4 Areal Expansion (Recycling outside major centres)
Two company officials (A, E) reported that their operations had expanded outside Windhoek through establishment of branches in Walvis Bay, Swakopmund, Henties Bay, Oshakati and Ondangwa. In smaller centers, recycling depots are being set by big companies in the industry e.g. in Rundu. Recovery of materials is taking place both in urban and non-urban environments e.g. construction sites, resort centers all over the country. Figure 4.2 already shows these places of operation. Growth in number of Companies in the industry
Statistical information about the exact number of companies in the industry at the time of study could not be obtained. However, information made available by three participants indicated that there were a growing number of companies who were getting involved. “It is no longer the case of big companies but even Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) are getting involved especially in Windhoek as reported.” A number of companies were reported to have been interested around 2010 when recycling efforts were being promoted by City of Windhoek. Nevertheless, by the time of study company O official reported that many small companies had pulled out as they could not meet the operational requirements because they were undercapitalized and lacked knowhow. Trends in prices of products
Company N gave information on scrap metal prices that showed fluctuation over the period from 1994 to 2016. Table 4.12 shows price fluctuations for scrap metal over the period.
Table 4.13: Scrap Metal prices over the years
Year Price range/ton
1994 $120/
2008 $6000/
2016 $2000/
Companies E and N officials highlighted that price fluctuations were common due to market forces. In 1994, one tonne of scrap metal was sold at $120. The highest price was in 2008 when one tonne was sold at $6 000. In 2015 prices were reported subdued, thus companies were holding their products in anticipation of better prices. Growth in volume of recycled waste
Companies were quick to mention that the amount of recyclable raw materials was increasing but refused to give statistical information citing confidentiality. Hence, descriptive information of what was happening in general was all the researcher could get. However, company O made available data for household recyclable raw material and the general waste that was collected over a period of four years.
a) Trends in domestic waste generation in Windhoek
The figure 4.2 shows the general waste generation trend in Windhoek before and during the recycling efforts invigoration.

Figure 4.2: Trends in domestic general waste generated in Windhoek
Source: Cow 2015
Figure 4.2 shows an upward trend in domestic general waste generated from 2007 to 2014corresponding with the amounts disposed. In 2012 there was a dip in waste generated.
b) CBS domestic waste generated and recycled in Windhoek
Figure 4.3 shows a comparison of waste generated, recycled and disposed in suburbs using the clear bag system from 2011 to 2014 during the period when recycling promotions started.

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Figure 4.3: Domestic waste generation and recycling in Windhoek
Source: Cow; 2015
The figures shows an upward trend corresponding with the amounts of waste generated, disposed or recycled. Table 4.14 shows the amount of waste generated and recycled in the form of figures.
Table 4.14: Percentage of waste recycled in Windhoek
Year Weight from CBS recycled
(tons) Weight generated
(tons) Recyclable raw material
2011 1 361 23 042 5.9%
2012 1 366 26 578 5.1%
2013 1 975 30 685 6.4%
2014 2 033 36 188 5.6%
Source: Cow: 2015
The percentage of household waste diverted from landfill through recycling was very low. The figure was almost constant but volumetrically the figures are on the increase.
c) Recyclable material collected at MRF vs. ward contractors in Windhoek
Of the recycled materials, figure 4.4 below shows the quantity of recyclables collected through the household collection system and the ward contractor system.

Figure 4:4 Trends of recyclables collected at MRF tons/yr.
Source: Cow: 2015
Figure 4.4 shows that the volume of recyclable material collected at MRF by ward contractors was high in 2011, slightly above 1 000 tonnes. There was a drop in 2012, slight increase in 2013 and 2014 respectively. The only explanation for the drop was due to high operation costs which forced small companies to stop recycling. Recyclables from suburbs started off low in 2011, rising to a high in 2013 before dipping in 2014. In general there has been a combined increase in the tonnages collected over the three years, with more waste collected in 2013 and 2014 may be due to the increase in awareness and effort by the collectors.
d) Recyclable material collected by companies in Windhoek
The total quantity of materials recycled by companies by material category could not be availed to the researcher. A few companies like E and K availed their monthly and yearly production figures shown in table 4.15 and 4.16 respectively at the time of the study in 2015.
Table 4.15: Company E production figures
Recyclable raw material Production
(kg/month) Annual Production (kg)
scrap metal 35 000 420 000
steel cans 12 000 144 000
aluminium cans 1 000 12 000
glass 42 000 504 000
plastic 15 000 180 000
carton boxes and paper 20 000 240 000
Source: research data
Company E was producing an average of 125 000 kg of recyclable raw material per annum based on these figures. Scrap metal was the main product which was recycled ever since in the country. From 2010, diversity of recyclable materials recovered has increased.
Table 4.16: Company K production figures
Year Volumes (ton/yr.)
2013 59
2014 28
2015 9.2 (Jan-Oct)
Source: research data
Recycling of e-waste started in earnest in 2011. The few records of e- waste collected demonstrated a decline in volumes over the years. Employment trends
Company A revealed that women were becoming more involved in the industry particularly in pre-processing sector of the industry. Previously, it was pointed that it was a male dominated industry. However, despite their involvement, the official emphasized that “This is not an industry for women. The tasks are very strenuous and also dirty. Women need light jobs. Look at that one dismantling that iron block, that’s hard work”
Table 4.17: Companies contributing to total recycling in Namibia
Company Activities by company Product
A Recovery of recyclables raw material Plastics recovered: bins, carrier bags, detergent bottles, plastic sheets, wrapping packaging, wheelie bins, refuse bags, juice and water bottles, storage containers, chairs, tables, cutlery, crate boxes, detergents containers, tires
D Production of recycled raw materials (pellets) Pellets produced:
• PETE (Polyethylene Terephthalate)
• HDPE (High Density Polyethylene)
• V (Vinyl’s including Polyvinyl Chloride)
• LDPE (Low Density Polyethylene)
• PP (Polypropylene)
• PS (Polystyrene)
C Manufacturing of pipes Pipes produced
• HDPE (High Density Polyethylene)
• PVC (Vinyl’s including Polyvinyl Chloride)
B Manufacturing of plastic products Packaging plastic, containers, bins
Wholesalers and Retailers Selling and packaging Pipes, packaging plastics, bins, containers
Source: research data Growth of total recycling in Namibia
Efforts to promote total recycling of products were reported. However, during the time of the research, total recycling in Namibia was still limited to plastics. Table 4.17 shows companies involved in total plastic recycling and products manufactures in Namibia.

Functional Recycling Chain Activities and stakeholders
Recycling Supply Chain
Product Supply Chain
Figure 4.5 Processes observed in Namibia plastic recycling
(Source: Hickman, 2009)
Four companies were involved in total plastic recycling as shown in the table. A variety of products were also produced locally.
4.4.2 Value Addition Processes in Namibia.
The researcher wanted to establish how companies were involved in value addition processes in the recycling industry. A question was posed to the participants: “What value are you adding to the recyclables you are involved with?” Responses varied. What follows is a presentation in tables highlighting the different products and the value addition processes that were involved. Figure 4.5 shows the observed processes especially in plastic recycling where total recycling was taking place.