4.5 Team Building Management
Creating a high-performance team is a vital factor in delivering successful projects. Project and Programme managers need to understand fully the role that knowledge, skills, cognitive, behaviour and conative creativity play in shaping high-performance project teams (Steyn). Although there is a excess of general information about team formation, there is very little information that has derived from study of team development. While there is a widespread belief that effective teaming contributes to overall project success there is very little research in the project environment about this issue (Edward J., Kinlaw, C.S., & Kinlaw D. C. 2000). Team building is an on-going process and it’s the responsibility of the project manager. Socialisation among team members support team building (Steyn).
4.5.1 Characteristics of High-Performance Team (Brugueman)
(a) Adherence to basic principles
? Meaningful responsibility
? High standards
? Confront inadequate/reward exceptional performance
(b) Coping styles
? Counter-dependant type
? Dependant type
? Logical thinker
? Impact on group formation
(b) Individual needs
? Inclusion and identity
(c) Cognitive styles
? Impact on group information
? Group process
? Task roles
? Process roles
4.5.2 Project Team development and effectiveness (Steyn)
? People who have not worked together are assigned to the same project.
? Personal relationships take time to develop
? Teams evolve through various stages
4.5.3 Team development Phases
Project teams past through a number of distinctive development phases (Rory Burke).
These stages are important to the mangers so one can guide.
Forming Team members are in a sense of anticipation and commitment. Motivation is high but effectiveness is moderate
Storming Disagreement and conflict over task and ways of working as a team. Clash of personalities
Norming Consolidation differences are accepted and agree to work together
Performing Effective teamwork-work well and intercact together as a team
Maturing Getting old gracefully, more interested in maintaining situation, rather than trying new ideas
Declining Market has changed, team has no new product. The team are really over the hill, just hanging in there waiting for the pension.
Table: 22.214.171.124 Team development phases
4.5.4 The effective project team
? The project objectives must be clear
? Clear roles expectation, roles and responsibilities
? Result orientation
? Collaboration and cooperation is high
4.5.5 Barriers to team effectiveness
? Poor leadership
? Clear goals
? Poor support from line managers
? Unclear definitions of goals and responsibility
? Lack of commitment
? Turnover of project team members
? Dysfunctional behaviour
3.6 Staffing (resource allocation)
Resource allocation is the process of assigning and scheduling available resources in the most effective and economical manner. According to (Wrike) the task lies with the project manager to determine the proper timing of those resources within the project schedule.
Resource allocation is a project management issue, whoever is dealing with assigning the resources needs to meet the demand in the most efficient manner (optimal) (eight2late: 20110427). Organisations struggle trying to optimise resource allocation
Staffing or resource allocation in multi-project environments is one of the critical parts of project planning (eight2late, 20110427). Success in staffing depended on having a sound planning processes and partnership between the project managers and functional managers and communicating effectively (Lindsay Hendrix, 16 December 2014). Organisations that are using matrix structure properly can leverage people’s time and skills. Organisation using matrix structure should ensure that it employs experienced managers in working in such a structure or training need to be intensified (Daniel Travieso. Apr 27, 2011). Resource allocation policy will give priory to scheduling requirements of the projects (Z Laslo, 2001). There are several ways of addressing resource allocation in a project (Peter Landau. Aug 1, 2017) which are discussed below:
(i) Know your scope; determination of the project scope ifits big or small, long or short. This will make it easy to know how many resources you need and skill.
(ii) Identify resources; you have to see who is or will be available and what equipment you are going to need
(iii) Do not procrastinate; plan the process you need to take to research where and when you might have blocked team member or task dependences.
(iv) Think holistically; do not focused on process and neglect to lift your head up for project plan to note what is happening.
(v) Track time; keep your eyes close on time, if your team is being efficient and tasks are completed on time.
(vi) Use tools; use project management software to manage your resources.
(vii) Don’t over allocate; over-allocation will result in the team burnout, its not fair to expect too much from your team.
