-metal company K dealing with e-waste and company A dealing with the rest of the recyclable raw material. Only a few companies stood alone and were selling their produce direct to markets due to logistical issues. 5.7 Chapter Summary Interpretation of the research data and discussion of the findings were presented in this chapter. Namibia is involved in recycling activities being driven by three main motives, economic, environmental and social. The industry is still in its infancy as reflected by large volumes of recyclables raw materials of different types still being exported for further processing outside the countrys boundaries and some finding its way to dumpsites. Despite, the fact, the industry has brought some benefits to the country including employment creation, cleaning of the environment and availability of cheaper commodities for the domestic market. In addition, recycling patterns emerging such as government involvement is an indication of how the industry is gaining recognition among some of the long established industry. The survival of the industry was partly a result of its networks with a number of players. A number of factors including transport and logistics, labour issues, financial constraints, public participation, governance and market forces threaten the success of the industry as well as a solution to waste management challenges affecting most local authorities in the country. The next chapter provides a proposal for a recycling model which may assist the country to deal with waste management issues. CHAPTER SIX PROPOSED RECYCLING MODEL 6. 1 Introduction Solid waste management is one of the several challenges facing most developing countries worldwide. Namibia is not an exception to this as revealed through studies like Croset (2014) Schioldborg (2014) Lindell (2012).Studies carried out in different parts of the developing world point at recycling as an option to assist with the challenges of waste management. Such revelations were partially revealed in previous studies conducted in Namibia by Hasheela (2009) Jacobsen (2014) and Lindell (2012). Solid waste management practices in Namibia vary from town to town. Waste management practices such as collection and disposal were reported to be carried out by both public and private companies. The private sector responsible for collecting and disposing waste generated by private entities. However, the responsibility for waste management in both urban, public or rural areas lies with the Local Authorities. Most local authorities in smaller towns and settlements are experienced challenges related to the provision of waste services (Auditor Generals Report (2012/2013). Among the challenges were improper waste collection and removal due to a lack of sufficient and appropriate waste equipment and vehicles,frequent breakdowns of the waste removal vehicles, lack of waste management rules and regulations. Consequently, environmental pollution in such places is common posing hazard to people and animals. Against this background, it is the intention of this study to propose a recommendation on how waste management problems being faced in Namibia can be reduced beginning with addressing the the recycling initiative itself. It is important to recap on recycling activities in Namibia. A variety of materials were being recovered and recycled such as plastic, paper, glass, aluminum, scrap metals(ferrous and nonferrous) and e-waste. These materials were sourced from domestic, commercial, industries, mines, fishing industries, ship wreckages, farms, dumpsites and even in open spaces. However, large volumes of recovered and recycled materials were exported to South Africa, the main trading partner of the country. The Government of Namibia is not silent on issues of waste management. Principle (I) Part II Section 3 of the country s EMA 2007 calls for the reduction, reusing and recycling of waste. The country did not have a comprehensive waste recycling policy document or waste recycling legislation, a situation which was found threatening the success of the recycling industry as no one could be penalized for not recycling. A model on how recycling can assist the solid waste management Namibia is presented focusing on the research objective To come up with a model, applicable to both rural and urban areas, on how the industry could guide waste management and recycling in Namibia. To answer this intent, the study recommends integrating solid waste recycling and other waste management options such as avoidance, reduce, reuse or disposal, with recycling as the main strategy. Emphasis being on recycling, the researcher developed aspects of the model adopting the recycling chain depicted in the IFC Model for Global Development of Recycling Linkages as well as the Taiwan 4-in-1 Recycling Program. Recycling Linkages put emphasis on all components as well as participants in the recycling supply chain i.e. government, private sector, manufacturers, residents etc. Studies report high recycling rates in Europe and Asian countries. In Taiwan, before the national recycling program was introduced, collection rate of recyclables was low. The Waste Disposal Act required manufacturers and importers to recycle RRW (Regulated Recyclable Waste) but the collection channels were not coordinated. This resulted in low collection rate. Furthermore, manufacturers and importers did not invest in recycling facilities installation due to underdeveloped regulations and incentives. In 1997, EPAT (Environmental Protection Administration Taiwan) created the 4-in-1 Recycling Program to better connect all parties involved in RRW collection channels, including community residents, recyclers and collectors, local governments, and the newly established Recycling Fund. Through the incentives associated with the Fund, the 4-in-1 Recycling Program increased recycling rates and reduced the amount of solid waste sent for disposal. The success of the proposed model could be achieved with some of the issues addressed in this initiative being implemented as a complete chain. The proposed model is explained in detail in section 6.2 below. 6.2 Integrated Recycling Model for Namibia The model identifies three key stakeholders, which are Waste Management and Recycling Companies, Government Institutions that include Ministries and Local Authorities and waste generators which include households, businesses, industries and mines. The roles of the stakeholders have to be clearly defined. The model is aimed at restructuring the existing system, which is plagued by as mentioned earlier on e.g. a lack of awareness for the importance of recycling financial constraints, weak legal and regulatory framework, transport and logistics, high transport costs and poor public participation and cooperation. Figure 6.1 Integrated recycling model key stakeholders The distances involved to transport recyclables make it difficult for all materials to reach Windhoek. Materials such as scrap metals are too heavy to load and off-load, thus cannot be transported from parts of the country leaving a lot of recyclables left lying all over the country and eventually destroyed. The idea of buy-back centers in most parts of the country may assist with the collection of recyclables from the consumer. 