1. Introduction:
1.1 What is Bluetooth?
It’s an open specification wireless technology which is of low cost and is of short range. It is mostly used for ad-hoc wireless communication of voice and data anywhere in the world.
1.2 How it was developed?
In 1994 Ericsson formed the SIG (Special Interest Group) with four other giants (IBM, Intel, Nokia, Toshiba) in order to develop the wireless technology for communication which we know today as Bluetooth.
2. Advantages ; Disadvantages:
2.1 Advantages:
• It is able to exchange and make use of information.
• It used point to point short range communication (IrDA).
• It uses WLAN for communication.
2.2 Disadvantages:
• It is able to share only 1 Mbps.
• Doesn’t use the capacity of IrDA i.e. up to 16 Mbps.
• Doesn’t use the full capacity of WLAN i.e. up to 11 Mbps.
• WLAN and Bluetooth interfere each other (both are using the ISM band)
3. Bluetooth Networks:
It has two types of networks:
1. Pico nets.
2. Scatter net.
3.1 Pico nets:
• It is the first type of Bluetooth and is a kind of small net.
• It can have at most 8 stations.
• One of which is called master and the other as slaves.
• All the slave’s stations and in every aspect synchronized with the master station.
• The master can also be called as a primary station and slaves as secondary stations.

3.2 Scatter net:
• It is a combination of interconnected Pico-nets that supports communication between more than 8 devices.
• Scatter net can be shaped when an individual from one Pico-net (either the ace or one of the slaves) chooses to take an interest as a slave in a moment, isolate Pico-net.

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4. Bluetooth Architecture:
• Bluetooth is both a hardware-based radio system and a software stack that specifies the linkages between layers.
• The Bluetooth protocol stack. It specifies how the technology works.
• The Bluetooth profiles. It defines how to use the Bluetooth technology to get a specific task done.
• Bluetooth Radio
• Baseband
• LMP (Link Manager Protocol)
• HCI (Host Controller Interface)
• L2CAP (Logical Link Control and Adaptation Protocol)
• RFCOMM (Radio Frequency Communication)
• SDP (Service Discovery Protocol)
• OBEX(Object exchange)

5. Layers:
5.1 Lower Layers:
• The radio module in a Bluetooth device is responsible for the modulation and demodulation of data into RF signals for transmission in the air.
• The baseband portion of the layer is responsible for properly formatting data for transmission to and from the radio layer. Also handles synchronizations between links.
• The link controller is responsible for getting link manager’s commands and establishing furthermore, keeping up the connection stipulated by the connection administrator.
The link manager itself deciphers the (HCI) charges it gets into baseband-level activities. It is in charge of setting up and designing connections and overseeing power-change demands, among different errands.
The Bluetooth determination characterizes two sorts of connections between Bluetooth gadgets:
• Synchronous, Connection-Oriented (SCO).
• Asynchronous, Connectionless (ACL).

5.2 Upper Layers:
• The L2CAP employs the concept of channels to keep track of where data packets come from and where they should go.
• It plays such a central role in the communication between the upper and lower layers of the Bluetooth protocol stack, the L2CAP layer is a required part of every Bluetooth system.
• The SDP (service discovery protocol) defines actions for both servers and clients of Bluetooth services.
• The specification defines a service as any feature that is usable by another (remote) Bluetooth device.
• A single Bluetooth device can be both a server and a client of services.
• An example of this is the Macintosh computer itself. Using the file transfer profile a Macintosh computer can browse the files on another device and allow other devices to browse its files.
• An SDP client communicates with an SDP server using a reserved channel on an L2CAP link to find out what services are available

6. Products:
• Notebook PCs ; desktop computers
• Printers
• PDAs
• Other handheld devices
• Cell phones
• Wireless peripherals:
• Headsets
• Cameras
• Access Points
• CD Player
• Telephone Answering Devices
• Cordless Phones
• Cars
• 2004 Toyota Prius – hands free calls
• Toshiba Washer ; Dryer – downloads the washer/dryer software for new clothes!
• Nokia N-gage
• Digital Pulse Oximetry System

7. Conclusion:
Bluetooth remote is continually developing in ubiquity in view of the accommodation of trading data between cell phones. As Bluetooth use rises, so do the security dangers related with the innovation. Focal points to Bluetooth incorporate the capacity to simultaneously handle the two information and voice transmissions which empowers clients to appreciate a variety of advancement arrangements, for example, a sans hands headset for voice calls, printing and fax capabilities, and synchronizing PDA, PC, and cell phone applications. Bluetooth users should acclimate themselves with Bluetooth security issues before utilizing Bluetooth devices, and particularly before they bring these gadgets into work place. As there are loads of focal points and few disservices of Bluetooth innovation. Overall Bluetooth is an extraordinary thing to use on every one of your gadgets that backings it. We can do heaps of things with it and incorporates cutting every one of the wires and links connected to the mobile phone.


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