Aceto, H, Linton, JK, Schaer, BLD. 2012. Antimicrobial Use in Horses Undergoing Colic Surgery. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine. 26(6):1449-1456?
A total of 7651 horses had emergency colic surgery between 2001 and 2007, from this time frame Antimicrobial dose, timing, surgical notes and duration of treatment were collected and compiled from veterinary records. Focusing on the antimicrobial use and symptoms of fever, incisional inflammation, infection, catheter complications and salmonella shedding throughout the horse’s time at the clinic. The results showed that 73 horses were euthanized under anesthesia. Results also showed a large number of horses (511) received an inappropriate amount of the drug before the operation. The average total surgery time was 110 minutes, and the average time from the preoperative dose to incision was 70 minutes. Only 438 horses out of 688 had been reposed in the duration of the surgery, and only 8 had been redosed with the correct amount. Majority of the horses remained on antimicrobials for 3 days after surgery. Antimicrobial therapy was reinstituted in 193 horses due to fever or incisional infection. The results concluded that increased surgical time increased the duration of antimicrobial use.

The article was published by the Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine which is viewed as a reputable source as articles and studies will only be published if the clinical impact is directly stated and showed in the work.

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Archer, D.C., Pinchbeck, GL, Proudman, CJ, Scantlebury, CE. 2015. Management and horse-level risk factors for recurrent colic in the UK general equine practice population. Equine Veterinary Journal. 47(2):202-206

Horses are often subject to recurrent colic and a large question is which factors place the horses at a greater risk of recurrent colic. Using 127 horses, a nested case-control study was created on data of horses who had recently been recording having an episode of medical episode. Data was collected on management of the horses and recurrent colic episodes every 4 months by questionnaires over the telephone. In total 59 cases of recurrent colic were recorded. The model showed that horses which displayed crib-biting or windsucking and weaving behaviour had an increased risk of reoccurrence colic. These behaviours are often highlighted and commonly seen in stalled horses which led to the conclusion that sufficient access to pasture can help decrease a horse’s risk of recurrent colic.

This article is believable as the Equine Veterinary Journal takes precautions to only publish studies/journals which contain evidence to improve clinical practice or expand scientific knowledge with in the field of equine veterinary medicine.

Berthelot, A, Blackmer, JM, Walesby, HA. 2004. Equine Sand Colic. Compendium on Continuing Education for the Practicing Veterinarian. 26(9):712-719

Horses which are fed on the ground or kept in sandy soil areas can be at an increased risk of abdominal pain post ingesting sand, known as sand colic. Accumulation of sand in the large bowel will cause irritation and intermittent colic. There is also a possibility that this will result in the complete obstruction. A veterinary diagnostic can be done using fecal sedimentation, abdominal auscultation and ultrasonography. Sand accumulation can be decreased by minimizing the horse’s ingestion and with the use of laxatives. A horse can undergo surgery for intractable pain, failure to respond to laxatives or physiologic deterioration. Horse owner’s and veterinarians must identify horses which have an increased risk and prevent sand ingestion.

A variety of references were used in order to create and support this journal about equine sand colic in order to compile this general article.

Cohen, ND, Honnas, CM, Hooper, RN, Matejka, PL. 1995. Case-control Study of the Association between Various Management Factors and Development of Colic in Horses. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 206(5)667-673

A case-control study on the subject of equine management and how it can be a factor to the development of colic. The study consisted of 821 horses being treated for colic and 821 horses being treated for non-related equine emergencies which were treated by veterinarians in Texas between October 1st 1991 and December 31st 1992. The study showed that horses which had a history of previous abdominals surgeries or colic cases had a significantly large association with cases of colic. There were 3 factors which were noted in the study, that increased the risk of developing colic. The factors included, recent change in stabling conditions, recent change in diet and recent change in their activity levels. Results of this study concluded that the risk of colic could be decreased by minimizing drastic and sudden changes in management factors.

This article was published by reputable journal which ensures all aspects of the article are factual and add to the clinical field of veterinary medicine.

Honnas, CM, Meagher, DM, Ragle, CA, Snyder, JR. 1992. Surgical Treat of Colic in American Miniature Horses- 15 Cases (1980-1987). Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 201(2):329-331

A study of American miniature horses and the correct ability of abdominal conditions. The study included 15 miniature horses which underwent surgical treatment for colic. All 15 of the horses had intraluminal obstructions which added to feed impactions, enteritis and sand, most commonly located in the small colon. This was displayed in 9 of the 15 cases during the study. There was a 100% survival rate and all the horses were released from the clinic. Six of the 15 horses had to surgically treated for abdominal disorders between 1 month to 5 years after the initial surgery. The study also showed that all horses which had received treatment twice had technical adhesions. This information displayed that most abdominal conditions in American miniature horses can be corrected through surgery although there was a risk of adhesion formations.

This article was published in the American Veterinary Medical Association. It displays research done on American miniature horses and the success rate of treating of equine abdominal conditions published in the Journal of American Veterinary Medical Association which is known for equine scientific article publications.

McDonnell, WN, Pascoe, PJ, Trim, CM, Vangorder, J. 1983. Mortality-rates and Associated Factors in Equine Colic Operations – A Retrospective Study of 341 Operations. Canadian Veterinary Journal. 24(3):76-85

A study on the mortality rates and other connected factors in equine colic operations involving 341 horses submitted into the Ontario Veterinary College between September 1974 and February 1980. A statistical analysis was done using a chi-squared test after data from case records were collected and compiled on the computer. In the study 150 out of 300 horses which received surgical treatments for colic survived to be released from the clinic. However, 54 of the 300 horses were euthanized during the operation.
The study showed that the breed did not significantly affect the survival as a large range of breeds were involved, there was also a similar conclusion with the size of the horse and survival rate. Differently, the study showed that there was a larger occurrence of colic in the under two moth age group. This was also the case in horses between the one to two age groups. A smaller occurrence was noted in horses between the ages of two to four.

This article published by the Canadian Veterinary Medicine Association has been used in a vast amount of equine colic based articles due to its extensive nature and numerical data.