6.2.1 Strengthening legal and regulatory framework The study established that the legal and regulatory framework for managing recycling is weak. During the study, it came out that there is need in Namibia to update legislation concerning waste recycling and waste management at large. The lack of national policy and legislation for recycling prevents local authorities to face key challenges in waste management and recycling enforcement. No one can take me to court for not recycling because the legislation is not there in Namibia, these sentiments echoed by company A official underline the fundamental reason why recycling is not taking center stage. In order to address this issue a lot needs to be done on the legal front to facilitate recycling. Figure 6.2 Proposed Integrated Recycling Model for Namibia The country can benefit by borrowing from EU countries like Germany and Sweden and Asian countries like Taiwan and Japan with well defined policies and legislation for promoting recycling e.g. the EPR policies is in practice in most of these countries. Extended producer responsibility is meant to impose accountability over the entire life cycle of products after their useful life on the manufacturer of the product (Mando, 2014). Ministries of Industry, Environment and Tourism and MLGRUD should play an active role during drafting of the legislation in order to ensure more relevant issues are addressed. Recycling Legislation The recommendation is that Government introduces legislation compelling manufacturers, business and houses to ensure that their products do not at any stage of their life time become waste. A circular economy may be promoted. Recycling Policies The study observed an absence of specific recycling policies such as the EPR policy in practice in other countries. Roles of stakeholders manufacturers, importers, brand agents, distributors, retailers and consumers, can be clearly defined in the management of end-of-life products, with a view to avoiding and reducing the environmental impact caused by waste. 6.2.2 Promote culture of Recycling Recycling loop begins with virgin material product discard by the initial owner because it is no longer desired. Efficient and effective recycling supply chains are facilitated where secondary materials are separated by the generator from wastes. Design and implementation of source separation must be sensitive to local cultural and socio-economic circumstances (Hickman, 2009). This is not the case in Namibia among some people due to reluctance, lack of facilities and lack of awareness about the importance of recycling. There is need, to promote a culture of source separation to facilitate effective recycling as some materials are made useless due to non-source separation resulting in material contamination especially at household level as established. Organic and in organic materials are all placed in one receptacle making it difficult to recycle recyclables. Local Government has a key role to play through the provision of separation bins, which can be placed by the roadside, in parks ,leisure and cultural facilities, government buildings, hospitals, clinics, public and private housing estates, schools and refuse collection points. Some companies and CoW bemoaned a lack of recycling culture among some businesses. Not all businesses considered recycling. More awareness was required and CoW and some companies like A and M were doing so but with very little progress. Education should not be a one days activity but an on-going process. It should also take different forms such as talks to residents during meetings, church gatherings and school assemblies. Drama or sketch performances can, as well, be organized, specifically carrying messages about solid waste recycling and waste management at large. The council can equally use posters to educate residents about waste management. The posters could be printed in all Namibian languages. There is need for participation in recycling in the country. Level of participation in recycling activities varied in Windhoek with high income suburbs involved more than in low income despite efforts to promote recycling culture. The reasons behind this need research further. In Walvis Bay official of company A highlighted that the youthful age is embracing more the culture of recycling as opposed to the older generation in the high density areas whose attitude is still rooted in the belief that it is the duty of local authorities to do so as they are paying rates. Promotion and awareness campaigns are taking place especially among school children so that they grow with it. However, much more needs effort was needed as noted by the companies A and O who highlighted that a lot of recyclables are still finding their way to dumpsites. The situation is made worse as recyclables are mixed with organic waste making them unsuitable for recycling 6.2.3 Resource requirements The success of any recycling programmed is partly a result of enough resources e.g. labour, land, infrastructure and transport. Labour Labour is an issue of concern within the industry. Four companies complained about lack of commitment by workers and high turnover of skilled staff despite training given. Without skilled and experienced personnel these companies were found struggling to have all the activities adequately executed especially those in the manufacturing sector. A lot of resources are put in training the local workforce but lack of commitment among the workforce affected these companies. Land Availability Allocating suitable land solely for recycling purpose at affordable rent is a major measure for supporting the waste recycling industry. As the profit of waste recovery and recycling is often marginal, giving land to waste recyclers could lower their operation costs and help to promote the local recycling activities in Namibia. For example, in 2010 company O allocated land to company A in Windhoek for the establishment of a MRF for processing a wide range of waste materials. In 2014 the Swakopmund municipality donated land to company A for its operations. Plans were afoot for the Walvis Bay municipality to donate land to company A the following year and subsequently in towns like Oshakati in the northern districts of the country. These sites are located in different parts of Namibia and are being used for recycling and processing a wide range of waste. Infrastructure Collation of materials into larger quantities is necessary to accumulate sufficient quantities to enable sale to end-users, an activity that also allows for Intermediate Processing to prepare secondary materials in order