(viii) Be realistic; be prepared for issues that may arise in your projects and have a plan in place to deal with unforeseen circumstances.
(ix) Have a routine; sometimes things do not go as planned so have regular check ins and go through your resources.
(x) Know your resources; it’s not possible to manage what you don’t know, have a full understanding of the experience and skills. This will also enable you to place them where it suits them best.
4.7 Programme and Project Leadership
For project managers to be effective and successful they must not only demonstrate efficient administrative skills and technical know-how, but must also practice appropriate style of leadership (Rory Burke).
4.7.1 Leadership Styles
The leadership style used can profoundly impact employee morale and activity. There are six leadership styles from autocratic to democratic.
(a) Autocratic (isolated decision): The project manager solves the problem or makes decision independently of the tea.
(b) Autocratic (informed decision): The project managers obtains the necessary information from the team then decide on the solution.
(c) Consultative Autocratic (discuss with individuals): The project manager shares the project with the team members individually gathering theirs ideas and suggestion.
(d) Consultative Autocratic (discuss with teams): the project manager shares the project with the team members as a group, and then take the decision independently.
(e) Democratic: The project manager shares the project with the team members, then together they make a decision.
(f) Laissez-faire: the project manager gives the problem to the team , and lets them make a decision.
4.7.2 Responsibilities of project manager
? Provides leadership in creating, implementing and improving the work force.
? Delegates work to teams
? Coordinate and integrate activities of teams/stakeholders
? Involves the project team and gain commitment.
4.7.3 Desired characteristics of project managers
? Flexibility and adaptability
? Preference for significant initiative and leadership
? Goal oriented, verbal fluency, assertiveness
? Effectiveness as a communicator and integrator
? Having a good understanding of cognitive and conative behaviour of stakeholders.
? Well organised and disciplined
? Able to balance technical solutions with time, cost and human factor
? A generalist rather than a specialist, seeing things holistically
? Able to identify potential problems
? Willing to make decision
? Expert in relational management
4.7.4 Responsibilities of programme manager
? Promote stakeholder collaboration (which includes customers and suppliers)
? Prioritizing projects by assisting top management
? Match project managers with specific demands
? Assist project managers in scheduling, resource allocation, appraisal of benefits and reviews
4.7.5 Successful Programme ; project managers understand human behaviour
? Team members must now what they are supposed to do
? Team members must have a clear understanding of authority and limits
? Team members should know what constitute a job well done.
? Team members should know where there are failing short
? Team members must be made aware of what can or should be done to correct unsatisfactory results
? Team members must feel that there are superiors believe in them and have an interest in them as individuals.
? Team members must feel that there are superiors believe in them and are anxious for their success and progress.
4.7.6 Skills of the Programme and Project manager
Project success relies squarely on them and that is why they need the following attributes:
? Strong leadership abilities
? Excellent communication skills
? Good interpersonal skill including collaboration
? Ability to prevent and handle stress
? Problem solving and negotiation skills
? Time management
? Communication should be timely , honest and unambiguous
? They must establish on-going communication with the customer
? Effective communication establishes credibility and builds trust
? Create an atmosphere of trust that fosters timely and open communication with all stakeholders
Several solutions have been identified, for Quasar Communication Inc. including proper implementation project management tools and techniques to survive the new era of change, knowledge and globalisation. Other factors that need consideration to improve the organisation are effective leadership, matrix organisational structure, effective communication, resource allocation, conflict movement, team building. The correctly implementation of this resolutions it will result in integration, coordination, collaboration in QCI.
Allocation of resources in a project issues are definitely a result of flawed project management practices. Recourse allocation can also be resolved by establishing clear project priorities and clear process for mediating the inevitable conflict in priorities. Success in staffing depended on having a sound planning processes and partnership between the project managers and functional managers and communicating effectively (Lindsay Hendrix, 16 December 2014).