2.3. Biographies of authors
2.3.1. Biography of the author, Ma Ko
Ma Ko is one of the famous female writers of Myanmar. She was born in Mandalay on 1 August 1965. Her real name is Phyu Phyu Win and Ma Ko is a pen name. She was graduated from Mandalay University in 1985 with B.A degree specializing in geography. She made contributions to the School Wall Posters when she was a student. She entered the Literary World with her poem, “The Blue Curtain” that came in print in Sabae Phyu magazine in 1987. She worked as a middle school teacher at No. 12 S.H.S, Mandalay. She now lives with her family in Pathein Gyi.
2.3.2. Biography of the translator, Zaw Tun
Dr. Zaw Tun was born in Monywa. He was appointed tutor in Yangon University in 1983. He was promoted to the position of Professor in 2001. He contributed six academic research papers to the university research journals, translated two English books into Myanmar and twenty four Myanmar poetry books into English and occasionally contributes English poems to the Global New Light of Myanmar. He won a prize in the International poetry Contest sponsored by the Australian Embassy in 1981.He passed the Diploma in Applied Linguistics in RELC, Singapore in 1999. He was selected among the 65 preliminary selections in ASEAN Arts Awards competition founded by Philip Morris in 2000. He attended interpreter courses sponsored by the Sasakawa Peace Foundation in Japan in 2013. Currently, he serves as Professor and head of the Department of English, Mandalay University of Foreign Languages. He now lives with his family in Mandalay.
3. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1. Research Method
The descriptive-qualitative method is used in this research. The research data has been gathered from the short story “?????????” by “????” and its translated version “Like the River Water” by “Zaw Tun”. In this research, the collected data are analyzed based on Newmark (1988) translation procedures.
3.2. Research Procedures
This research has been taken in four steps. The first stage is that the Newmark (1988) translation procedures have been thoroughly studied. In the second stage, the short story was read thoroughly so as to find the words that match with the procedures. Thirdly, the significant words from both the original version and the translated version of the short story were collected in accordance with Newmark procedures. In the last stage, each word was critically analyzed with the application of Newmark procedures to figure out the purpose of the translation work.
3.3. Research Questions
The research questions poised in this story are as follows.
• What translation procedures are used in “?????????”?
• How many selected translation words are found referring to the translation procedure?
• What translation procedures are mostly used in translating the source language into target language? Why?