to minimize transport costs and which meets the delivery requirements of the end-user. Collation of materials into larger quantities may involve dealer networks. In Namibia, Government together with the private sector may assist through the establishment of buy-back centers and other infrastructure around the country to facilitate public participation in waste separation and recovery. Absence of these in some places contributes to a lot of materials lying uncollected or simply dumped ending up a hazard to the environment and humans. The distances involved to transport recyclables make it difficult for all materials to reach Windhoek. Materials such as scrap metals and bottles are too heavy to load and off load, thus cannot be transported from other parts of the country leaving this in the hands of few companies like company E who have the machinery and equipment for heavy workloads. Transport The studys findings established that the industry was affected by shortage of transport which led to a lot of recyclables left lying all over the country and eventually destroyed. Export of products suffered due to transport problems one of the contributory factors to the collapse of some small to medium enterprises. Government could subsidize this through the establishment of a recycling fund. 6.2.4 Promote Program of Action Public Private Sector Partnership should be strengthened. Recycling could be strengthened if all private companies are involved in every aspect of waste management depending on their capabilities. Recycling on its own is not viable as established. 6.2.5 Recycling Fund In Taiwan recycling industry is supported through the Recycling Fund (Hand out 1 Workshop, 2012). The Recycling Fund is raised through payments done by manufacturers and importers of products. Under the 4-in-1 Recycling Program, manufacturers and importers of new RRW products, including electrical and electronic equipment, are required to pay fees to EPAT depending on the quantity of items they put on the market. Recycling industry is a capital intensive industry. Recycling companies in Namibia were struggling due to inadequate financial resources and in some cases some SMES willing to join the industry failed to continue due to financial constraints.The study however established potential Investment Resources through interviews and secondary sources (Murghal, 2014) that were available in the country that could contribute to the development of recycling industry together with the establishment of a Recycling Fund.Some companies were not aware of these potential funding programmes listed below. Environmental Investment Fund Namibia Development Bank of Namibia Partnership for Local Democracy Development and Social Innovation GIZ (Deutsche GesellschaftfrInternationaleZusammenarbeit) Kningstein Capital Safland Property Group Namibia Despite knowledge about their existence, some officials e.g. company N raised concerns that it was not very easy to get financial assistance from some of these sources. Suggestions were given that if government could make it easier for entrepreneurs in the industry to get assistance with less hussles. 6.2.6 Records Management Currently Namibia does not have national statistics or centralized data on recycling, and the information that is available is very limited and fragmented. The study recommends a Recycling Agency of Namibia to capture and monitor recycling data Records for recycling activities were not available from most companies. It was difficult to establish what was going on in the industry. The country could benefit more if records could be made available at national level through the development and maintenance of national centers for monitoring and evaluation of recycling statistics i.e. waste generated, recovered materials, processed waste. Ministry of Industry and Commerce, MET and MLGURD could be responsible for this. Ministry of Environment and Tourism could be responsible for this in collaboration with Local Authorities and companies involve in recycling. 6.3 Summary The proposed model takes into consideration the existing operational difficulties of solid waste recycling in Namibia. The recycling sector consists of economic activities like waste collection, waste trade and reprocessing and recycling of some of the materials in different forms. At the same time, recycling is considered as a waste management strategy among other options such as avoidance, reduction, reusing and finally disposal as depicted by in the WMH. For sustainability in waste management recycling cannot be separated from these other waste management options. Thus most developing countries are also trying to move towards this new approach in line with the principles of the Integrated Waste Management Hierarchy and in Namibia during the time of study Windhoek was already moving towards the approach upon the realization that end- of pipe approach would not be sustainable in the long run. This followed its introduction of the SWMP in 2009.With this background, the proposed Integrated Solid Waste Management Programmed by the study was found relevant as a solution to assist with waste management in Namibia particularly in smaller urban centers with recycling receiving more attention as the strategy that could assist a lot of local authorities. CHAPTER SEVEN SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 7.1 Introduction This chapter presents a summary of the findings conclusion and the recommendations of the research study. The summary is arranged according to the themes of the research the motives of recycling by companies, extent of involvement in the industry, policies and regulatory framework of the industry, recycling trends, benefit chains, value addition and network linkages within the industry. According to Bless and Higson-Smith (1995) the purpose of this chapter is to summarize the aims of the research, compare them with the findings and draw conclusions on how much and in which manner, the goal has been achieved. The recommendations include a model to guide waste management in rural and urban centers in Namibia and areas for further research. 7.2 Summary The summary is presented using the thematic headings as used in chapter 4. 7.2.1. Motives of Companies in solid waste recycling in Namibia It turned out that all of the companies interviewed said recycling was conducted for environmental reasons. 