The study of (olive/oleic bio-alkyd resin, OOBAR) as a new biosorbent was prepared in open esterification system from an olive tree, glycerol, oleic acid and phthalic anhydride. OOBAR characterization was performed by using ultraviolet/visible, infrared spectra, Boehm titration, zero-point charge, iodine number, methylene blue index and bulk DC electrical conductivity. The obtained data of acidic and basic sites show that the OOBAR surface was contained 2.6 and 1.3 mmol/g. The pHZCP was 3.6, ?pH at pH 9.27 was -4.33, the I2 number was 2.3 mmol/g (291.9 mg/g), methylene blue was 0.69 mmol/g (220.7 mg/g) and DC conductivity was 1.0 ×10-9 ?-1 cm-1. The effects of acidity, reducing agent, NH4SCN concentration, contact shaking time, Mo concentration, temperature, OOBAR dose, batch factor and ionic strength for Mo(V) were determined. The maximum OOBAR capacity for Mo(V) sorption was 1.3 mmol/g. The molar ratio of Mo(SCN)6-, OOBAR+ was 1:1 in acidic medium. The equilibrium isotherms, kinetics, diffusion and thermodynamic models for Mo(V) sorption onto OOBAR were studied. Thermodynamic parameters such as enthalpy (?H), entropy (?S) and Gibbs free energy (?G) were -46.2 kJ/mol, -0.082 kJ/Kmol and -21.8 kJ/mol was shown that the sorption process was spontaneous, exothermic nature with decrease disorder and randomness at the solid-liquid interface of Mo with OOBAR. Dynamic experiments using glass column was indicated a good affinity chromatographic separation for its applications in many pharmaceutical and biological samples including liver mice tissue and pharmaceutical vitamin drugs. The lower relative standard deviation (RSD%) value for pharmaceutical applications samples (n=5) was found from 1.1%.
Keywords: Olive; Oleic acid; Alkyd resin; Molybdenum; Pharmaceutical; Sorption
Molybdenum (Mo) has applications in many pharmaceutical and biological samples 1. Mo is an economically silvery-white transition metal which has five oxidation states from (+2) to (+6) with an atomic number of 42 and an atomic mass of 96 2, 3. Mo is a bio-essential metal for humans, animals, and plants. It has relatively low toxicity because of a component or co-factor of enzymes which are important for life, so without Mo, organisms can’t work and will show signs of deficiency 2-5. Metallic Mo offers many advantages like good corrosion resistance, excellent mechanical, thermal, electrical properties, high temperature and its melting point (2883 K) due to the low coefficient of its high thermal expansion and conductivity. These excellent properties make it can be used in electronics, metallurgy, aerospace and electrical industries 6-9.
Biosorbent is a biological origin solid system from bacterial, fungal, plant or animal origin 10. It has several functional groups such as carboxyl, ether, carbonyl, hydroxyl, and ester groups and more effective alternatives for metal ions sorption (e.g Mo) from aqueous solution 11-16. Adsorption using a cheap, abundant and environmental-friendly adsorbent originated from a plant such as an olive tree (Olea Europea). It has an effective substitute as is the simplest and most useful method 17, 18. Its common name was for about 35 species of evergreen shrubs and trees in the olive family of the genus Olea which has varieties of parts such as fruit, leaves, and oil. The olive tree was domesticated trees in the family Oleaceae cultivated by man for more than 5500 years ago. Olive trees native to the Medial East, Egypt, Palestine, Jordon, Syria, Africa and Asia. They have many varieties that exhibit major or minor phenotypical and genetic differences 19-23.
Oleic acid (OA, cis-9 C18:1) is a monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA). It is abundant in most of the fatty acids by (48%) or in olive oil by (70%-80%). It can be extracted from peanut and its products. Researches indicate that the MUFA-rich diet has protective effects on cardiovascular risk and diabetes 24-27.
Alkyd resins are highly branched polymer with a polyester backbone which significant for synthetic polymers 28, 29. They are thermoplastic polyester resins can be synthesized by polycondensation 30, 31 of three types of monomers of polyhydric alcohols (e.g; glycerol), fatty acids (e.g; oleic acid) and dibasic acids or their anhydrides (e.g; phthalic anhydride) 32-37. They can be dissolved in organic solvents and have good interactions with polar substrates such as wood and steel 38. They have excellent properties such as acceptable, inexpensive to produce, high gloss, retention color, dissolved in organic solvents, excellent thermal stability, eco-friendly, excellent wetting properties and good adhesion 26, 34, 35. These properties make them suitable to apply in industrial coating, adhesives, the binder for composites and anticorrosion paint 39. Bio-alkyd resin contains reactive sites such as carbon-carbon double bond, a polar ester group, methylene group attached to the carbonyl site, allylic methylene attached to double bond 40.
The present paper of the study of OOBAR as a new biosorbent which used for Mo(V) sorption was synthesis. Properties of OOBAR are were characterized by UV-Vis, FTIR, and bulk DC electrical conductivity. The sorption of Mo(V) onto OOBAR was studied to optimize the best conditions for the sorption process. The obtained data have been examined for kinetic, thermodynamic, and equilibrium situations. Mo was applied in many pharmaceutical and biological areas including tissue of lever mice, tap water, and vitamin drugs.