86 of companies involved directly in recycling said they were recycling as a business venture. Two companies (J and F) said they were doing it for social reasons. Recycling is an expensive venture with very low returns. It also requires a constant supply of working capital to feel the gap between export receipts. Although all of participants were recycling for environmental reasons, it was clear that everyone who was recycling was doing it as a business venture. It is evident from the findings that a lot of companies came on board when recycling started, but at the time of study, some had pulled out due to lack of sufficient working capital. Recycling activities were driven by environmental and economic forces. Environmentally, companies felt waste was an environmental threat if not taken care of properly. Taking heed of the recommendations of the Earth Summit of 1992, the government of Namibia had embraced recycling All companies involvement was hinged on this environmental requirement. Despite the importance of the environmental movement, companies were driven by the economic entrepreneurial spirit. Recycling was viewed as a business like any other, thus actors felt there was potential to make profit in the new arena of business as demand for the different products for purposes of reuse and raw material production was present. 7.2.2 Extent of involvement of companies in solid waste recycling in Namibia. Recycling involves three main steps as (Hickman, 2009) states step 1-collection and processing, step 2-manufacturing step 3-purchasing of new products made from the recycled materials to complete the recycling loop. There were five distinct areas of involvement observed, which are collection, preprocessing, processing, manufacturing and selling. Companies e.g. A, F,G, N, E, K were involved in the collection and preprocessing stage which is part of step 1 of the recycling loop, while very few were involved in processing raw materials and manufacturing of recycled goods. In Namibia, only plastics completed the recycling loop, but the rest of the recyclables are simply pre-processed and sent abroad for further processing and subsequent production of raw materials and new products. Materials handled were paper, e-waste, glass, aluminum and metal cans and scrap metals. Low waste volumes, lack of machinery, skills shortage, transport costs and financial constraints were some of the reasons identified for not having full scale recycling of most materials in the country. Transport challenges affected the ferrying of materials from sources further afield to the markets. Transport is quite costly. Thus most recycling companies were mainly involved in step I of the recycling loop and very few in steps 2. 7.2.3 Policies guiding waste recovery and recycling At the time of study there was no direct national policy on recycling in Namibia. However, some elements of recycling were embedded in the Ministry of Health and Social Services (MOHSS) Waste management policy which was promoting waste minimization. Waste minimization is one of the elements of the Waste Management Hierarchy which was promoted through Agenda 21 at the Rio Summit of 1992. At local level, only the Capital City of Windhoek had a policy promoting recycling as an environmental concern not as a source of raw material or business venture. However, other local authorities were also encouraging recycling but the researcher could not establish any policy documents to that effect. 7.2.4 Legislation guiding waste recovery and recycling The study established that there was no direct stand alone legislation governing the operations of recycling in the country. The researcher identified elements of recycling legislation from the Environmental Management Act, Health Act, Water Act and City by-laws. All companies were aware of Council by-laws and the general laws that governed company operations for example, as Labor Act, Employment Act, and the Standard Quality Act. In order to incentivize the industry, legislation would be required to compel individuals, businesses and companies to participate in recycling. 7.2.5 Emerging waste recycling trends. Recycling has always been in existence in the country but mostly driven by the informal sector. Full scale recycling was formally promoted around the year 2000 through the initiative of a few private companies who started encouraging the use of drop off centers at major shopping malls in Windhoek. In 2010, recycling was introduced by the City of Windhoek, working in partnership with the private companies. There was involvement of the ward contractors, collection of recyclables from households, businesses and institutions and integration of the waste pickers and the formal sector. These efforts were also spread out to towns such as Walvis Bay (2012) and Swakopmund (2015). Little statistical information was obtained from companies about the recyclable volumes. CoWs limited records highlighted that very little recycling was taking place with only about six percent of waste generated in the residential areas being recycled due to lack of cooperation from residents leaving most of the recyclables to be disposed at dumpsites, a situation which was of concern to Council authorities and recycling companies. The initiative to promote recycling witnessed the establishment of a plastic processing plant in Okahandja, which paved way to full recycling of plastics in Namibia as well as the introduction of Material Recovery Facilities (MRF). The world economic downturn around the time of study resulted in stagnant growth in volumes of materials exported especially scrap metals, there by hampering the momentum that had been gathered in the growth of the industry. 7.2.6 Recycling value addition processes and products. The researcher wanted to establish the recycling value addition processes that are carried out in Namibia. It turned out that only plastics were undergoing the full cycle of recycling from waste collection to product purchasing and back to waste collection. Other materials like paper, scrap metals, e-waste were partly processed before export. It was established that there were plans to establish scrap metal processing plant at Otavi and glass production plant at Tses. There was no development at the time of study to this effect. Even though Government and private sector were keen on having these industries, the handicap lied on generation of sufficient volumes for economic viability of these industries and the technologies. In general, these efforts should be looked at from a regional point of view and not at country level to be meaningful. 7.2.7 Benefits chains of recycling industry in Namibia Like in other countries, recycling was benefiting local authorities on delivering part of their mandate, labour market, construction industry, transporters, manufacturing industries and the environment at large. Recycling reduced pollution in towns like Windhoek. The City of Windhhoek still maintains its cleanliness to a level which the local authorities commended partly due to recycling efforts. In addition, the benefits of the industry to the unskilled labour market was immense, with large companies employing in excess of 1500 employees, a benefit to a country with high unemployment rate. Secondary and tertiary benefits in various areas could not be established by the researcher, but like any functioning economic venture there were downstream benefits which were difficult to quantify. 7.2.8 Establishment of Operational network linkages in the industry. The industry had both internal and external operational networks linkages. The linkages were associated with material flow, information flow, technological exchange, financial and transport services. The operational network linkages were found to be in existence among waste pickers, ward contractors, residents, material processors companies, manufacturers companies, wholesale distributors companies and retailers shops through material flow. Transport being a critical factor for the movement mainly of materials within and outside Namibia was established as a critical component to the viability of the recycling industry. The industry works in association with transporters in the transport industry. It was suggested that truckers that bring in goods could transport recyclables to the next point than going back empty. Financial viability was another very important factor identified for the success and survival of the industry. Financial constraints was as a limiting factor to companies operations. Big companies were found to be linked to external partners for financial, technological and material support and access to the Environmental Investment Fund which was set aside for assisting entrepreneurs in economic development. The acquisition of funds even from lending financial institutions such as banks was found not easy. Thus, recommendations were made that funding in the industry should be easy in order to avoid unnecessary delays in implementing plans. 7.3 Conclusion Recycling is an industry among others such as fishing mining, agriculture and tourism in Namibia. As an emerging industry, the study came up with some conclusions as highlighted below. 7.3.1 Motives of Companies in solid waste recycling in Namibia Recycling has always been in existence in Namibia driven by the informal waste pickers. These were the main actors. The turning point was from the mid-nineties industry industrialists got involved so as to make the industry more organized. Government, private companies and business world became actors in the industry. These actors were driven by different reasons. The motives depended on the nature of business of the actors. Two major factors contributed to their involvement in the emerging industry. Companies which were into recycling were driven by economic reasons while regulators were driven by the environmental motives. However, for private companies who were into this business it was a business venture like any other business. 7.3.2 Extent of involvement of companies in solid waste recycling in Namibia As a business venture, companies found a niche in the industry and were involved in different activities. However, most recycling companies were involved in recovery, collection and preprocessing of recyclables. Total recycling was still limited to plastic recycling only in Namibia. Further processing and subsequent production of raw materials and production of new products was done outside the country for the rest of the recyclable materials. 7.4 Regulatory Framework The responsibility of Government is to create an enabling environment and regulates businesses for several reasons e.g. public safety and welfare and many regulations are in place such as licensing, permitting and inspections. 7.4.1 Policies guiding waste recovery and recycling At national level the policy thrust was on waste minimization whilst at local level it is on waste reduction on dumpsites. Therefore the policies available were targeted on reducing waste but not on production of raw materials through recycling. As Namibia promotes industrialization, raw material value addition policies should be promoted and so is raw material from waste. 7.4.2 Legislation guiding waste recovery and recycling At national level, Namibia did not have any direct legislation governing recycling. However at local level, by-laws in place govern the activities of waste management in only one area where they exist, Windhoek. Therefore, there was no law governing recycling in the country. .As recycling efforts continue an overarching law is required Emerging waste recycling trends, value addition and benefit chains Recycling in Namibia was still at infancy and there was still greater scope in terms of areal expansion, recovery of recyclables and an increase in players in the industry i.e. the public, formal sector. 7. 5. 1. Emerging waste recycling trends The following were observed as emerging issues Bottles, plastics were laying all over at business centers along major roads in remote areas of Namibia due to lack of transport to ferry them to markets. Schools recycling completion programs sponsored by the corporate world were being promoted although the initiative was still dominant in urban environments only. The industry was working with local schools to instill in the children a sense of environmental awareness and entrepreneurship. Formal and informal sectors were working together moving from the traditional approach of indifference. Source collection of recyclables was being encouraged. Traditionally, recycling depended on individuals who carried any recyclables to drop off centers or simply discarding them together with non-recyclables. At the time of study, there were efforts by recycling companies to collect recyclables from sources of generation. E-waste recycling was only in Windhoek 7.5.2 Recycling value addition processes and products Total value addition was still limited to plastics only. The rest of the products were exported mainly to South Africa for further processing and subsequent production of raw materials and goods. Pre-processing was the main activity after recovery and collection. Government through its industrialization policy is trying encouraging value addition on any raw material produced in Namibia. And recyclable raw material is not an option. 7.5.3 Benefits of recycling industry in Namibia The main benefit associated with the industry was environmental with secondary raw material benefits at each stage of the recycling chain. Benefits spread across different the economic spectrum ranging from the National level, Local Authority level, company level and final at the individual through employment. 7.6 Establishment of operational network linkages in the industry. There were linkages between the industry actors, suppliers, creditors, customers and logistic providers. Networks existed through flows of material, information, technology and financial links. Due to the infancy of the industry, outside networks were inevitable as these provided more of the markets as well as resources for the industry growth. 7.7 Recommendations Following the revelation that the industry is still in its infancy the following recommendations could help the industry to grow. The industry should be well supported especially with financial capital. Cross border transporters of goods should be allowed to carry goods back and forth from Namibia without any restrictions. There must be deposit incentive scheme to allow people not to throw away such items as bottles and to encourage the transporters of bottles to take back their empty bottles. More education and awareness about the benefits of recycling is required if cooperation from industries and the general public is to improve. There is need of national recycling policy and legislation in the country to promote growth of the industry. This way, everyone is held accountable. Solid waste management is a challenge in some areas of the country. The study recommends adoption of the proposed Integrated Recycling model which can assist with some of the challenges being faced. Plastic is the most recyclable material. It is however the most challenging material affecting the country. It is freely available in shops. Its disposal into the environment is worsened by inadequate sanitary facilities. There is need to control the availability of plastic if the problem of plastic landscape is to be addressed. The government should come up with a recycling fund to be funded by importers, producers and other financiers. 7.8 Contributions of the study The aim of this study was to investigate the recycling industry an emerging economic sector involved in the recovery and production of raw materials, manufacturing and subsequent purchasing of produced goods in Namibia. This study provided an insight into formal recycling business in Namibia that is the motives for conducting this business and extent of involvement by the stakeholders involved and their roles, existing legal and regulatory framework and the possible economic, social and environmental impacts of the business. These results provide a baseline for future studies on recycling solid waste in Namibia as well as act as a guide to decision makers at different levels to promote the industry for economic development. This research is valuable specifically for local authorities and the recycling companies. The presentation and analysis of recycling impacts based economic, social and environmental provides local authorities with a framework for understanding waste collection schemes and the wider issues related recycling systems. The research also answered questions about the environmental benefits of recycling at national level and the importance of legislation to facilitate recycling in a broader sense. The importance and understanding of logistics such as transport and networks for the recycling community allows one to derive deeper into the issues at the core of recycling. All this and more gives the research communities further understanding of the use of LCA methods and recycling logistics systems in general. Above all, this research provides insights to importers, retailers and packaging companies on the choices of packaging materials and the impacts of their decisions on the environment and recycling logistics systems required to avoid the burden of waste in particular country. 7.9 Areas for further research The study identified the following areas for further research The study established that the industry of recycling in Namibia is operated by both formal and informal sectors. Focus of the study however was on formal sector recycling, leaving out the informal sector where, as far as this researcher is aware, no studies on informal sector recycling have been conducted. Future research could look into this area to establish its role. An area that warrants research is the role of Buy Back Centers in Namibia. One area which needs further attention is the role of buy-back centers in the recycling industry in Namibia. It would be beneficial to look at the role of buy-back center in material recovery in the recycling industry in Namibia. It would also be beneficial to look at the role of women and children in waste picking in the recycling industry in Namibia since the study also established there dominant presence in the industry. A possible topic for research is a survey on household source separation or Curbside Recycling. More research is required on the human health and safety risks associated with informal waste recycling in Namibia. A better understanding of the needs of the informal population can influence legislation and public policies for better working regulations. More research is needed to quantify the volumes of recycling and estimating the economic importance of the activity on a local, national and regional scale. If successful, this would bring about the realization of the benefits the sector brings and, through this recognition, would drive greater integration within the formal municipal collection system. Economic incentives could overcome this, however in some instances it may be social aspects that hinder achieving efficient recycling targets. 7.10 Conclusion The main objective of the research was to investigate the recycling industry in Namibia and to establish how it could assist with the problem of waste management. Findings revealed that recycling in Namibia is still in its infancy, motivated by the desire to conduct business by recyclers and environmental protection by local authorities. Local Authorities are faced with financial constraints, shortage of waste collection vehicles and poor public participation. Recycling activities were mainly limited to material recovery collection and preprocessing with further processing done outside the country. However, the opportunities to considerably increase recycling within Namibia are significant. Recycling activities were concentrated in major urban centers such as Windhoek, Keetmanshoop, Swakopmund, Walvis Bay, Oshakati and Ondangwa. Outside these main centres, some, companies were establishing operating branches and depots. The Government agencies and a number of actors were behind recycling efforts in the country. Funding and support by the EIF were some of the Government efforts that could to promote the industry. Actors in the industry acted in different capacities e.g. as collectors, as recyclers/end use buyers, manufacturing and supporting recycling in Namibia. 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Case study research design and methods. 3rd ed. Applied social research methods series vol.5. London Sage Publications Yin, R. K. (2009). Case study research Design and methods (4th Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA Sage. Yu, J., Che. J., Omura, M., Serrona, K. R.B. (2011). Emerging Issues on Urban Mining in Automobile Recycling Outlook on Resource Recycling in East Asia Retrieved July 19, 2015 @ http// Zikmund, W. G., and Stanton, W. J. (1971).Recycling Solid Wastes A Channel- of Distribution Problem. Journal of Marketing, 35 (3), 34-39 APPENDICES A-F APPENDIX A P.O. BOX 98440 Windhoek Namibia 7 May 2015 Mobile 081 399 2648 19 November 2014 Mr. Simon Lumbu Chairperson FHSS-Research Publication Committee UNAM Subject Ethical Clearance Certificate Ms TP Mutede Dear Mr. Lumbu, Herewith, the undersigned is kindly applying for the Ethical Clearance Certificate pertaining to her doctoral proposal titled Recycling solid waste A Geographic study on an emerging raw material industry in Namibia. The proposal has been noted by the Unam PGSC meeting of 18 November 2014. At the same meeting, the co-supervisor, Prof. D.S. Tevera, UWC, has been approved. Please find attached a copy of the proposals full text and summary. Looking forward to your response, please inform me whether I could be of any further assistance in this matter. Yours sincerely T.P. Mutede Cc Prof. C. Nengomasha, FHSS-PGSC Prof. Dr. F. Becker, DGHES APPENDIX B Letter Seeking Permission to Carry out Research Box 98440 Windhoek Namibia 7 May 2015 The Human Resources Manager City of Windhoek Windhoek Dear Sir/Madam REQUEST TO CARRY OUT SOLID WASTE RECYCLING RESEARCH IN THE CITY OF WINDHOEK I am a Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) student conducting research on solid waste recycling and studying with the University of Namibia. The major aim of this research is to carry-out an investigation into the recycling industry in Namibia with a view of coming up with recommendations for the improvement of solid waste management in Namibia. The research will involve interviewing relevant authorities of identified recycling companies regarding recycling motives, policies and legal frame work and recycling operations. All research data gathered will be used solely for academic purposes. I therefore seek authorization to (1) carry out interviews (2) make observations on recycling operations and facilities and (3) consult relevant record-keeping documents within your department. Once permission is granted, I will make appointments with the relevant officers for the interviews. I shall be available for six months to carry out the research or any other time suitable. The University of Namibia is aware of this research and I attach a copy of their letters of support. Scan and put them here I look forward to your consideration of my request. Yours Faithfully, TADIWE MUTEDE Tel 264 81 399 2648 E-mail [email protected] APPENDIX C RE REQUEST TO CARRY OUT RECYCLING RESEARCH IN THE MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT AND TOURISM Box 98440 Windhoek Namibia Ministry of Environment and Tourism Windhoek Dear Sir/Madam I am a Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) student conducting research on solid waste recycling and studying with the University of Namibia. The major aim of this research is to carry-out an investigation into the recycling industry in Namibia with a view of coming up with recommendations for the improvement of solid waste management in Namibia. The research will involve interviewing relevant authorities within your Ministry regarding involvement in recycling initiatives. All research data gathered will be used solely for academic purposes. I therefore seek authorization to (1) carry out interviews (2) and consult relevant record-keeping documents at your ministry. Once permission is granted, I will make appointments with the relevant officers as mentioned above at your ministry. I shall be available for six months to carry out the research or any other time suitable. The University of Namibia is aware of this research and I attach a copy of their letter of support. I look forward to your consideration of my request. Yours Faithfully, TADIWE MUTEDE Tel 26481 399 2648 E-mail [email protected] APPENDIX D Box 98440 Windhoek Namibia The Director Company Name Windhoek Dear Sir/Madam REQUEST TO CARRY OUT RECYCLING SOLID WASTE RESEARCH AT YOUR COMPANY I am a Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) student conducting research on solid waste recycling and studying with the University of Namibia. The major aim of this research is to carry-out an investigation into the recycling industry in Namibia with a view of coming up with recommendations for the improvement of solid waste management in Namibia. The research will involve interviewing relevant authorities within your company regarding recycling motives, policies and legal frame work and recycling operations. All research data gathered will be used solely for academic purposes. I therefore seek authorization to I therefore seek authorization to (1) carry out interviews (2) make observations on recycling operations and facilities and (3) consult relevant record-keeping documents at your company. Once permission is granted, I will make appointments with the relevant officers as mentioned above at your company. I shall be available for the months of May, June and July 2015 to carry out the research or any other time suitable. The University of Namibia and the City of Windhoek Municipality is aware of this research and I attach a copy of their letters of support. I look forward to your consideration of my request. Yours Faithfully, TADIWE MUTEDE Tel 264 81 399 2648 E-mail [email protected] APPENDIX E Informed Consent Letter TITLE OF RESEARCH RECYCLING SOLID WASTE A GEOGRAPHIC STUDY ON AN EMERGING RAW MATERIAL INDUSTRY IN NAMIBIA RESEARCHER Tandiwe P. Mutede Department of Geography, History and Environmental Studies University of Namibia Tel 264 81 399 2648 E-mail [email protected] Research Information This research study seeks to carry-out an investigation into the recycling industry in Namibia. You have been selected for this research in your official capacity as an authority in this company. All responses are confidential and your privacy will be protected. It is expected that the interview will take about 45. Please note that participation is voluntary and you may choose to withdraw at any point. However, your participation in this research will be greatly appreciated in order to make contribution to recycling and waste management processes in Namibia as a whole. All interactions, responses, and feedback will be treated with utmost CONFIDENTIALITY and ANONYMITY at all times. The research will benefit stakeholders involved in solid waste recycling and individuals as it will contribute to improved solid waste management and in particular recycling in Namibia. For any questions or further clarifications with any aspect of this research, you may contact my research supervisors, in the Department of Geography, History and Environmental Studies, University of Namibia Prof. Dr Fritz Becker Tel 264612063738, e-mail HYPERLINK [email protected] [email protected] and Prof. Dr. D.S Tevera Tel 27-(0)21-959-2160 e-mail [email protected] If you voluntarily agree to participate in this research, kindly indicate your consent by signing below Tick selection Agree to be interviewed YES NO Agree to be tape-recorded YES NO NAME _______________________________________________________________ SIGNATURE _______________________________________________________________ DATE _______________________________________________________________ APPENDIX F Interview Guide for Companies RESEARCH TITLE RECYCLING SOLID WASTE A GEOGRAPHIC STUDY ON AN EMERGING RAW MATERIAL INDUSTRY IN NAMIBIA FOR OFFICIAL USE (DO NOT FILL IN THIS SECTION) Field Researcher ……………………………………………………………….. Research Company Interview Number Date . PREAMBLE This research is being undertaken by Tandiwe P. Mutede as part of the requirements for the Doctoral Degree in Geography and Environmental Studies Geography (University of Namibia).The aim of the study is to carry-out an investigation into the recycling industry in Namibia in order to come up with a model on how the industry can guide waste management in Namibia. Your cooperation towards the fulfillment of this objective is sincerely appreciated. Your responses will go a long way in the conclusion of this study as well as assisting Namibia in as far as waste management is concerned. You are assured that your responses will be treated with utmost confidentiality and any information identifying the respondent will not be disclosed to anyone under any circumstance. Your role will be acknowledged in this study. A consent form was handed to participants to ensure that they answered questions voluntarily, and where possible, did not respond to questions they were uncomfortable with. Background Information Gender of respondentDepartmentDesignation of respondentNumber of years in the current position Date Interview Questions A Motives and extent of involvement What line of business are you involved in………………………………………………………………………. .. Please may you elaborate on what you do in this business .. When did you start this business and what motivated you ………………………………………….. .. Is there anything that has changed since you started e.g. location of the business, operations of business, growth of business, workforce etc. If there are some changes, please elaborate and give some insight to why the changes. . What are some of the challenges you face as an industry or in your activities .. B. Regulatory Framework What about issues of policies and laws Are there any specific policies that govern your activities Are you required to follow any standards in carrying out your work If yes, please elaborate on them What about legislation What legislation governs your activities……………………………….. .. .. If any, please elaborate on them. Is there any law that specifically regulates recycling in Namibia ……………………………………… Is there anyone who monitors your activities to check on compliance issues ………………….. C. Recycling trends, value addition and benefit chains Since you started, what have been the trends of in doing business in terms of say material recovery, growth of business, whom you are doing business with/ areal coverage, etc . .. In terms of material products, please highlight what you do with materials that you recover and collect from the different sources What processes are involved in the recycling of the products i.e. from recovery to selling. . . Do you have any figures of how much you produce say per week or month for each of the products…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. .. Where do you market your products…………………………………………………………………….. .. What benefits are coming up under your business, say to the company and the environment at large . .. D. Networking Do you have any partners you link with in doing your business e.g. with the council, government, institutions, customers, suppliers.. .. .. It any, who are these and what is the nature of linkage with them……………………………….. E. Benefit chains What benefits are coming up under your business…………………………………………………….. . Last Question Are there any comments you would like to make regarding recycling in Namibia and what can be done to improve the situation This is all I had to ask you. Is there anything you would like to ask me or comment about this interview Thank you for your time and contribution to this research. APPENDIX J OBSERVATION SCHEDULE Date TimePlace of ActivityElements for ObservationObservations CommentsActivities done at the companyCollection- Recovery- Manufacturing- Selling- Any other-Processing activitiesProducts producedWorkforceInfrastructureRecords PAGE MERGEFORMAT 3 PAGE MERGEFORMAT 261 Collection processing Manufacturing Purchasing products Extraction Processing Manufacturing Retail Usage Disposal Logistics Government Recycling Processing companies Manufacturing companies Corporate world Waste pickers and preprocessing companies ckers Recycling Companies Supporting Institutions Supporting Institutions Recycling Companies Waste pickers and collector companies processing companies ckers Corporate world Manufacturing companies Recycling Processing companies Government Material collection/storage Local Government Private sector informal Private sector formal Secondary Material Waste Material Waste Material Secondary Material Product Distribution Private Sector Transport Private sector informal Private sector formal Secondary Material Waste Material Secondary Material Product manufacture Private Sector formal Private Sector – informal Government Collation/intermediate Processing Private Sector Transport Private Sector Government Waste Material Product Consumption Residents Industry, Commerce Government Product discard Residents Industry, Commerce Government Collection sorting cleaning crushing Baling Transportation Recovery Chain for plastics moulding chipping washing heating pelleting selling processing value Chain for plastics Moulding selling heating packaging distribution manufacturing value Chain for plastics Collection Transportation sorting shredding Baling Transportation Recovery Chain for paper collection Transportation sorting Baling Transportation Recovery Chain for cans Compaction Collection Transportation Sorting Baling Transportation Recovery Chain for cans Shredding Collection Dismantling Sorting Compacting Recovery Chain for scrap metal Cutting Collection Dismantling Sorting Transportation Recovery Chain for cans Technological benefits Social benefits Benefits chains of recycling solid waste Economic benefits Environmental benefits innovation New materials New products Less energy use Preserve landfills Cheaper products Cheap raw materials Cheap raw material Protect animals Reduced pollution Reduce G. warming Reduced waste Source livelihood Employment Less nat. resources New markets WDHK Namibia SADC Recyclable Generators Households Businesses Industries WASTE GENERATION Waste Management and Recycling Companies RECOVERY AND RECYCLING Institutions Ministries Local Authorities POLICY AND LEGISLATION Promote development of program of action recycling companies to be involved in waste collection Determine resource requirements Machinery Skilled labour Operational space funds Maintain National RRW Registry Review legal and regulatory framework Waste Disposal Act Institutions and roles Regulated re- recyclable waste (RRW) Regulation of industry Provision of records Recycling fund Build Technical Capacity knowledge, technical skills Promote culture of recycling. 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